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••••• * •••--- 









Nos. 1—126 ; 201—208. 




» • I • •• • 

• • „*• • ••• 

• • • • 

• • •••• • • < 





Africa. Songs of the Baluba of Lake Moero. (Illustrated.) Emile Torday 80 

Africa, South. Beads from Buluwayo. Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., F.U.S. ... 70 
Africa, South: Animal Superstitions. Animal Superstitions among the Zulus, llasutos. 

Griquas, and Maltese, and the Kafirs of Natil. D. Blackburn and X. W. Thomas, M.A. 115 

Africa, West. Notes on the Form of the Bini Government 38 

Africa. See also Egypt ; Nigeria. 

America, South. Portrait of a Guayaqui Indian. (With Plate L.) Prof. K. H. Giulioli 104 

America. See also Chile ; Peru ; Totemism. 

Anthropology. See Physical anthropology. 

Archaeology. See Africa, South; Easter Island; Egypt ; England; France: 

Greece ; Pahang ; Peru ; Siberia. 
Asia. See China; India; Malay; Pahang ; Siam ; Siberia. 

Australia. New South Wales Stone Chnringa. Andrew Lang 55 

Australia. See aho Marriage Prohibitions ; Totemism. 

Biography. See Obituary. 

Chile: Physical Anthropology. Notes on an Ancient Skull from the Chilian Andes. 

(Illustrated.) B. E. Latcham 54 

China. Tien-tain Mud Figure?. (Illustrated.} J. Edgk-Partington 47 

Craniology. See Chile. 

Easter Island. A "Domestic Idol "from Easter Island. (Illustrated.) J. Edge-Partington 46 

Easter Island. Another type of 4 - Domestic Idol "from Easter Island. (Illustrated) H. 

St. George Gray 96 

Easter Island. Easter Island : Script. 0. M. Dalton, M.A., F.S.A. ... 78 

Easter Island. On an inscribed Wooden Tablet from Easter Island (Rapa Nui) in the British 

Museum. (With Plate A.) O. M. Dalton, M.A., F.S.A 1 

Egypt. Discovery of an XI th dynasty Terajle at Deir el-Bahari. (With Plate /,') H. K. 

Hall, M.A 43 

Egypt : Beni-Hasan. Excavations at Ben i- Hasan in Upper Egypt. (Second Seas >n ) 

(With Plate G.) John Garstang, B.A., B.Litt., F.S.A 67 

Egypt: Excavations. Excavations at Ehnasya. (With Plate II.) Prof. W. M Flindkks 

Pbtuie, DC.L., F.R.S 77 

England: ArchSBOlOgy. Coldrum, Kent, and its lelation to Stonehcnge. (Illustrated.) 

Georgr Clinch, F.G.S 12 

England : Archaeology. The Coldrum Monument. A. L. Lewis, F.CA 23 

England: Archaeology. A Copper Celt from Staple Fitzpaiue, Somerset. (Illustrated.) 

H. St. George Gray 5 

England : ArchSBOlOgy. Excavations at Caerwent in Monmouthshire. (Illustrated ) 

Thomas Ashby, Juur., M.A., F.S.A. 69 

England: APChaBOlOgy. On the occurrence of Stone Inip'ements in the Thames Valley. 


England: ArchaBOlOgy. A remarkably thin Flint Arrowhead from Maiden Castlo. Dor- 
chester. (Illustrated.) H. St. GEORGE GRAY 105 

Europe. See England; France; Greece; Herzegovina; Scotland. 

Fiji. The Fijians in Peace and War. (Illustrated.) W. L. Allardyck, C M.(i 45 

France: Painted Pebbles. The Problem of the Painted Pebbles of Ma« d'Azil Andrew 

Lang 22 

Folklore. See Africa, South; Greece; Herzegovina; Malay; Siam. 

Greece: Animal Folklore. Animal Folklore from Greece. N. W. Thomas M.A 81 

Greece: ArchSBOlOgy. Prehistoric Archa-clogy in Greece. Prof. P. Kabbadiah \\2 

Herzegovina: Animal Folklore. Animal Folklore from the Herzegovina. L. G. B.JKLs- 

kositche and N. W. Thomas, M.A 88 

India. A Method of inducing Artificial Sleep in Children in India. (Illustrated.) Captain 

J. H. Anderson ... 87 

Magic. See Terminology. 

Malay : Folklore. The Legends of Bakit D»to' B&ta GSdong and of Tan jung Tnan (Cape 

Rachado) in Malacca. D. Hebvey, C.M.G 14 

Marriage Prohibitions. The Origin of Marriage Prohibitions. N. W. Thomas, M.A. ... 2 
New Guinea. Drawings by Natives of British New Guinea. (With Plate C.) A. C. 

Haddon, 8c.D., F.R.S 21 

New Guinea. Note concerning the Progress of the Cook-Daniels Expedition to New Guinea 

and the Solomon Islands. C. G. Seligmann, M.D 114 

New Zealand. A Maori Feather Box. Babon A. von HCoel. (With Plate M.) Ill 

New Zealand. A Maori Flageolet. (Illustrated.) H. St. George Gray 4 

Nigeria. Notes on the "Mbari" Festival of the Natives of the Ibo Country, S. Nigeria. 

(Illustrated.) A. A. Whitehotjbe 106 

Nigeria. Notes on some Native Objects from Northern Nigeria. (Illustrated.) E. F. Martin 11 

Obituary. Alexander Stuart Murray, LL.D., F.S.A. (Illustrated.) 86 

Obituary. Herbert Spencer. E. W. Brabbook, C.B., F.S.A 8 

Pacific. See Easter Island ; Fiji ; New Guinea ; New Zealand ; Polynesia ; 

Solomon Islands. 

«Pahang: Stone Implements. Note on Stone Implements from Pahang. (Illustrated.) 

R. M. W. Swan 84 

Peru. On Two Pottery Vases from the Upper Amazon, Peru. ( With Plate D.) C. H. Bead, 

F.S.A 82 

Peru: Copper Implements. Hafted Copper Implements from Peru. (With Plate F.) 

Prof. E. H. Giglioli ... 52 

Polynesia. A Stone Rice-sheller from Nusa. (Illustrated.) R. Parkinson 78 

Physical Anthropology. A Skull Stand for photographic purposes. W. Wright, M.B., 

I) Sc., F.R.C.S 118 

Physical Anthropology. See also Chile. 

Siam : Folklore. The Dynastic Genius of Siam. Nelson Annandale, B.A 13 

Siberia. Stone Implements from the Frozen Gravel of the Yenisei. (With Plate X.) 

W. J. Lewis Abbott, F.G.S 95 

Scotland. A Modern Instance of Trial by Ordeal in Scotland. Nelson Annandale, B.A. ... 97 
Solomon Islands. Note on Funerary Ornaments from Rubiana. and a Coffin from Sta. Anna, 

Solomon Islands. (With Plate I- J.) J. Edge-Pabtington and T. A. Joyce, M.A. ... 86 

Terminology. Studies in Terminology. I. Magic. N. W. Thomas, M.A 107 

Totemism. A Theory of Arunta Totemiam. Andrew Lang 44 

Totemlsm. Arunta Totemism : A Note on Mr. Lang's Theory. N. W. Thomas, M.A." 68 

Totemism. Further Remarks on Mr. Hill-Tout's Views on Totemism. N. W. Thomas, M.A.... 58 
Totemism. See also Marriage Prohibitions. 


Africa. Johnston. The Nile Quest. A Record of the Exploration oftlie Kile and its Basin. 

R. W. Felkin, M.D. 50 

Africa, Central. Duff. Nyassaland under the Foreign Office. R. W. Felkin, M.D. ... 57 

Africa, East. Van der Burght. Dictionnaire Francais-Kirundi. Ml88 A. Wekneb ... 84 
Africa, East. Hinde. Vocabularies of the Kamba and Kikuya Languages of East Africa, 

R. W. F 120 

Africa : Institutions. Hayfird. Gold Coast Native Institutions. E. S. H 206 

Africa, SOUth. Kidd. Tlie Essential Kafir. N. W. T 58 

Africa, West. "Actinus." Camera Pictures of the Gold Coast. E. F. M 121 

Africa. See also Algebia ; Egypt; Hausa. 

Algeria. Tripp. Beautiful Biskra, "The Queen of the Desert: 1 H. S. K 85 

America : Archaeology. Quiroga. La Cruz in America. J. L. M 108 

America : Basketry. Mason. Aboriginal American Basketry. Miss A. HlNGSTON ... 71 

America. See also Abgentina ; Pebu ; Totemism. 

Anthropology. Tylor. Primitive Culture; Researches into the Development of Mythology, 

Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art, and Custom. E. N. F 8 

Anthropology. Cels. Science de V Homme ei l Me'thvde a nthropologique. J. G. 117 

Anthropology. See also Physical anthbopology. 

Anthropometry. Boas. Statistical Study of Anthropometry. D. RAND ALL-MAClVEB, M.A. 62 

Arabia. Hogarth. The Penetration of Arabia. A. H. Kkane, LL.D 56 

ArchSBOlOgy. Hoernes. Der Diluviale Mensch in Europa. J. E. 202 

APChfiBOlOgy. Thieullen. SociStS £ Emulation & Abbeville : Hommage h Boucher de Perth**. 

A. L. L 102 

ArchSBOlogy. See aim Amebica ; Argentina ; Early Britain ; Egypt ; England ; 

Germany; Ireland; Moravia; Portugal; Prehistoric Swords; Rome; Stone 


Argentina. Ambrosetti. Los pucos pintados de rojo *obre bianco del valle de Yocaril. Cuatro 

pi ctog rafids de la region Cal/taqui. D. Randall-MacIver, M.A 51 

Asia. See Arabia ; Babylonia ; Buloch Race ; India ; Japan ; Malay ; Tibet. 

Australia, Central. 8pencer : Gillen. The Northern Tribes of Central Australia. C. H. R. 93 

Australia, S0Uth-East. Howitt The Native Tribes of South-East Australia. A Lang ... 116 

Babylonia. See Magic. 

BalOCh Race. Dames. Ihe Baloch Race : A Historical and Ethnological Sketch. W. Crook E 75 

Bibliography. The International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. P. H. S. K 9 

Bibliography. Tlie International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. P. (2nd Yearly Issue.) 

N. W. Thomas, M.A 82 

Britain. Conybeare. Roman Britain. H. S. K 208 

Britain. See also Early Britain ; England. 

British GeniUS. Ellis. A Study of British Genius. J. GRAY 39 

Buddhism. Buddhism : An Illustrated Quarterly Renew. M. LONGWORTH Dames ... 40 

Celtic Literature. MacLean. Tlie Literature of the Celts. E. C. Q 207 

CraniolOgy. Boas. Heredity in Head Form. D. RANDALL-MACIVER, M.A 62 

Early Britain.* Codrington. Roman Roads in Britain. C. H. B LA K 1ST ON, B.A 15 

Egypt. Garstang. Tombs of the Third Egyptian Dynasty. D. RANDALL- Mac I VER, M.A. ... 87 

England: Archaeology. W indie. Remains of the Prehistoric Age in England. E. N. F.... 64 
England : Neolithic. Johnson : Wright. Neolithic Man in Nortk-East Surrey. George 

Clinch, F.G.S. 64 

Ethnography. Keller. Queries in Ethnography. C. H. Read, F.S.A. 38 

Ethnology. See Japan. 

Evolution. u Semi- Darwinian." Doubts about Darwinism. E. B. P 61 

Folklore. Kauffoiann : Smith. Northern Mythology. E. N. F. 20 

Germany : ArchSBOlogy. SchlTz. Frdnkische und alamannisclte Kunsttdtigheit im friihen 

Mitlelalter. R. A. S ... 91 

German Race. Wiher. Die Germanen. A. H. Keane, LL.D. 90 

German Race. Driesmans. Die Kulturgeschichte der Rassen-instinkten. J. L. M 118 

Hausa. Brooks: Nott. Bdtu na Abubuan Hausa. E.F.Martin 74 

India. Risley : Gait. Tlie Census of India, 1901. M. LONGWORTH Dames 83 

Ireland: Archaeology. Joyce. A Social History of Ancient Ireland. E. N. F 6 

Italy. Pigorini. Le piu anticlie civilta delV Italia. D. RANDALL-MAClVER, M.A 27 

Japan : Ethnology. Koganei. Ueber die Urbewohner ron Japan. W. L. H. Duckworth, 

M.A. 201 

MagiC Thompson. The Derils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. N. W. T 19 

Malay. Annandale : Robinson. Fasciculi Mala ye uses. T. A. J. 89 

Man: Prehistoric. Zaborowski. V Homme pre historique. E. N. F 65 

Melanesia. Audrey. In the Isles of the Sea. E. F. 29 

MelOS. Atkinson: Bosanquet. Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos. F. H. M. 59 

Method. Bury. An Inaugural Lecture delivered in the Divinity Scliool, Cambridge, Janu- 
ary 26,1903. O. M. D 28 

Moravia : Archaeology. KrTz. Beit rage zur Kenntnis der Quart drzeit in Mdhren. A. M. 

Bell 25 

Norse Mythology. Kermode. Traces oftlie Norse Mythology in tlie Isle of Man. N. W. T. U9 

Pacific. Guppy. Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific. F. W. R 205 

Pacific. Smith. Niue-fekai (or Savage) Island and its People. J. Edge-Partington ... 7 

Pacific. See also Melanesia; Solomon Islands; Torres Straits. 

Paraguay. Grubbe. Among the Indians of the Paraguayan Chaco : A Story of Missionary 

Work in Situth America. N. VV. T 49 

Peru. Baessler : Keane. Ancient Peruvian Art. T.A.J 204 

Philippine Islands. Landor. The Gems of the East : Sixteen Thousand Miles of Research 

Travel among Wild and Tame Tribes of Enchanting Ixlands. S. H. RAY 99 

Physical Anthropology. Daffner. Das Wavhstum des Menschen: Anthropologische Studien. 

Havelock Ellis 208 

Physical Anthropology. Schwalbe. Die Vorgeschichte des Menschen. J. GRAY 17 

Physical Deterioration. Watt-Smyth. Physical Deterioration : Its Causes and the Cure. 

F. S 109 

Portugal. Portugalia : Muteriaex para o estudo do povo portuguez. A. L. L. 16 

Prehistoric SwOPdS. Naue. Die VorrtimUchen Schwerter aus Kupfer y Bronze vnd Eisen. 

Akthur J. Evans, Litt.D., F.R.S 24 

Psychology. StolL Suggestion vnd Hypnotismus in der Vblkerpsychologie. N. W. T. ... 36 

Psychology. Ward: Rivers. Tlie Brit ixh Journal of Psyclwlogy. N. W. T 78 

Religion. See Buddhism. 

Rome : ArchSBOlOgy. Burton-Brown. Recent Excavation* in tlve Roman Forum. C. H. 

Blakiston, B.A 41 

Scotland : Place-Names. Johnston. Place- Xames of Scotland. J. A. 26 

Solomon Islands. Ribbe. Xwei Jahre unter den Kannibalen der Salomo-In*eln. BASIL 

Thomson 92 

Stone Age. Giglioli. Mater iali per lo Studio delta " Eta della Pietra." J. L. M 101 

Stone Age. Butot. Coup tTaril svr Tetat des Connaissance* relative* aujr Industrie* de la 

pierre. R. A. S 72 

Switzerland. Heierli. Urge*chichte der Schweiz. J. L. M 128 

Technology. Bourdeau. I[i*toired*THabillement et d* la Parure. A. C. H 60 

Tibet. Bishop. Among the Tibetan*. H. S. K 42 

Tibet. Sarat Chandra Das. -4 Tibetan- Engli*h Dictionary with Sanskrit Synonym*. E. J. R. 100 
Torres Straits. Haddon : Rivers. Report* of t/ie Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to 

Torres Strait*. Vol. V. E. 8. H 98 

Totemism. Hill-Tout. Totem ism : A Consideration of its Origin and Import. N. W. 

Thomas, M.A. 48 

Totemism. Robertson-Smith. Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia. N. W. T 18 


Americanists. Fourteenth International Congress of 124 

British Association for the Advancement of Science 108, 110 

London. Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 30, 66, 76, 125, 126 

London. Sociological Society 81 


No. 42, page 64, line 4, for Imbra read Aubra. 
No. 48, page 76, tine 42, for totemism* read totemism. 
No. 48, page 77, line 9, for Belgando read Belyando. 
No. 48, page 78, line 2, for or read on. 
No. 107, page 166, line 36, for spells read lots. 
No. 107, page 167, line 37, for casual read causal. 


A. Inscribed Tablet and Gorget from Easter Island 

B. Stone Implements from the Thames Valley 

C. Drawings by Natives of British New Guinea 

D. Pottery Vase from the Upper Amazon 

E. An Eleventh Dynasty Temple at Deir eJ-Bahari 

P. Hafted Copper Implements from Peru 

o. Excavations at Beni- Hasan 

H. Gold Statuette of the God Hershefi 

I-J. Funerary Ornaments from Kubiana 

K Stone Implements from the Yenisei 

L. Portrait of a Guayaqui Indian 

M. Maori Feather Box 


No. 1 
























N.B. — All are Photographs, except where otherwise stated. 

A Maori Flageolet 

A Copper Celt from Staple Fitzpaine, Somerset. (Drawing.) 

Map of part of the Thames Valley. (Drawing.) 

Section across Thames Valley between Reading and Caversham. (Drawing.) 

Section across Thames Valley between Ruscombe and Shiplake. (Drawing.) 

Native Objects from Northern Nigeria. (Drawing.) 

Cold rum, Kent : Ground Plan of the Cromlech. (Drawing.) 

Sievern, Hanover : Ground Plan of the Cromlech. (Drawing.) 

Coldium, Kent : View of the Cromlech from the East 

Drawings by Natives of British New Guinea. (Drawing*.) (Figs. 1-24.) 

Pottery Vase from the Upper Amazon. (Figs. 1 and 2.) 

Section through the Tui Valley. (Drawing.) 

Stone Implements from Pahang. (Drawing.) 

Alexander Stuart Murray 

Exterior of Chiefs House, Fiji 

Interior of Chiefs House, Fiji 

Sea-going Canoe, Fiji 

A Domestic Idol from Easter Island. (Drawing.) 

Tien-tain Mud Figure 

Ancient Skull from the Chilian Andes. (Fig. 1 : Norma Vertical is. Fig. 2 : Norma 

Lateralis. Fig. 3 : Norma Facialis.) (Drawings.) 

Metal Bowl of VI. Dynasty 

Caerwent. House No. 2. Channelled Hypocaust M 69 

Caerwent. Peristyle of House No. 3 ... ,, 69 

Caerwent. House No. 7 : Rooms 6 and 7 „ 69 

Caerwent. Head of a Stone Figure „ 69 

Plan of Caerwent „ 69 

Stone Rice-Sheller from Nusa. (Figs. 1 and 2.) (Drawings.) ,. 79 

Songs of the Baluba of Lake Moero. Four Songs. (Drawings.) „ 80 

Mortuary Hut containing the Skull of a Chief of Rubiana, Solomon Islands. 

(Drawing.) „ 86 

Details of Patterns on Funerary Ornaments. (Drawing.) „ 86 

Model of a Fish enclosing Skull of a Chief, Sta. Anna, Solomon Islands „ 86 

Method of Inducing Artificial Sleep in Children in India „ 87 

Another Type of *• Domestic Idol " from Easter Island „ 96 

Thin Flint Arrow-head from Maiden Castle, Dorchester. (Drawing.) ,. 105 

The u Mbari " Festival of the Natives of the Ibo Country, S. Nigeria. (Figs. 1-3.) ... „ 106 

A Skull Stand for photographic purposes „ 118 


No. 4 



























, f 
















N.B. — The Number* to which an asterisk is added are those of Reviews of Books. 

A., J., 26*. 
Abbott, W. J. L., 95. 
Allardyce, W. L., 45. 
Anderson, J. H., 87. 
Annandale, N., 13, 97. 
Ashby, T. V., 69. 

Balfour, H., 31. 
Bell, A. M., 25*. 
Bjelskositche, L. G., 88. 
Blackburn, D., 115. 
Blakiston, C. H., 15*, 41*. 
Brabrook, E. W., 3. 

Clinch, G., 12, 64*. 
Crooks, W., 75*. 

Dalton, O. M., 1, 28*, 78. 
Dames, M. L., 40*, 83*. 
Duckworth, W. L. H., 201*. 

E., J., 202*. 

Edge-Partington, J., 7*, 46, 47, 86. 

Ellis, H., 203*. 

Evans, A. J., 24*. 

F., E. N., 6*, 8*, 20*, 29*, 65*, 94*. 
Felkin, R. W., 50*, 57*, 120*. 

Garstang, J., 67. 
Giglioli, E. H., 52, 104. 
Gray, H. St. G., 4, 5, 96, 105. 
Gray, J., 17*, 39*, 117*. 

H., E. S., 98*, 206*. 
Haddon, A. C, 21,60*. 
Hervey, D., 14. 
Hingston, Miss A., 71*. 
HttoEL, A. von, 111. 

Joyce, T. A., 86, 89*, 204*. 

K., H. S., 9*, 42*, 85*, 122*, 208*. 
Kabbadias, P., 112. 
Keane, A. H., 56*, 90*. 

Lang, A., 22, 44, 55, 116*. 
Latcham, R. E., 54. 
Lewis, A. L., 16*, 23, 102*. 

M., F. H., 59*. 

M., J. L., 101*, 108*, 118*, 123°. 

Martin, E. F., 11,74*, 121*. 

P., E. B., 61*. 
Parkinson, R., 79. 
Petrie, W. M. F., 70, 77. 

Q., E. C, 207*. 

R., E. J., 100*. 

R , F. W., 205*. 

RandallMacIver, D., 27*, 37* 51*, 

62*, 63*, 124. 
Ray, S. H., 99*. 
Read, C. H., 32, 38*, 93*. 

S., F., 109*. 
S., R. A., 72*, 91*. 
Seligmann, C. G., 114. 
Swan, R. M. W., 34. 

Thomas, N. W., 2, 18*, 19*, 36*, 48*, 
49*, 53, 58*, 68, 73*, 81, 82*, 88, 107, 
115, 119*. 

Thomson, B., 92*. 

Torday, E., SO. > 

Treacher, LI., 10. 

Werner, Miss A., 84*. 
Whitehouse, A. A., 106. 
Wright, W., li3. 

Pl.ATR A. 

Man, 1904. 

0— 1 f i- 





y.B. — All communications printed in Man are signed or initialled by their 
authors, and the Council of the Institute desires it to be understood thai in giving 
publicity to them it accepts no responsibility for the opinions or statements expressed. 

N.B. — Max, 1904, consists of(&) twelve monthly -published sheets, of sixteen pages 
each, printed in single column; containing "Original Articles" and substantial 
44 Reviews " of recent publications ; all numbered consecutively 1, 2, 3, onwards : (b) a 
variable number of four-page sheets, printed in double columns ; containing shorter 
" Notices of Books," " Proceedings of Societies" and other current information ; and 
numbered consecutively 201, 202, 203, onwards. These supplementary sheets are issued 
with the monthly sheets as occasion requires ; but are paged to follow the twelfth 
monthly sheet of the single-column series ; and should be so placed by the binder. 

N.B. — Articles published in Man should be quoted by the year, and the 
reference-number of the article, not by the page-reference ; e.g., the article which begins 
on p. 7 below should be quoted as Man, 1 904. 2. 

With Plate A. 
Easter Island : Inscribed Tablet. Dal ton. 

On an Inscribed Wooden Tablet from Easter Island (Rapa Nui), ^ 
in the British Museum. By 0. M. Dalton, M.A., F.S.A. \ 

The inscribed tablet, both sides of which are figured on Plate A., is a small example, 
8 • (> inches (1 1 cm.) loug, and made of hard dark-brown wood, probably the toro miro or 
mimosa, which was employed for inscriptions as long as the supply of suitable trees 
lasted. The characters are clearly cut, and extend not only over both surfaces, but, in 
accordance with the usual practice, over both lougitudiual edges as well ; the wood has 
received a dull polish by frequent handling. This interesting object, which has been 
acquired by the Museum during the present year, is said to have been in the family of 
its recent owner more than thirty years ; if the statement is correct, it must have 
been among the first of its class to reach Europe, for the earliest meution of inscribed 
tablets occurs in a letter of a missionary in 1864 (sec below), and the first specimens 
made known to science were taken to Santiago, in Chile, in the year of the Franco- 
Prussian War. 

It may be said at the outset that I can make no new contribution to the decipher- 
ment of that great Polynesian enigma, the writing of Rapa Nui. The following short 
notes are intended to serve a two fold purpose : firstly, to make known a new 
example ; and, secondly, to recall some of the literature bearing upon the subject, at 
present inconveniently scattered through the pages of various and sometimes inaccessible 

[ i j 

No. 1.] J1AN. [1904. 

Although the Polynesians were able to represent human, animal, and natural forms, 
which in some cases they conventionalised to a remarkable degree, nowhere but in 
Easter Island, the extreme outpost of the race, do we find anything approaching a 
regular system of writing. Here and there we hear of chiefs attesting treaties with 
Europeans by " making their marks " ; but in one of the recorded instances the Maories 
used signs resembling their tattooing, and quite different from those here in question,* 
in the other, the native contracting parties were themselves chiefs of Rapa Nui.f Ttoe 
occurrence, in a lonely and isolated spot, of a script already to a certain extent 
conventionalised, and therefore not absolutely primitive, has naturally given rise to 
various speculations which it will be necessary to pass briefly in review. 

Before proceeding to this task I will mention the most important visits made to the 
island by European and American vessels, and touch upon the settlement of the mis* 
sionaries, which, by establishing closer relations with the inhabitant*, brpught the 
inscribed tablets into general notice. 

The first white men to land upon Rapa Nui were the Dutch Captain Roggewein 
and his companions, who gave the island the name it now commonly bears, because their 
discovery fell upon Easter Day, 1721. Between this time and the latter half of the 
nineteenth century it was visited by many navigators, among others by Captain Cook, 
and its remarkable monolith statues and stone buildings were made kuown to the western 
world. The tablets, however, seemed to have escaped notice until the year 1864, when 
their existence was discovered by Eugene Eyraud, lay brother of the congregation of 
the Sacred Heart of Picpus, who had repatriated three of the islanders kidnapped by the 
Peruvians J in the previous year. It is in a letter of his to the superior of his order § 
that the first mention of tablets is made. As a result of Eyraud's visit the congregation 
soon afterwards established on the island a small mission, whose members during the 
short and troubled period of their residence were largely instrumental, as we shall see, 
in preserving what remained of the Easter Island inscriptions. The first tablets to leave 
the island were probably two discovered by Father Zumbohm, and sent by him to Bishop 
Jaussen, of Axieri, Vicar Apostolic of Tahiti, to whom five other examples were confided 
in 1868. || In the same year H.M.S. Topaze passed some time at Easter Island, and 
various accounts of her visit have been published.^ To the officers of this ship we owe 
the two large monolithic statues now in the British Museum, but tablets do uot seem to 
have come under their notice. Soon after the departure of the Topaze three tablets 
appear to have been found, two of which were given to Captain Gana of the Chilian 
corvette CHiggins, which touched at Rapa Nui in 1870.** Captain Gana deposited his 
two specimens in the Museum of Santiago in Chile, where they still are ; the third tablet 
was sent off to Paris, but never reached its destination. It was from casts taken from 
the Chilian examples and forwarded to Europe that the first attempts to decipher the 

* Reproduced at the end of L'lU de Paques, par Mgr. Tepano Jaussen, outrage posthume redxge par 
le R.~P. Ildefonse Alazard, Paris, 1893. The work is also published in the Bulletin de Geographic, 

t Reproduced, Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1874, p. 628. 

\ It was in 1862 or 1863 that the Peruvians carried off about 1,000 natives 1o work guano on the 
Chincha Islands. On this raid and the events which succeeded it, *ee Jaussen, LIU de Paques, pp. 4-6 ; 
Snithsonian Annual Report, 1889, p. 514. About half of the surviving population was removed to 
Tahiti and Eimeo by the firm of B rander, ami most of those who remained were taken by the 
missionaries to the Gambier Islands. 

§ Annates de la propagation de la foi, Vol. XXXVIII., p. 71. 

|| Jaussen, Vile de Paques, p. 14 ; Abbe* Bund in Cosmo* let Mondes (Paris, 1884), pp. 410ff. 

^ Papers by Mr. J. Linton Palmer,, Proceeding* of the Literary and Philmophical Society of 
Liverpool, Vol?. XXIX. (1875), pp. 275ff, and XXX. (1876), pp. 255ff ; Journal of the Ethnological 
Society, New Series, Vol. III., p. 371 ; and Journal of the Boyal Geographical Society, Vol. XL., p. 167. 

** Smithsonian Report, p. 613 ; Palmer, Liverpool, 1876, p. 255. 

[ 2 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. I 

script were made by Mr. Park Harrison and others.* In 1882 Captain Lieutenant 
Geiseler of the Imperial German Navy visited the island on the gunboat Hyaena ^ but 
apparently failed to obtain tablets, though two were reported to be in the possession of 
natives. Perhaps these were the identical examples procured by the officers of the 
Mohican, United States Navy, who in 1886 made a prolonged stay, and endeavoured to 
solve the mystery of the inscriptions in the manner mentioned l>elowJ. At some time 
before 1876§ two tablets were procured by a Russian vessel, and these are now iu 
St. Petersburg.! 

As far rs I can discover, about fifteen of the tablets are now preserved in places 
where they are accessible to students. Seven are said to be in Tahiti, two at Santiago, 
two at Washington, two at St. Petersburg, one in the British Museum, aud one (a large, 
but not very good specimen) at Berlin. Professor von Luschan informs me that two 
were shown at a colonial exhibition in Paris in recent years, but whether these had been 
brought from Tahiti or were new specimens I am unable to say. It may be convenient 
to describe in the present place the general appearance of these tablets and the manner 
in which they are inscribed. As a rule they are made of the hard mimosa already 
mentioned, but in some cases pieces of driftwood of irregular shape have been pressed 
into the service of the carvers. Some of the examples in mimosa wood are as much as 
14 in. long,? so that the one here illustrated is among the smallest. The work was 
executed with a point of obsidian, and wheu each line was completed the tablet was 
reversed, so that every other line is upside down. Opinions seem to differ as to the 
point at which the reading should begin, but as a rule the left-hand bottom corner" is 
preferred. ** Tablets are often channelled with broad parallel grooves, within which the 
inscriptions are cut, the object being in all probability to preserve the characters from 
obliteration. A fine wooden gorget in the British Museum is figured with the tablet on 
Plate A., as it has on it a line of characters incised with great clearness and worth 
reproducing photographically for purposes of comparison. 

In a short note like the present, one can but recapitulate the principal attempts 
which have been made to decipher the Easter Island tablets. It is now generally agreed 
that they are really signs of an ideographic nature, and it is comparatively easy to 
distinguish birds, fish, natural objects, implements and weapons, &c, among them. But 
from this to an interpretation of their meaning in the particular conjunction iu which 
they occur is a very wide step, and few investigators have ventured to do more than 
suggest a meaning for individual signs. Mr. Park Harrison,tt workiug from casts of 
the specimens in Santiago, identifies in figures of men with albatrosses 1 heads the 
Herronia or mythical beiug of native legend, and can point to turtles and lob* tors, an 
well as clubs and ceremonial paddles like those made of hard wood which have boon 
brought in some numbers from the island. He detects combats of men and auimals, 
recognises dog faces and negrito heads, and iu a recurring sequence of human figures 

♦ Journ. Anthr. />«*., Vol. III. (1874). 

t Kapitan-lieutenant Geiseler, Die Oxter Intel \ eine Statu prtihittorincher Kultur in tier Siidtee 
(Berlin, 1883). 

J Paymaster W. J. Thomson, U.S.N., in Smithwnian Institution, Annual Jteport % Year endimj 
June 30, 1889, p. 447ff. 

§ Linton Palmer, Lirerpool, 1876, p. 255. 

|| Mr. Tregear, Journal of the Polynesian! Sttciety, Vol. 1. ( 1 892), p. 101, nay* that a mate uf u ship 
took a tablet to San Francisco. 

•J Tregear, as above, p. 101. 

** The Abbe Bund, Is* premier* hwroglyphe* de la Polynesie, in Ctwmu leu Monde* % p. 415, hUUm 
that the beginning is at the lower left-hand corner ; so does Bishop Jausscn (p. 14) on tbc authority of 
Metoro. Captain Geiseler, however (p. 25), say* the right-hand lower corner, the characters running 
from right to left. 

f\ Journ. Anthr. Inst., as above, p. 374. 

[ ••* 1 

No. 1.] MAN. [1904. 

sees a genealogy of island chiefs whose forefathers may have lived thousands of miles 
away in the west. Mr. Park Harrison's researches were admittedly tentative and made 
no pretention to finality. It is otherwise with those of Dr. A. Carroll, a prologue to 
which has beeu published in the Polynesian Society's Journal.* 

This writer, with an almost magnificent confidence, claims to have settled the 
question once for all. If I understand him rightly, he declares that the language 
represented by the " hieroglyphs " is not Polynesian, but came from the American 
continent, and that among the inscriptions can be traced words and phrases from the 
Toltec, Quiche, Muiscan, and many other tongues, proving the mixed blood of the 
peoples who came over to Easter Island more thau 500 years ago. On the tablets are 
to be found relations of events which happened from about a.d. 600 onwards over ii 
very wide region of the earth's surface, and there is mentiou of persons, places, and 
circumstances alluded to by Spanish writers. Dr. Carroll asserts that when his grammar 
ami vocabulary are published, everyone who wishes to read these important historical 
and mythological inscriptions will be able to do so without difficulty. Meanwhile, as au 
earnest of what is to come, he publishes three translations in the form of prayers, oue by 
» woman for offspring, and two of a more general character for health and successful 
harvest. The issue of the key to the enigma will be awaited with interest, more 
especially, perhaps, by philologists with a taste for destructive criticism. 

Bishop Jaussen, into whose possession several tablets passed, has made a serious 
attempt to elucidate their meaning in the publication already cited. Among the natives 
deported to Tahiti by the firm of Brauder and Boruier was a man named Metoro 
Tauaure, son of Hetuki, oue of the class which claimed to have beeu instructed in the 
art of reading. This man chanted from the bishop's tablets, but did not really read 
them, for when interrupted he could not go on ; still, there appeared to be some corre- 
spondence betweeu his recitation and the engraved characters, though the oral additions 
were considerable, and the bishop took down the translations line for line. The result 
was not encouraging. Far from being of historical importance, the recitatious proved to 
be disconnected strings of phrases, unimportant in themselves and seldom forming a 
comprehensive or continuous narrative. The bishop prints a comprehensive vocabulary, 
classifying the characters under their various headings — gods, men, heaven, earth, sea, 
auimals, birds, fish, plants, &c. — giving the meaning of each in the dialect of Rapa Nni and 
in French, and evidently entertaining no doubt as to the correctness of the interpreta- 
tions. But as to the historical value of the subject-matter thus revealed he is under no 
illusion : iljaut s^y resigncr, he says in the large MS. which embodies his research,! 
i7 rfy a rien la-dedans. His conclusion is supported by De Harlez, who finds the texts, 
" unc collection de non-sens a dS/ier toutc intelligence lestee raisonnable," aud sees in 
them mere groups of figures logically independent of each other. We are far, iudeed, 
from the epoch-making revelations of Dr. Carroll.J 

Bishop Jaussen brings out one or two points of some importance which tend to 
show that the natives of Rapa Nui were still able in quite modern times to reproduce 
the characters engraved on the tablets. Metoro, while waiting to begin his readings, 
actually traced some of them on paper ; while one inscription was found to be cut on a 
piece of a European oar.§ The bishop's vocabulary is of great interest, though the 

* Journal of the Polynesian Society, 181*2, pp. 102ff. 

{ C. de Harlez, Vile de Paque* et xex Monument* Graphiquex (Louvain, 1895), p. 1. The 
bishop's MS. was entrusted to M. de Harlez, who quotes from it, but I am not awaie that it ha9 been 
published. De Harlez gives a specimen translation which certainly differs in style from the fluent 
prose of Mr. Thomson and Dr. Carroll. 

% The results recorded by the Abbe Bund, Cosmo* lex Mondex } p. 413, were equally disappointing 
Different natives chanted from tablet*, but contradicted each other flatly as to the correct chpnts to be 
sung in particular cases. 

§ I? lie de I'aatte*, p. 14. 

[ 4 ] 

1904.] MAN. Etfo. L 

drawings of the characters are rather rough ; those used by de Harlez in the specimens 
of translation which he appends to his own paper, appear to be derived from it. It may 
be added that Bishop Claeseus of Batavia, to whom casts or rubbings of Easter Island 
tablets were sent, declared that almost identical signs are carved upon rocks in Celebes ;* 
and Bishop Jaussen is convinced that they came into the East Pacific from this part of 
the world. One may doubt the accuracy of Bishop Claeseus' observation in this case, 
but it may be recalled that the natives usually trace their proximate descent from Oparo, 
whence the chief Hutu Matua came in a canoe bringing sixty-seven tablets with him.f 

Captain Geiseler has also a few remarks to make upon the interpretation of the 
characters. J He describes some of the signs carved in relief on the rocks on the south- 
west face of Rana Kao, and identifies one of these (a bird-like figure which frequently 
occurs on the tablets) with the god Make-Make. The conjunction of this sign with 
another representing the female vulva is, he says, held to signify a birth ; and figures 
of men fishing, to mark the seasons of the year at which certain fish were caught. He 
does not quit the safe grouud of scientific caution, and believes that the language is not 
that of a vanished people but that of the existing inhabitants of the island. This con- 
clusion is borne out by what has been said above, that the natives were still able to 
carve inscriptions after the advent of Europeans in these waters, as well as by the fact 
that ceremonial paddles of the form in use up to the last occur both on tablets and on 
carvings in stone. 

The American expedition on the Mohican had with it photographs of the tablets 
at Tahiti, and by a stratagem described by Paymaster W. J. Thomson, § an old man 
named Ure Vaeiko, who was said to have been trained to read the characters in his 
youth, was persuaded to attempt their decipherment. Like Metoro, Ure Vaeiko was 
inspired by the sight of the photographs to chant or recite legends with fluency ; but as 
the evening (which was not unconvivial) progressed, it was seen that he was not 
actually reading the characters ; and when the photograph of another tablet was sub- 
stituted, the same story was continued without the change beiug discovered by the 
uarrator. Facts like these rather detract from the value of the legends printed by 
Mr. Thomson, though it is quite possible that legends may have been originally repre- 
sented on tablets, but at some subsequent time, when the scholarship of Easter Island 
had begun to degenerate, came to be transmitted orally and simply learned by rote. 
Tablets and interpretations might thus become mixed, though both might be independently 

Mr. Thomson's paper has been criticised by several writers, especially by Captain 
Barclay, R.N.,|| and Dr. M. Haberlandt, of Vienna .f The latter reproduces two 
of the tablets with their presumed translations, aud calls atteution to the occasional 
discrepancy between the number of words in the oral versions and the number of 

* Vile de Paques, p. 18. 

t Linton Palmer, Lirerpool, 1875, p. 292. But Captain Geiseler (p. 43) mentions a statement 
made by natives to Mr. Salmon, representative of Brander & Co., to the effect that their ancestors 
came from the Galapagos Islands. Possibly tbe tradition originated after the Peruvian raid. 

% Die Oxter Intel, eine Sttitte priihixtorhcher Kultur, pp. 24,25. 

§ Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report, 1889, pp. 447ff. Mr. Thomson's paper is illustrated by 
a number of excellent photographs and contains a useful account of the island and its antiquities. 

|J Proceeding* of the Ihtyal (Jeo graphical Society of Auxt rulaxiu (Siuth Australian branch). 
April 14, 1898. Mr. Edge- Partington has summarised Captain Barclay's criticisms in Man, 1901 
No. 7, p. 10. Captain Barclay believes that great volcanic disturbances occurred on the island during 
the time of tbe statue makers, and that all progress was checked, if not destroyed, by thin caure. He 
apparently contends that the tablets could not fail to make mention of so terrible a catastrophe, and 
that the silence of Mr. Thomson's translations on tbis point is against their accuracy. The argument 
would be stronger (//) if we had a really large number of tablets to work from instead of less than 
twenty, and (ft) if ic could be shown that alt the tablets were historical. 

1 (ilohux, Vol. LXI. (1892), pp. 274-277. 

[ 5 ] 

Wo. t] MAN. [1904. 

characters in the inscriptions which they are supposed to represent. Thus in one 
instance 210 signs suffice for 89 words of text, while in another 660 are required to 
render 80 words. The difference, he argues, is too great to be explained merely by the 
superior terseness of one of the translations, and points rather to the conclusion that the 
translations have really no connection with the signs at all. Further, the periodic 
repetition of certain phrases in the versions is not balanced by any corresponding 
repetition of characters on the tablets. Dr. Haberlaudt believes that Mr. Thomson's 
experiments have not brought the problem a step nearer its solution, and that the ouly 
chance was to find some native who really did understand the meaning of the characters 
not one who, like Ure Vaeiko, only pretended to do so. That chance was, even at the 
time of writiug, very remote, owing to the depopulation of the island and the death of 
the older men. 

It will be seen that the interpretation of the Easter Island script still offers a 
field for enquiry, though the prospects of brilliant discoveries throwing fresh light on 
the history or mythology of the South Seas would appear to be distant. But if further 
study of the tablets is undertaken, it will be well for the investigator to hold his 
enthusiasm in check, and to avoid the imaginative speculations which contact between 
civilised minds and primitive ideograms seems almost fatally to eugeuder. It might be 
worth while to photograph all the surviving tablets, to note the comparative frequency 
with which certain signs or groups of signs occur upon them, and with the kuowledge 
thus gained, to make a careful study of Bishop Jaussen's MS. Many of the characters 
are obviously representations of recognisable objects, and compound signs seem to be 
constructed on an iutelligible principle ; but for the reliability of abstract terms like 
" good " or " brilliant," the accuracy of the bishop's vocabulary is now the only guarantee. 
It seems that the tablets had some ceremonial significance, and only chiefs and priests 
are said to have been taught to read them. The natives related that they were brought 
together at certain seasons and their contents publicly recited.* It may well l»e that the 
object of such assemblies was to promote by ceremonial means the increase of the crops 
and the abundance of the fish on which the islanders largely depended for their food.f 

If this was the case, some of the tablets may really have been carved with formulas 
and prayers, though others may have contained genealogies and simple legends not so 
immediately connected with the harvest. How and when it was that the people of 
Rapa Nui made such a distinct advance upon all the other inhabitants of the Pacific 
still remains very much of a mystery. There has always been a certain temptation to 
explain this unique appearance of writing within the Polynesian area by an external 
influence derived from the American continent. But, apart from other difficulties, the 
Nahua and Maya scripts were both very different ; and Peru, which is nearest to Easter 
Island, had no developed system of writing at all. And if there ever existed a written 
language which the Incas suppressed for political reasous (Dr. Carroll, p. 102), we surely 
know too little of it to base any arguments upon its peculiarities ! On the other hand, 
Polynesia can show structures in stone, the erection of which demanded a skill in no 
way inferior to that presupposed by the houses, platforms, and statues of Rapa Nui ; 
and there is no doubt that wheu the island was discovered it had been occupied by 
Polynesians for a very long time. Until the evidence in favour of a " prehistoric " 
occupation by men of another race is stronger than it now is, I shall prefer to believe 

* Jaussen, LIU de Paque* y p. 15. 

t Such practices mast have fallen into desuetude before Europeans became familiar with the 
island. Father Zumbohm (Jaussen, L 1 le d* Paquet, p. 12) says that the natives cared so little for the 
tablets that they were actually using them as fuel when other wood was scarce, and implies that he 
only saved a few with difficulty. Travellers whose objects were other than the propagation of the 
gospel have accused the missionaries themselves of the burning — in this case, I think, without 
supporting the charge by sufficient evidence. 

[ 6 1 

1904] MAN. [Nob. 1-2. 

that the megalith ic remains of Rapa Niii, as well as its system of writing, are products 
of Polynesian culture. The very remoteness of the island may have contributed, before 
the period of decadence set in, both to the peculiarity and the excellence of its monuments. 
Exceptional though it is, this beneficent influence of isolation is not unprecedented. 
Those parts of prehistoric Europe which, like Eastern Hungary and Scandinavia, were 
never in the main stream of traffic and intercourse, were left at leisure to develope a 
bronze civilisation infinitely superior to that of their less isolated neighbours. This 
superiority we explain by the operation of uormal causes without invoking the deus ex 
machina of an alien teacher. May not the course of events have l>een somewhat similar 
in this far corner of the Pacific Ocean ? O. M. DALTON. 

Marriage Prohibitions. Thomas. 

The Or iff in of Marriage Prohibition ; a repiy to Mr. Lang (Max, A 

1903. 101). By N. W. Thomas, M.A. L 

Mr. Lang's theory in its revised form postulates the following steps : (1) The 

exogamous local group ; (2) accepts animal names imposed from without ; (3) becomes 

consciously heterogeneous, distinguishing imported women by means of their tatu marks ; 

(4) retains the original group-name of such women and applies it to their children ; 

(5) elevates to the dignity of totems the animals from which these intragroupal names 
are derived ; (6) regards people of the same totem as akin ; and (7) extends the rule of 
exogamy, originally due to sexual jealousy, and develops the idea that marriage withiu 
the kin is wrong. 

At some time during this process, through the adoption by two local groups of 
preferential customs in respect of eligible spinsters, the phratry organisation grew up. 
With the rise of kinship bars to marriage members of one connubial group found their 
choice still further limited to women of the other groups not of their own totem. This 
complication was too much for the savage brain (to-day capable of working still more 
complicated rules), and to simplify matters it was agreed to rearrange the totems or 
rather the kins, hitherto, we may suppose, distributed with more or less regularity 
between the two groups, in such a way that each kin belonged only to one phratry. 
Prior to this rearrangement the two totem-kins named after the connubial groups were, 
in Australia at least, in some way eliminated and disappeared. 

It may be noted that Mr. Lang's scheme would work just as well if the totem kins 
were developed within the group by some other process than the retention of the old 
group uames, e.g., by the rise of co-operative magical societies. The increase in the size 
of the group, equally implied by Mr. Lang's theory, which must have preceded the 
formation of intragroupal organisations, would not improbably in the long run result in its 
disruption ; the intragroupal names might then assume more prominence, especially if 
there was a tendency for societies of the same name to perform their ceremonies in 
common. If group exogamy still remained the rule, matters would be much simplified 
by arranging the totem-kins wholly ou one side or the other ; for if auything like 
marriage by capture prevailed the raider might not stay to enquire if the bride belonged 
to the right group, but would, on Mr. Lang's tatuing hypothesis, have a satisfactory 
means of distinguishing her totem-kin. The old rule of group exogamy would of course 
operate iu favour of kin exogamy if, as I suppose, magical groups were formed. 
Mr. Lang's view is open to the following objections : — 

(a.) It does not account for the fact that phratric uames — e.g., Eaglehawk, crow — 
are commonly found over wide areas aud are not distributed in a way that Mr. Lang's 
"casual " origin could explain. 

(b.) Mr. Lang assumes that the animals of the original connubial groups did not 
become totems, and, consequently, that there were no totem-kins corresponding to the 
original groups. This can only have taken place if a rule were developed that men of 

[ 7 ] 

Wo. 2.] MAK [1604. 

the Emu group might not marry women of the Emu kin, and vice versa. This would 
involve, however, a new rule of exogamy distinct from both group (local) and kin 
(totem) bars to marriage. This must have come about either (a) because the Emu kin 
were regarded as potentially members of the Emu group (an extension of group exogamy 
the existence of which it would be hard to prove, or (b) because the Emu group or Emu 
kin were (legally) kindred, and as such debarred from marrying, an hypothesis similar to 
that which I attributed to Mr. Lang as the explanation of the rise of totem-kin exogamy 
and by him repudiated in favour of the view criticised below. In either case, on 
Mr. Lang'* theory two whole kins were debarred from marriage or compelled to 
cbauge their totems. I do not know which is less improbable. 

(c.) Mr. Lang accounts for the rise of intra-kin exogamy (not as I imagined when 
I wrote my review, on the theory that the marriage of near kin came to be regarded as 
wrong) by making it a corollary of other totem tabus. Against this view it may be 
said that the clansman is by no meaus the equivalent of the totem animal. The latter 
may not be eaten, but endocannibalism is not unknown ; agaiu, the totem may often 
not be looked at, but there is, so far as I know, no similar tabu with regard to the 
clansman. It seems, therefore, highly problematical if this idea would suffice to bring 
about the rule that members of the same totem kin may not intermarry. Mr. Lang, 
when he wrote Social Origins was of the same opinion. 

(d.) If the rule of group exogamy was still valid, how (and this tells to some 
extent against my suggestion also) did the savage, in making the rearrangement of 
kins in the phratries, come to disregard it ? It is clear that if the Bats and Sprats were 
origiually divided between the Emu and Kangaroo phratries, the Emu group Bats were, 
after their transference, eligible mates for the Emu group Sprafs, if the Bats were iu one 
phratry and the Sprats in the other. And yet Mr. Lang tells ns that phratric exogamy 
is the successor and lineal descendant of group exogamy. Unless he supposed the 
rule had been previously somewhat relaxed, it is not easy to see how Mr. Lang can 
postulate such a reversal of it. 

(e.) As to the descent of the group-names to the childreu, I am by no means sure 
that it was such a natural process as Mr. Lang conceives. Origiually birth, or even 
residence within the group, conferred the group -name we may suppose. It is clearly a 
somewhat revolutionary proceeding for not only the incomers, but even the children 
born within the group, to receive a uame other than the group-name. The fact that in our 
own day we speak of " the little Browns " is hardly on all fours. Their name is Brown, 
but Mr. Lang supposes little savages to have rebaptised " the little Bate," who already 
had personal names, and thus introduced the practice of giving surnames.. That seems 
an unlikely origin, and' agaiu I suggest the magical society as a more probable key to 
the mystery. We must not forget that, so far as personal uames are concerned, savage 
practice is the other way, and the father (and sometimes the mother) take their names 
from their children and not the other way. 

As to non-totemistic peoples with group names derived from animals, I might be 
tempted to suggest the clan Cbattau, who, thanks to a folk etymology, believe themselves 
to be descended from the cat. Are cat-superstitious specially prevalent among them ? 
But I have a better example to my hand. The Sakais of the Malay Peuiusula have 
five endogamous auimal or plant-named groups and numerous sub-groups. If, as 
Mr. Lang suggests — in answer to my point that he has not attempted to show the 
development as distinct from the gene»is of totem ism — the totemistic superstition 
was an inevitable consequence of the totem name, Mr. Lang should evidently find here 
a state of things resembliug the legendary state of the Arunta. So far as 1 know, 
nothiug of the sort exists. I submit that this is because the animal name alone is not 
adequate to evoke totemism (indeed, Mr. Lang tacitly coucedes this by agreeiug that the 
local auimal-named group did not develop totemism). 

. 8 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Hob. 2-3. 

I pointed out in my review that the idea of kinship seems too abstract a motive for 
the rise of a new law of exogamy. In hi* criticism of my remarks, Mr. Lang seems to 
think that I was combating the idea that kinship through females was a natural and early 
development, bat this is a misapprehension. It is obviously one thing to know yoar owu 
mother (kinship as a fact was, I imagine, what Darwin wrote of, the relationship of 
mother and child, not tribal or group kinship), and another to believe that all persons 
who bear your mother's name are your kindred, simply because they bear her name. 
Even if the idea of kinship did arise in this way within the totem group (and not, as is 
perhaps more probable, because all members of the totem group were engaged in the 
same magical ceremonies and akin to the same animal, and therefore to one another), 
we are still very far from a prohibition of marriage between members of the kin on 
account of the idea that they are kiu. 

One point I omitted to notice in my review I may mention here. Neither 
Mr. Atkinson nor Mr. Lang, so far as I have observed, have made any mention of the 
light the former's theories throw on Jungsteurecht. X. W. THOMAS. 

Obituary : Spencer. Brabrook. 

Herbert Spencer: born April 27 9 1S20; died December 8, 1903. q 

By E. W. Brabrook, C.B., F.S~4. V 

In the general fe?ling of regret at the loss of a great thiuker which has been 
expressed through oat the civilised world, the Anthropological Institute has a large 
share, for the life's work of Herbert Spencer was essentially an anthropological work, 
and be took occasion more than once to testify his sympathy with anthropological 
studies. It i* true that the bent of his mind, the general condition of his health, and 
the imperious demands of the wide range of thought he proposed to himself and pursued 
with so much success, led him to shun rather than to seek the membership of scientific 
societies, all of which would have been proud to enrol him on their lists, and that, in 
pursuance of this method, he never became a Fellow of the Institute ; but he contributed 
to it on June 22, 1 875, an important paper as a guide to its Fellows in the psychological 
section of the work to be undertaken by them. He gave in it u a glance over the whole 
" subject of comparative human psychology," which he divided into three portions : 
(1) The degrees of mental evolution of different human types, generally considered ; (2) 
Inquiries concerning the relative mental uatures of the sexes in each race ; (5) The 
more special mental traits distinguishing different types of men. Under the first division 
be suggested inquiry into mental mass, mental complexity, rate of mental development, 
relative plasticity, variability, impulsiveness, and the effect produced by mixture of 
races. Under the secoud, the degree of difference between the sexes, the differences in 
mass and in complexity, the variation of the differences, the causes of the differences, 
mental modifiability in the two sexes, and the sexual sentiment. Under the third, 
imitativeness, incuriosity, quality of thought, peculiar aptitudes, specialities of emotional 
nature, and the altruistic sentiments. 

Mr. Spencer showed that such a study must influence profoundly our ideas of 
political arrangements, rectify our conception of the changes gradually taking place in 
social structure, conduce to a salutary consciousness of the remote effects produced by 
institutions upon character, and help to rationalise our perverse methods of educatiou, 
and so Uj raise intellectual power and moral nature. 

Ten years afterwards Dr. Alexauder Bain observed of this paper that " thus to 
** formulate a scheme of human character is not an easy matter. It presupposes a 
" careful aualyei* of the mind, an indication of the fundamental attributes of our mental 
** nature, and some mode of estimating the degree or amouut of these several 
•* attributes/' 

l 9 J 

No. 3.1 MAN. [1904. 

Mr. Speucer, by this paper, not only displayed his sympathy with the work of the 
Anthropological Institute, especially on its psychological side, but also furnished a map 
of the country anthropologists have to explore, founded upon his owji large experience 
in that branch of investigation. 

On another occasion Mr. Herbert Spencer attended a meeting of the Institute and 
addressed some valuable observations to the Fellows present. It is to be remembered, 
moreover, that he was always ready to help any individual anthropologist who sought 
his aid, and he did not allow the absorbing nature of his own pursuits to restrain him 
from the free exchange of views with others. He was for many years an habitual 
frequenter of the Athenteum Club and a member of the X Club, which consists of ten 
eminent members of the Athena?um. His social qualities won him the esteem and 
regard of all who were admitted to his friendship, amoug whom were many of the most 
distinguished men and women of the time. It may be noted in this connection, that he 
had a great love for music. 

While we all feel regret that a prince in the realm of science and a great man has 
fallen, there is consolation in the reflections that the work to which he consecrated his 
life was completed ; that, though his health was frail, his life was prolonged beyond 
the average, and that for several years he was able to enjoy the recollection that he 
had fought the good fight and kept the faith. It is so often otherwise. So many lives 
of promise and of power are ended re infecta, with reserves of untold thought lost to 
the world for ever, that a life like Herbert Spencer's, entered upon with a clear insight 
into the work which he had to do, and persevering in that work by a powerful will in the 
face of all discouragements, till it was finally fully achieved, shines as a bright exceptioti. 

The ordinary events of his life may be recorded with little detail. He was bom at 
Derby, on the 27th April, 1820, and died at Brighton on the 8th December, 1903. 
He was the son of William George Spencer, secretary of the Philosophical Society of 
Derby, and had his early education in a school kept by his father. He was the last, and 
hence presumably the fc< fittest," survivor of thirteen children, and we have it on good 
authority that, like many great men, he resembled his mother rather than his father. 
When thirteen years of age, he went to study with his father's brother, Thomas Spencer, 
rector of Hinton Charterhouse, in the county of Somerset, to whom he owed his interest 
in economic and social questions, and who is referred to iu that connection in his Man 
v. The State. At seveuteen he began the study of the profession of a railway engineer 
under Charles Fox, and continued working at it until he was twenty-five. He then 
relinquished that profession, but not before he had made some contributions to its 
literature and invented some ingenious applications of mechanical science ; and he applied 
himself instead to general literary pursuits. In 1848 he became sub-editor of the 
Economist ', and retained that position four years. 

Among the numerous contributions which, up to that time, he had made to reviews 
and other journals, there were several that indicated the direction of his thoughts towards 
that subject which occupied the remainder of his life, notably a pamphlet published iu 
1843 on The Proper Sphere of Government ; and it was in 1831, during the time of 
his connection with the Economist that his first volume appeared under the title Social 
Statics, or the Conditions Essential to Human Happiness Specified, and the first of 
them developed. At that time, he " did not yet recognise evolution as a process co- 
" extensive with the cosmos, but only as a process exhibited iu man and iu society/ 1 
He contended that *' the ultimate man will be one whose private requirements coincide 
" with public ones. He will be that manner of man who, in spontaneously fulfilling 
" his own nature, incidentally performs the functions of a social uuit, and yet is only 
" enabled so to fulfil his own nature, by all others doing the like." 

This was followed in 1855 by the Principles of Psychology. In this work he 
traced the development of the first dawnings of intelligence to the multiplication and 

[ 10 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 3. 

co •ordination of reflex actions, and indicated that evolution was the key to all the 
problems of organic life, and thus prepared the way for the Origin of Species by Darwin, 
published in 1859, who quotes from Spencer the definition of the principle of life, that 
it u depends and consists in the incessant action and reaction of various forces, which, as 
" throughout nature, are always tendiug towards an equilibrium ; and when this tendency 
" is slightly disturbed by any change the vital forces gain in power" ; and who, in the 
Descent of Man, refers to him as "our great philosopher." 

In I860 Spencer announced the intention of applying the principle of evolution to 
the construction of a complete system of philosophy, which should show how the several 
sciences form a complete aud harmonious whole, in organic connection with one another, 
and that the universe is governed by a law of continuous development. To this under- 
taking he gave the name of a Synthetic Philosophy, and announced the intended order of 
the treatises in which it was to be developed as follows : — First Principles, 1 vol. ; 
Principles of Biology, 2 vols. ; Principles of Psychology, 2 vols. ; Principles of 
Sociology, 3 vols. ; Principles of Morality, 2 vols. 

The scheme was carried out in the following order: — First Principles, published 
1862; Principles of Biology, 1864; Principles of Psychology, being the treatise of 
1855, re-written 1870 ; Principles of Sociology, vol.'l, 1874 ; Principles of Morality, 
vol. 1, The Data of Ethics, 1879 ; Principles of Sociology vol. 2, 1882 ; Principles of 
Ethics, vol. 2, 1893 ; Principles of Sociology, vol. 3, 1896. 

Thus, after long intervals, due in some respects to the want of public support, partly 
to ill-health, partly to the vast extent of research necessary, the magnificent idea was at 
last fully realised. Not, by the way, that he himself ever considered his work perfect 
or final, for to the last he devoted all the time he had for work to the revision of 
portions of it. It was felt by Mr. Spencer's friends and admirers that the completion 
of so great an undertaking ought to be marked in some special mauner, and Mr. Speucer 
was induced to accept from them a portrait (finely painted by von Herkomer), which 
will ultimately grace the National Portrait Gallery. 

Incidentally to the monumental work itself, Mr. Spencer published a u umber of 
other essays, some arising out of the investigations set ori foot for accumulating the 
material, others called for by the events of the day or by controversies arising on the 
questions dealt with in his treatises. One of especial interest to the anthropologist is the 
compilation of anthropological facts, collected under his superintendence, and published 
under the title Descriptive Sociology. These form some of the raw material from which 
the conclusions arrived at in the Principles of Sociology have been worked out, and 
are derived from the observations of anthropologists on savage and civilised races. 
They thus illustrate the method by which the anthropological data for that portion 
of the work were brought together. Other branches of the same portion related 
to ceremonial, political, professional, ecclesiastical, and industrial institutions, and 
were founded upon similar laborious inductions. The result is that we possess 
in the Pr'niciples of Sociology a complete monograph on that important brauch of 

The portion of the Synthetic Philosophy which dealt with the principles of morality 
or of ethics, including the masterly treatise on Justice, seeks to establish on a scientific 
basis the principles of right and wrong in regard to human couduct generally, aud is 
thus the ripe fruit of thoughts on that subject which had been working in his miud ever 
since those youthful days when he published his letters on the right and wrong of political 
conduct, writteu in 1842 to The Nonconformist newspaper. In the volumes of Ethics 
and in his writings on Education, Mr. Herbert Spencer has shown how anthropological 
science may be practically applied to the good of man and the promotion of human 
progress. May it not be hoped that, as Paul Topinard has well expressed it, the teaching 
of Herbert Spencer on the necessity of developing altruism and other hereditarv 

[ ii ] 

Nos. 3-4.] 



tendencies for the better may be more effectual than even he ventured to expect, and 
that man may in time be induced to undertake the direction of his own evolution towards 
the ultimate triumph of truth, of justice, of liberty, and of enlightenment ? 


New Zealand. St. George Gray. 

A Maori Flageolet. By H. St. George Gray. m 

Mr. Edge-Partington's article in Max, 1903. 106, has forcibly reminded the writer *T 
that an equally interesting — if not so fiuely carved — wooden flageolet from New Zealand, 
has recently been acquired by the Somersetshire Archaeological Society, and is exhibited 

in Taunton Castle Museum amongst the large collection of 
archaeological and ethnographical specimens presented by 
Dr. Walter Winter Walter, of Stoke-under-Ham, Somerset. 
The flageolet, of which the accompanying are illustrations 
(front and side views, scale T \ths linear), is 610 mm. in 
length — nearly 2 feet — greatest width across centre 47 mm., 
thickness at centre 41 mm. As in the case of Mr. Edge- 
Partington's specimen, the mode of manufacture is clearly 
discernible in the side view. After being cut out of the 
solid (in the grain of the wood) aud carved, it was split 
lengthwise ; the side view well shows that the line of 
cleavage, although very fairly straight, is not perfectly so. 
The amount of wood removed by the hollow ing-out of the 
two sides was evidently considerable, as the flageolet, in its 
present state, only weighs half -a- pound. The four sets of 
lashing round the body of the instrument have all dis- 
appeared ; the photographs, however, show the position of 
them, the bauds varying in width from 20 to 29 mm. 

The aperture in the centre (23 by 1 1 mm.) is represented 
by the opened mouth of a grotesque human head in low relief, 
the right eye and the circular figure below the mouth being 
iulaid with haliotis shell. (The shell of the left eye is now 

Near the upper end is a head, length 74 mm., at a 
distance of 16 mm. from the mouth of the flageolet, round 
which is a narrow ** bead." The lashing between the head 
and the bead has also disappeared. This head or mask has 
shell eyes, the pupils, as in the case of the head below, 
forming part of the wood carving. The head is in high 
relief, the mouth aud pointed chin, as shown in the side view, 
projecting from the surface of the instrument to the extent 
of 8 mm. The protruding tongue — the usual Maori expression of defiance — does not 
exteud beyond the margin of the lower lip. In the position which would be occupied 
by the ears, were they represented, is a plain raised encircling baud, 6 mm. in width, 
connecting the head on the front half of the flageolet with the other section. The hole 
at the upper or larger end is of somewhat oval shape, 21 by 17 mm., the front or 
ornameutal side forming a deeper curve than the under half. 

At the lower end is a small head, length 35 mm., chin towards the centre. The 
eyes evidently had originally been inlaid with shell. Between the head and the knob at 
the end the binding of cane or fibre remains. 

The flageolet, judgiug from its smoothness and the wearing down of the sharp 
edges of the carved heads, has had prolonged use, and is probably a very old specimen 

[ 12 ] 



[Nob. 4-5. 

The back of the instrument differs from Mr. Edge-Partington's specimen in being 
unornamented, bnt in spite of its smooth surface, it still bears traces of the tooling which 
formed the last stage of its manufacture. II. ST. GEORGE GRAY. 

England : Archsdology. St. George Gray. 

A Cepper Celt from 8taple Fitzpaine, Somerset. By II. St. George r 


This celt, the property of the Somersetshire Archaeological Society, is exhibited at 
the head of the somewhat large series of Bronze Age implements — chiefly Somerset — 
of which Taunton Castle Museum is justly proud. Its existence was noted a few years 
ago by the Hon. John Abercromby, and is recorded by Mr. George Coffey in his paper 
on " Irish Copper Celts " in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XXXI., 
1901, p. 278, a paper of a character that was much needed at the time of its publication, 
and one which was eagerly perused by all students of the transitional period connecting 
the late Neolithic and Early Bronze Ages. This paper recalled to the minds of 

antiquaries, in a remarkable manner, how original, brilliant, and correct General Pitt 
Rivers was in his views as regards the development of bronze implements, and the 
continuity in advancement from implements of stone to those of bronze, as propounded, 
in his famous series of lectures on " Primitive Warfare," in 1867-69. 

The implement represented in the accompanying illustration, full size, was found in 
November 1857, at Staple Fitzpaine, 5 miles south-east of Taunton, and close to 
" Castle Neroehe," an eminence which towers up to the south to 905 feet above sea 
level, and where excavations have recently been conducted. (See /Vor. Sow. Arch. 
Soc, Vol. XLIX., 1903, pt. ii., pp. 23-53.) 

There appears to be no printed record of the actual finding of this copper celt. I 
say " copper " from the appearance of the metal, which has the usual red lustre of 
copper. Doubtless it contains a small percentage of tin and probably other minerals 
in small quantities, but it has not yet been analysed by an expert chemist.* 

* The wriUr would be glad to bear from an analyst who is willing to examine the implement. 

[ 13 ] 

Nos. 5-6.] MAN. [1904. 

The celt is of ibe thin, flat, triangular variety, length 112 mm., with concave 
curves at the sides. It rather closely resembles Nos. 12 and 13 of Mr. Coffey's paper, 
differing chiefly from them in having a more rounded, but irregular, butt-end. From 
the side view it will be seen that the implement tapers both ways from a maximum 
thickness of 8 mm. There is ample proof that the celt was cast, from the fact that a 
slight ridge exists along the centre of the curved sides, indicating the line of junction 
of the two sides of the mould. This ridge has been partly removed ; had this been 
completely the case, the celt would have presented an almost quadrangular cross- 
section. The expanded cutting edge (width 62 mm.) is slightly bevelled, but never, 
apparently, to a very sharp edge ; it is sharpest iu the centre of the edge, where it is 
only 1 mm. in thickness. As will be seen by the side view, there are some transverse 
incisions near the butt-end, which, of course, is not unusual. 

The surface of the celt is uu usually smooth for an implement of this description ; 
there are, however, some very slight "pittings" and striations. The weight of the celt 
is 8£ ozs. avoirdupois. H. ST. GEORGE GRAY. 

Ireland : Archaeology. Joyce. 

A Social History of Ancient Ireland, treating of the Government, Military *% 
System, and Law; Religion, Learning, and Art; Trades, Industries, and Q 
Commerce ; Manners, Customs, and Domestic Life, of the Ancient Irish People. By 
P. W. Joyce, LL.D., Triuity College, Dublin, M.R.I.A. London : Longmans, 1903. 
xxiii + 632 ; xii + 651. 23 x 14 cm. Price 21*. 

The comprehensive character of the task which Dr. Joyce has set himself in 
compiling a social history of the Irish people is indicated by the sub- title of the book 
which contains the results of his labours ; of its magnitude, evident enough to those who 
are acquainted with the material and the literature of the subject, some idea may be 
gathered from the fact that Dr. Joyce's list of authorities consulted occupies 24 pages 
of small type. Great, however, as was the undertaking, it was one for which Dr. Joyce, 
as one of the commissioners for the publication of the Ancient Laws of Ireland, was 
peculiarly qualified, and be has accomplished his task with conspicuous success. 

The materials from which the author has drawn his information are partly literary 
and partly material, these latter, of course, being the relics of the early Irish implements, 
weapons, &c, to be found in museums and private collections. The literary sources are 
many, and of varying value, as is indicated by Dr. Joyce in a judicious summary in his 
opening chapter. Among these, of course, the romantic cycles take a prominent place, 
while of equal, if not of greater value in some matters, are the Brehon Laws, with the 
publication of which the Commission has been principally concerned. Other sources of 
information which have been used are the Glosses — the author considers Cormac's 
Glossary, which he compares to desiccated soup, his most valuable and fertile source of 
information — the Martyrologies and Lives of the Saints, Annals, Genealogies, and Local 
Memoirs, and Records, and, finally, the accounts of English, Anglo-Irish, and foreign 
writers, these latter, as a rule, being of little value. Dr. Joyce's methods should serve 
as a pattern. He has brought the material evidence into close relation with the literary, 
and his conclusions are characterised by an extreme caution, no statement being made for 
which evidence cannot be brought forward from either or both sources. Although 
professedly dealing with Ireland before the Anglo-Norman Conquest, the author has not, 
of course, neglected to take cognisance of the subsequent history, and frequently illus- 
trates or explains the earlier period by reference to our knowledge of the uses and 
observances of the later. The chapters which deal with the social organisation, the 
family life, and the tenure of land, will be found particularly useful, for here the author's 

[ 14 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 6-8. 

intimate acquaintance with the Brehon Laws has been of the greatest value, and had his 
book no other merit, it would, at least, be of importance as containing, in a convenient 
and accessible form, evidence which, perhaps, has hitherto been somewhat neglected. 

It would be impossible within the limits of space at our disposal, to give an adequate 
idea of the wide and comprehensive character of Dr. Joyce's work, but enough has been 
said to iudicate its scope. It must suffice to say that no side of the life of early Ireland 
has been neglected, while, notwithstanding the size of the book, there is hardly a line 
which could have been omitted without loss. Dr. Joyce has produced a book which 
should prove of the greatest value, whether as an introduction to the detailed study of 
Irish history or as a book of reference. E. N. F. 

Pacific. Smith. 

Nimt'fekai (or Savage) Island and its People. By Percy Smith, F.R.G.S. ^ 
(From the Journ. Polynesian Soc, Vols. XI., XII.) Wellington, 1903. Pp. 133 I 
with Plates. 24 X 15 cm. 

The paper from the pen of Mr. Percy Smith which has been appearing from time to 
time in the Polynesian Society's Journal, describing Niue (Savage) Island and its inhabi- 
tants, was completed in the June number of that journal and has since been issued in 
pamphlet form. This paper has already been alluded to in Man (1903. 52) in conjunction 
with Mr. Basil Thomson's work upon the same locality ; (Savage Island. John Murray, 

Mr. Percy Smith had the opportunity of a four months* residence on the island, and 
with his already great experience of the Polynesian race has succeeded in gathering 
together a most complete history of the islaud and its people. With regard to the latter 
he is of opinion that there are two distinct types occupying opposite ends of the island 
known as Tafiti and Motu, and that the frequent state of warfare iu which these two 
people existed seems to emphasize this fact. He thinks that the Tafiti people are a later 
migration coming from the west, originally, no doubt, from the Fiji group, where the 
Polynesians sojourned so long. Tafiti is a name given by the Samoa us to Fiji, and is 
equivalent to Tahiti in Eastern Polynesia. The other name, Motu, probably applies to 
the original migration. Unfortunately they have few historical traditions, and, what is 
really very strange in a branch of the Polynesian race, no genealogies of consequence. 
In appearance, he says, they bear the greatest affinity to the Moriori of the Chatham 
Islands, more especially the men. 

The paper is full cf interesting matter well put together, and is divided into sections 
and illustrated. J. EDGE-PARTINGTON. 

Anthropology. Tylor. 

Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philo- q 
sophy, Religion, Language, Art, and Custom. By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S. Fourth edition, revised. London : Murray, 1903. Two volumes, 
pp. xii + 502 ; viii + 470. 23 x 15 cm. Price 21*. 

In a short preface to thi-, the uew edition of Primitive Culture, which has been so 
long expected and desired, Professor Tylor points out the most important alterations 
which have been necessitated by the vast amount of evideuce which has accumulated 
since the last edition of the book was published some twelve years ago. The reader 
will be surprised to find that, although, as was only to be expected, Professor Tylor's 
views have undergone some chauge, that change is, comparatively speaking, small and 
unimportant. On turning to that sectiou of the book which deals with the questiou of 
totemism we find that although a great mass of evidence has been brought to light aud 
greater attention has been devoted to the consideration of this and cognate problems 
than is, perhaps, the case with almost any other branch of anthropology, notwithstanding 
certain necessary modifications and alterations, Professor Tylor's theories remain, in all 

[ 15 ] 

Nos. 8-9.] MAN. [1904. 

essentials, unaffected. To recognise the fact that conclusions at which he arrived more 
than thirty years ago, when the first edition of the hook was published, still hold goo 1, 
is surely to pay the highest tribute to Professor Tylor's genius and scientific insight. 

E. N. F. 

Bibliography. International Catalogue. 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. P. Physical Anthropology, Q 
First Annual Issue. London : Harrison and Sons, 1903. Published for the 
International Couucil by the Royal Society of Loudou. Pp. xiii + 224, 22 x 14 cm. 
Price 10s. 6d. 

The bibliographer has a thaukless task. The qualities which bring success in the 
compilation of a bibliography — a wide rauge of knowledge, the capacity for unflagging 
attention and vigilance, and a patieuce overcome by nothiug, however tedious or laborious 
— are not common. It is, therefore, no matter for surprise that few bibliographies are 
published upon which it would not be possible to pass a more or less adverse criticism. 
But when it is remembered that the International Catalogue is compiled not in England 
alone, but in almost every European country, in the colonies, Japan, and the United 
States, and only collected and edited in England, it becomes obvious that its organisation 
allows a great possibility of divergence of view, of omission, and even of error. In 
these circumstances, those who are responsible for the publication of the present volume 
of the catalogue are to be congratulated upon the succes3 with which, on the whole, 
they have overcome the difficulties with which they have had to contend. 

The catalogue is divided into two parts : the tirst, the author's catalogue, consists of 
a list of papers and books, published in 1901, arranged under the authors' names in 
alphabetical order. In the second, the subject catalogue, the papers are arranged 
according to the subject with which they deal, a duplicate entry being made when a paper 
deals with more than one subject. Admirable as this arrangement is in theory, it cannot 
be said to have been quite successful in practice, though this is a fault of the schedule 
rather than of the general plan. The schedule of the subject catalogue contains far too 
great a number of subdivisions. To catalogue some papers adequately under the schedule 
would require at least twelve separate entries, a proceeding obviously impossible, if only 
on the ground of expense. An attempt has therefore been made to steer a middle course 
by making use of the " general " headings of the sections when two or three entries 
under the subsections were required, a fact which should be borne in mind by those who 
use the catalogue in work dealing with a section only of auy particular subject. 

At the time of the publication of the schedules much dissatisfaction was expressed 
that only physical anthropology should have been included in the catalogue, and owing 
to the representations of a section of the delegates, certain changes were made to meet 
the views of those who desired the catalogue to cover the whole field of anthropology. 
Certain further changes have been made during the preparation of the first issue, which 
have made it possible to compile a catalogue which, as far as its scope is concerned, will 
prove eutirely satisfactory to those who were responsible for the early changes in the 
schedule. It is somewhat misleading, however, that the title " Physical anthropology " 
should be retained. 

These criticisms apart, however, the catalogue is a monumental achievement and 
reflects great credit on all who were in any way connected with it. It should prove 
absolutely invaluable to those engaged in the study of the subjects with which it deals. 
Practically every paper of auy importance, whether published separately or in a periodical, 
has been included. There are, of course, omissious. Some couutries, \vc are told in the 
preface, had not, at the time of publication, seut in material ; but the general value is 
not seriously impaired by this. We may, however, hope that all countries will recognise 
the importance of sending in details so that the catalogue may become even more 
international in character than it is at present. II. 8. K. 

Printed by Kyre and Spottiswoode, His Maiestv's Printer*, Last Harding Street, E.C. 

Plats D. 

Man, 1904. 




[No. 10. 


England : Arohseology. With Plate B. Treacher. 

On the Occurrence of Stone Implements In the Thames Valley 4A 
between Reading and Maidenhead. By Llewellyn Treacher, F.G.S. IU 

The district to which the following notes refer is that part of the Thames valley 
which lies between Reading and Maidenhead. Covering the preseut bottom of the 
valley and resting on terraces at various heights on either side are deposits of gravel, 
sand, and loam, in which stone implements have been found. It is not intended to give 
a complete list of all the isolated finds, but only to notice those localities where con- 
siderable numbers occur within a small area. From the bed of the present stream, and 
occasionally from excavations made in the gravel at the same level, many neolithic celts, 
both of the chipped and polished 


P • MlXOilTMK riMM 

H - NfOllTMK nwos 


varieties, have been obtained at 
Tilehurst, Bourne End, and 
Maidenhead. At no inter- 
vening place have more than 
one or two been found. Surface 
finds are also more abundant 
near Tilehurst and Maidenhead 
than anywhere else in the 
district. The inference is that 
these places were, in neolithic 
times, fords where fighting took 
place, or they may have been 
the resorts of big game hunters. 
In either case the axe-heads 
were dropped into the river and 
covered with gravel or sand if 
at any time the stream shifted 
its course. 

Implements of the paleolithic age are far more numerous in the district than those 
of the neolithic* Most of them occur in the terrace gravels at heights of from 60 to 
120 feet above the bottom of the valley. Above the village of Caversham there is a 
spread of gravel resting on a chalk hill at a level of about 114 feet above the river. 
In an old pit at Toot's Farm, now built over, the following section was shown : — 

Ft. In. 

5. Stony soil, about -..--- 

4. Sandy gravel with large unrolled flints and pebbles, with 
flint implements, about - - 

3. Fine shingly gravel - 

2. Hard compact gravel - 

1. Chalk. 
The continuity of the section was much broken by pipes in the underlying chalk 
into which the gravel had sunk, but there was no indication of these pipes on the surface 
of the ground. Most of the implements were found at the base of No. 4, and they were 
very abundant. From an area of a quarter of au acre at least 600 or 700 perfect 
specimens were obtained by collectors, besides innumerable flakes and broken and 
unfinished implements. Many more had been broken on the roads before their existence 
was recognised, and many probably still exist under the houses. The prevailing type 
was that known as the pear-shaped with a cutting edge all round, but more pointed 
forms were not uncommon. Most of the specimens showed good secondary chipping, 

I " ] 




No. 10.] 



%*t'a1Vr«M •»•» 



and few had any signs of wear. Two or three were made of quartzite pebbles, and the 
common size was 4 to 6 inches in length. 

On the opposite side of the valley, and at a level of about 75 feet above the river, 
a deposit of gravel, about 12 or 14 feet thick, extends across the tongue of land between 
the Thames and Kennet. Many excavations have been made in it, and in most of them 
i m plemeuts 
have been 
found. From 
one large pit 
in particular, 
known as the 
Grovelands or 

Tilehurst Road pit, some hundreds have been collected. They appear to occur at all 
depths in the gravel, and most of them are more or less rolled and worn. The 
common type is an oval with cutting edge all round, and the usual size is not more than 
4 inches. With them are also found many large flakes, fresh and sharp, but without 
any secondary chipping. Bones and teeth of mammoth, horse, deer, &c. are common in 
this gravel, which rests on clay and sand of the Reading beds. 

Lower down the valley, on the south side, in the parishes of Sonning and Woodley, is 
an extensive terrace of gravel at a height of from 60 to 95 feet above the river. In two pits 
by the side of the London and Bath road at Charvil Hill and Sonning Hill, and also along 
the top of the Great Western Railway cutting, manv implements have been found. There 
is no particular type characteristic of this locality. Pointed, oval, and intermediate forms 
all occur. One very fine-pointed specimen 9 inches long was found at the eastern end of 
the railway cutting. Some of the implements are much rolled and broken, while a few 
are quite sharp and fresh. Flakes are rare. The gravel is about 8 or 10 feet thick, i» 
well stratified, and rests on clay. 

Crossing the Loddon at Twyford we find what appears to have been a continuation 
of the last-mentioned terrace. At Ruscombe at a level of about 60 feet above the river 
there is a considerable extent of gravel of small thickness resting on sands and clay of 
the Reading beds. While the gravel was being removed to get at the underlying clay 
many implements were obtained. They are usually in a fairly fresh and unworn condi- 
tion. The commonest types are a long oval form and smaller ones somewhat similar to 
the Caversham specimens. Large pointed ones also occur. 

A few have been found at Shiplake on the opposite side of the Thames Valley at a 

level of 90 feet 
above the river, 
but although 
there are ter- 
races of gravel 
at similar levels 
to those already 
mentioned, few, if any, implements have been met with in the valley round by Henley 
and Mar low. 

Between Cookham and Maidenhead they occur again in great numbers. In a large 
pit at Cookham, 85 feet above the river, at least 200 have been found. There is no 
characteristic type, nearly all known forms being met with, and most of the specimens 
are more or less rolled and worn. 

A similar account may be given of several pits nearer Maidenhead, but there is, or 
was, one about midway between that place and Cookham, near the hamlet of Furze 
Piatt, at a level of 75 feet above the river, in which many implements have been found 
together with quantities of flakes. The gravel here, which rests on chalk, is about 

I 18 ] 

SKi^WW *• 




[Nob. 10-11. 

8 feet thick, but nearly all the worked flints occurred within 2 feet of the bottom. 
The most noticeable thing about these is the small amount of labour their makers 
expended on them. A very few blows seem to have been sufficient to bring the flints 
to the required shape, and of secondary chipping there is often little or none. The 
average size is small, although a few large and massive specimens have been fouud. 
Many are pointed with uu wrought butts, some have a straight axe-like cutting edge, 
and shoe-shaped forms are not uncommon. There is no prevailing type, and yet it is 
not difficult to identify implements from this pit. Probably 500 or 600 have been 
obtained in all, besides flakes and wasters. 

While there is considerable difference in the types of the implements from the 
various localities in the districts, there is little evidence to show whether there was any 
progress or otherwise in their manufacture during the period in which their makers lived 
here. Those from Caversham, which are the highest, and presumably the earliest, have 
more and finer chipping on them than those from Furze Piatt 40 feet lower down, but it 
should be remembered that palaeolithic man made his implements for use and not for the 
cabinet of the modern collector, and he may have considered it a sign of progress to be 
able to attain his desired end quickly by a few well-directed strokes rather than by 
laborious secondary chipping. 

As to the way in which the implements came into their present position in the gravel, 
Caversham and Furze Piatt, where so many flakes are found, may well have been working 
sites on the banks of the river, where suitable flints were easily obtainable ; while such 
a place as Grovelands, with its abundant mammalian remains, was a spot where large 
beasts were killed or drowned and their careases cut up for food. In any case it appears 
that palaeolithic implements occur together in groups in the older gravels much in the 
same manner as neolithic implements do in the later ones at the present level of the 


Nigeria. Martin. 

Notes on some Native Objects from Northern Nigeria. Being 
Extracts from a Letter frotn E. F. Martin, Local Correspondent of the Anthropo- 
logical Institute. 

I am taking up the train of my previous letter to you in which I described some of 
the objects I had already secured (cf. Man, 1903. 87). 

I was delighted a few days ago to get hold of a welcome addition in the form of a bell 
used among many of the pagan tribes in these territories when on the war-path, or when 
intending to pounce down on some caravau which happens to be passing through their 
country. This bell is of peculiar 
shape, and is sounded by beating it 
with a detached piece of wood or 
iron. The accompanying sketch 
(Fig. a) is a rough drawing of the 
bell. It is not circular, but rather 
oval-shaped, as can be seen by the 
section (Fig. b). This instrument 
is found on the south bank of the 
Benue, as well as in the large stretch 
of country between the Niger and 
that river, right up to the Hausa 

A dagger I have lately secured 
is a very good type of Muntshi metal work. The handle is a loop of iron which slips 
over the hand and serves as an aid to the fingers when pulling the string of the bow 

[ 19 ] 

Nob. 11-12.] MAN. 0904. 

when the arrow is fixed. The blade is shaped like a spear-head. When worn, the blade 
is at the back of the hand. A ridge runs down the centre of the blade from the handle 
to the point. The loop handle is decorated in rope and herring-bone patterns. The 
weapon is about eight inches long, the blade alone being about four and a half inches 
long and one aud a half to two inches wide. 

Another Muntshi article I have secured is a string of beads made from the scales of 
a fish, and worn by women around the waist over the hips. The beads are flat 
discs, one inch in diameter, and often circular ; they appear to be greatly sought after 
by the women. 

A species of battle-axe used by the pagans hereabouts gives a good idea of their 
style of work. The axe-head is long and narrow. The handle is of hard wood, the hole 
in which the metal blade is fixed being generally, if not always, burnt through. The length 
of the blade is about fourteen inches, and the handle eighteen inches. The usual primitive 
rectilinear forms of decoration are found, as a rule, on the blade. 

The Muntshis make their own cloth ; a coarse cloth, certainly, but well woven and 
strong. To the eye, a piece of this cloth, such as I bought the other day, looks like 
bagging, but is very soft. I am collecting various specimens. As a general rule they 
do not trouble to dye their cloth. The women wear a strip about the waist ; the men 
very often wear no clothing at all. 

The Muntshi arrow poison is very virulent, causing deadly pain and cramps, and 
death from tetanus, generally, within half an hour. The arrow heads are long, 
pointed and barbed, and are fixed on to the shafts by a tang run up into the reed, which 
is then securely bound round. The whole head is then dipped into the poison, which is 
allowed to dry. 

The arrow head is perhaps two inches long. The whole arrow about three feet. 
The bow is made of a piece of hard, pliable wood, and is about four feet from tip to tip. 
The string is made of hide. The bow is without decoration. 

I am unable at present to let you have a photograph of the Muntshi type. The 
country is hostile aud quite inaccessible from here by an officer in my position. Still, 
I hope to secure some photos of this interesting and warlike people some day, if not in 
person, at any rate, through some of my friends. 

An ivory Muntshi wristlet (Fig. c) is also among my specimens. This ornament is 
not completely round, but opeu to allow passage to the wrist at one side. On the back 
cau be noticed a projection. 

I have never yet seen a bracelet in this country made to open and shut on a hinge, 
they are all on the principle of this primitive Muntshi ornament — even the best 
Mabommedan work that I have met not excepted. £. F. MARTIN. 

England : Archaeology. Clinch. 

Coldrum, Kent, and its relation to 8tonehenffe. By George Clinch, 4j% 
F.G.S. XL 

The district which lies immediately to the north-west of Maidstone is remarkable 
for its interesting series of prehistoric megalithic remains, none of which have yet 
received from archaeologists the attention they deserve. The best known of these 
monuments is Kits Coty House, a cromlech which stands out boldly on the south-western 
slope of North Downs, near Blue Bell Hill,, Aylesford. The capstoue, which is in situ, 
is supported by three nearly upright stones arranged in plan like the letter H. As this 
structure is divested of its earthen mound it is easy to see that the large stones of which 
it is composed are masses of Sarsen stone in their natural forms, and entirely free from 
artificial shaping. 

Lower down the hill is a fallen cromlech, originally of more elaborate, complicated, 
and ambitious character. These remains are locally known as "the countless stones." 

t 20 ] 

1904.) MAN. [No. 12. 

In Addingtou ± ark, nearly six miles W.S.W. from Kits Coty House, are several 
other megalithic remains, more or less displaced or overturned, but notable for the large 
size of the stones of which they are composed. 

To the north of Addington Park, and at a distance of less than two miles, stands 
Coldrum, or Coldreham, at once the most remarkable' and the least known of the whole 

The site of Coldrum is sufficiently elevated to command extensive views over the 
Medway valley, including Kits Coty House. It is in a lonely spot, away from the main 
road, and visitors do not often find their way to it. It is not surprising, therefore, to 
find that very little has been written about this ancient monument, but it in remarkable 
to find that those* who have published descriptions do not seem to have observed 
the regular form of the stones, which, in the opinion of the present writer, is its most 
important and characteristic feature. 

The remains of Coldrum comprise a central cromlech without capstone, an 
irregular line of large blocks of stone on the western side, and traces of tumulus. 

The cromlech, which is still partly buried in earth, consists of (i.) two very massive 
upright blocks of stone, that to the south being 7 feet above the surface of the ground, 
1 1 feet long, and 2 feet 3 inches thick, whilst the other stone, standing parallel with 
it, nearly 5 feet to the north, is of slightly smaller dimensions ; (ii.) two large 
stones lying at the western end of the cromlech ; and (iii.) two stones about midway 
between the uprights, the remains probably of a dividing partition cutting the space 
between the upright slabs into two parts, and so forming two adjoining sepulchral 

There is no reason to believe that the two stones at the western end are the actual 
blocks by which the mouth of the chamber was originally closed ; those to the east 
have probably fallen down the steep slope which has been caused at that point by 
digging for chalk. 

The size of the upright stones at Coldrum is remarkable, and their regularity of 
form is a point of eveu greater importance. 

The supporting stones at Kits Coty House have a distinct slope inwards, giving 
irregular forms to the sepulchral chambers, but at Coldrum the upright stones are 
approximately vertical , 
and the chambers were 
doubtless of regular and 
symmetrical shape. 

The irregularly - 
placed stones, enclosing 
a small space on the 
western side of the 
cromlech, represent a 
part only of what was 
probably a quadrangu- 
lar or oblong enclosure 
placed at the foot of 
the tumulus by which fio. 1.— coldrum. kest : ground plan of the cromlech and 
the whole cromiech was undisturbed stones around it. the disturbed stones on 


OTigiually concealed. 

Seventeen of these massive stones remain in what is probably their original position, 

but the remainder, on the north-east side and in continuation of the north and south 

• W. M. Klin ler.s IVtrie, Archreologia Cuntiana, Vo'. XIII., pp. 14, 16; and George Payne, 
Collectatiea Cantiana (1893), pp. 139-141. 

[ 21 ] 


« t 

<o&0* o 

i. ». — * 

No. 12.) 




X)0 <30 


O c>cd 

W10, J.— SIEV1 «il{i»VNH I' I, AN Off THE CROMFIi M 



-, have uufortuuately I- bed in the process* of i i jf%llc 

already mentioned* 

The arrangement of the -t.»iM- of the Ooldnim OrOBllfl I ally one of groat 

rarity (#<?<? Fig* I)." A 
central cromlech 
luining two sepulchral 
mounted und 

•ughlv nqnare or 
Obtoilg tomnlu-. the 
sides of whieh 

partly supported aud 
clearly outlined bjf a 
line of stone blocks of 
laracter. The 
whole structure sug- 
gests a lale data iti t lie 
neolithic age, a period of development when the form of the sepulchral chambers 
was followed out in the construction of the mound. 
An interesting example of n 

features In common with that i 

nun, exist^ at Si. m frD, in Hanover* 

ti admirably illustrated by 

plan (see Fig. 2), photographic I LI 
ami biief description by Friedr. Tewes 
in Die Stdngraber der Provinz Hon* 
novt I, and although it is Larger 

than I he Coldrum example, it presents 
the same ohloug cromlech caused by 
the double sepulchral chamber, and 
tin* aatue oblong em t blocks 

ol stone following the form of the 

The regular form of the uptight 
DOS «i ( oldrum is ■ matter of con- 
siderable importance, and differentiates 
this from the other niegalitbic remains 
of Kent, The good proportions and 
regular, flat surfaces are, in the writer's 
opinion, suggestive of artificial shaping 
ami perhaps dressing (jtee Fig. 3).f if 
this view be not accepted, urnl if it be 
held that, the forms are natural, it is 
still fairly obvious that the careful St 
tion of appropriate stones [ndieati 
degree of culture aud J appreciation of 
form equally indicative of a late period in the neolithic age. Indeed, n<» one who is 

* J am indebted to Mr. E, H. W, nankins plan in T%6 FIj tot this 

illustration, and niy thanks are due to Mr. Dunkin for bis kind permission to reproduce it In 

f Unfortunately it ll j to the surrounding treefl ml the unfavourable 

nature of the ground, to get a photographic flew at close quarters* 






nLu /, 


30LDBUM, W of 

rn< vst. 

fttE CHOM 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 12-13. 

• familiar with Stonehenge caii fail to recognise the general similarity existing between 
the forms of its upright stones and those of Coldrum. 

Most writers ou the subject of Stonehenge have found it difficult to explain how the 
stones, of which that celebrated circle is composed, were conveyed to their present 
position on Salisbury Plain ; whilst the means by which they were brought into regular 
form, and reared to an upright position have long awaited reasonable and satisfactory 
explanation. These points, as well as the larger questions of the age and purpose of 
Stonehenge were entirely and fully explained in Professor Go w land's paper on the subject 
read, in December, 1901. before the Society of Antiquaries of London.* 

The squared condition of the stones is one of the most remarkable features of 
Stonehenge, and it was long held by archaeologists that it involved the use of metal 
tools, and that the period to which the circle should be ascribed could uot by auy 
possibility be earlier than the age of bronze. Both these conclusions have been disproved 
by Professor Go w land's recent discoveries. It has been shown that the rough shaping 
and dressing of the stones have been produced by tools made of quartz ite boulders and 
flint. The absence of ancient metal objects among the discoveries at Stonehenge, and 
the presence of stone tools by which the shaping could be produced, form good reasons 
for placing Stonehenge within, but probably at the latter end of, the stone age. 

In some repects there is a striking similarity between Coldrum and Stonehenge. In 
both we find that artificially-shaped stones are employed, and in both we have the idea of 
enclosure within a line of stones. Both, too, may be fairly referred to the end of the 
neolithic age. But here the parallel ends, because Coldrum was obviously a sepulchral 
pile, whilst Stonehenge, although following to some extent the same arrangement, was 
conceived on a more ambitious scale, and probably designed for a very different purpose. 

The megalithic structures of Kent furnish a valuable series illustrative of the 
constructive skill of the neolithic race. Kits Coty House is particularly interesting 
from this point of view. We there see that, although the stones are entirely unworked, 
great care and skill have been used in the construction. The two main upright stones 
(answering to the two perpendicular sides of the letter H) are really leaning somewhat 
inwards and resting against the middle upright, which is at right angles to them. In 
this way the pressure of the weighty capstone is so distributed as to strengthen the 
whole structure ; and, although Kits Coty House has lost its tumulus, and is situated on 
the side of a hill, where, owing to rain-wash and agricultural operations, one would not 
expect to find very good foundations, the cromlech still stands in its original position. 

At Coldrum, however, we see a distinctly higher development of constructive skill. 
The cromlech has been so built that the upright stones stand erect, although no capstone 
remains to hold them firmly in position. 

Much of this venerable monument has already been disturbed, and this accounts for 
the blank part left to the north-east of the dotted line in Fig. 1, but it is most desirable 
that what remains should be carefully preserved, and it should certainly be placed under 
the provisions of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act. GEORGE CLINCH. 

Slam : Folklore. Annandale. 

The Dynastic Qenius of* 81am. By Nelson Annandale, B.A. *q 

It is well known among Oriental scholars and students of comparative religion 10 
that the kings of Siam, as of many other Eastern states, were formerly regarded as being 
superhuman, and that their sacred persons were treated with a most elaborate ceremonial. 
Though the present monarch, King Chulalongkorn, has abolished much of the ritual with 
which his predecessors were treated, this feeling is still strong among the Siamese. 
There is one point, however, with regard to the kingship of Siam ou which I would be 
very grateful for further information, viz., the provenance of the belief that there is a 

* Itecent Excavation* at Stonehenge. Archrrofcgia, Vol. LVIII., pp. 37-118. 

[ -'3 ] 

Hob. 13-14.] MAN. [1904. 

captive Genius or demi-god imprisoned in the palace at Bangkok. This Genius is 
known in Lower Siam as the Red Lord (Phra Deng in Siamese and Tuan Merah in 
Malay.) I was told in 1901 by a Patalung Siamese, a clerk in the Government offices 
in Jalor, that the Red Lord was a dewa or demi-god who flew down from heaven (surga) 
at the commencement of the preseut Siamese era, namely, that of Bangkok, at the end 
of the eighteenth century, a.d., and that it was still kept in chains in the king's house 
in the capital, having the appearance of a red man with wings. He said that if it 
escaped the present dynasty of kings would come to an end, and the kingdom would 
probably cease to be independent. He also said that the symbolical figure on the 
modern Siamese coinage was a likeness of the Red Lord. I have heard in Lower Siam 
that one of the reasons why the Mohammedan rajas tributary to Siam object to the pre 
sentation of the gold and the silver tree (Bung a Mas and Bunga Perak), which it is 
customary for inferior princes to send to their superior, is, that they consider this act not 
only a coufession of dependence but also an act of idolatry or devil-worship, all offerings 
of the kind being formally presented to the Red Lord before the king receives them. I am not 
aware whether there is an image of the Red Lord in the palace at Bangkok, or whether 
the payment of tribute is accompanied by any ceremony of a dramatic or symbolical 
nature ; indeed, this is another point ou which I should be glad of information. It is, of 
course, possible that the whole story as told me was the product of some Malay raja's 
subtle brain. The Royal Family of Siam are naturally believed by ignorant peasants to 
have all the resources of magic at their disposal, in addition to whatever supernatural 
merit there may be in their descent. For example, it is believed that the late king had 
oue of bis sons tatooed in such a way that he became possessed of what the Malays call 
"the great science" (hilmu besar), namely, the art of becoming invisible, so that he 
might spy upon the officials of the kingdom. But I do not know of any other modern 
king who is believed to keep a captive celestial god, in whom the fortunes of his royal 
house are embodied, and whose escape would be the ruin of his state. Malay rajas, 
however, are protected by a " State Demon " (Jin Karoja-an) (Skeat, Malay Magic* 
p. 40), which does not appear to differ much from any other spirit, being no more than 
the protecting spirit, or perhaps the * soul,* of the royal trumpet, which it guards agaiust 
the touch of the profane. Nor do I know whether the same individual is the protector 
of all Malay Princes, but seeing that I have obtained very definite evidence of an 
underlying and somewhat esoteric pantheism, or pandemonism, in the religion of the 
Malays, at any rate in the Siamese states, this is not, perhaps, a point of much importance. 
In any case, the idea of a spirit chained in bodily presence would appear to be a 
primitive one. N. ANNANDALE. 

Malay : Folklore. Hervey. 

The Legends of Bukit Dato' B&tu QMong and of Tanjuno; Tuan am 

(Oape Rachado) in Malacca. By D. Hervey, C.M.G. It 1 

About fourteen miles inland, nearly due north of Malacca Town, in the parish of 
Macbap, lies a hill called Bukit Dato' Batu Gedong, i.e., "the Hill of the Elder of 
Warehouse Rock."f The base of this hill joins that of another of considerably greater 
height and size, known as Bukit Besar (" Great Hill "), the slopes of which are covered 
with large granite boulders. There is, as may be expected amongst Malays, a legend 
accounting for this name, which runs as follows : — 

All the country round, down to the present coast line, used to l>e sea, and Batu 
Ggdong was the ship of the Dato' whose name was Saiyid Hitam, and who used to sai 

* Malaka, a tree bearing a green fruit, used in pickles and also medicinally (Phyllanthu* jwct't- 
natus). At one time the botanical name was Phyllanthu* emblica , at another Emblica officinalis, the 
term emblica being apparently the European effort to copy the Sanskrit name dmalaka, from which 
the Malay name derives. The root word is the Sanskrit A »<la, acid. 

t " Hill, elder, rock or stone, warehouse," because of the square hou9e-like shape of the rock. 

[ 24 ] 

1W>4.] MAN. [No. 14. 

about the East to Acheh (Acheen in Sumatra) and Stambnl (Constantinople) trading. 
The name Saiyid means a descendant of the prophet through his daughter Fatimah ; so 
all the Saiyids claim to be, but a great many Arab adventurers have laid claim to it 
without any right, and even forge papers to support their claims. Hi tarn means black ; 
it is a common proper name amongst Malays. This Saiyid had a son named AH Sultan 
(eminent, noble, conqueror), who had two vessels of his own. Ali Sultan bad an uncle 
uamed Malin D£wa, # of Bukit Panchur Darat, who was a great Pawangt (medicine- 
man). Every month or two Malin Dewa used to go to Batu Sabong near Bukit Panchur 
LautJ and have a cockfight. He went down there with his nephew, and lost at the 
cockfight. Then lie prepared to sail for Stambul via Pulau Bgsar§ and Java (i.e., the 
Straits of Sunda). While making their preparations for the voyage ihey found that 
Dato' Saiyid Hitam had already set sail without waiting for them. Ali Sultan, enraged 
at this, with the aid of Malin D&wa, pronounced a curse which wrecked the Dato's 
ship and turned it to stone, but, before it turned into stone, it broke in two, and this is 
marked by the cleft iu the rock, where the Dato' used afterwards to keep his fowls and 
goats, aud a pestle and mortar ; these latter people have since removed. This " turning 
to stone " is a favourite incident in Malay legend. 

The Dato', after his ship was turned to stone, used to live in the cave under the 
rock. Malin Dewa and Ali Sultan were also wrecked on the way, while the latter's 
ships wore likewise turned into stone, and form what is now known as Bukit Prahu 
(** vessel hill "). At the same time all this part of the couniry was turned from sea into 

While Bukit Dato' Batu GSdoug is much smaller than Bukit BSsar, the rock from 
which it takes its name is a fine block, the dimensions being about 50 ft. in length, 
20 ft. in height, and 30 ft. in depth before you come to the cleft, behind which the rock 
extends some way further back. 

The rock overhangs iu front, a portion of the base not reaching the ground ; this 
part forms the cave occupied by the Dato\ It contains a few boulders, and in a 
considerable part of it a man can stand upright. It may measure about 15 ft. by 6 ft. 

Another legend of the neighbourhood relates that Dato 1 An tan BSsi] used to trade 
with Pinang (the island and settlement of that name, derived from u pinang," the areca 
palm, Areca catechu), but he having became bankrupt his ship was turned to stone at 
Gadek, where it remains on the plain. 

After that be removed to J 2 m Sn tang, near Machap, where people still go and pay 
their vows. 

The Antau Best and Lgjong Bat tit are still to be seen, it is said, at Gunong 
Angsi, a mountain range ## forming part of the boundary line between the States of 
Rcmbauff and Sungai Hujong.JJ 

This Dato' An tan Bcsi had the reputation of great physical strength, being in the 
habit, according to the legend, of hauling his three-masted ship ashore all by himself. 

• Malin, probably con up ted from the Arabic Mallim, learned {Mualim, intrepid in battle, and 
Muslin, a revealer, are possible alternatives) ; Deuxi, saint, deity, genie. 

t Cf. Amer. Ind. " Pow-wow." 

\ Panchur, spout ; Ltiut, sea, t>., Spout Hill near the coast, to distinguish it from the preceding 
Bukit Panchur inland, which Hmilarly has Darat, " inland/' added to it. 

§ The chief of the Water Islands about eight miles south of Malacca. 

|| Elder of the (ft&f) iron (jintan) pestle. 

^ '* Stone mortar, Le*u»g, mortar." The rice-pounding mortars are commonly made of wood, a 
heavy piece with a hollow scooped in it. 

•• Gunong means " mountain." 

If Said to derive by a kind of metathesis from the merhau tree, yielding a very five timber, Afzelia 
palembanica, one of the T<egumino8fe. 

XX Sungai "river"; HujimgJ' point. 

r 25 ] 

Nob. 14-15.] MAN. [1904. 

There is more than oue Hercules in Malay legend. The noted Si Badang has more than 
one State claiming him. 

Cape Rachado ( Tanjung Tuan,* so named by the Portuguese) -lies al>out thirty 
miles N.W. of the port of that name extending well out into the Straits of Malacca. 
Round the point meet powerful currents, which in unfavourable weather become so 
dangerous, that all vessels give the point known as Ptilau Intanf a wide berth. 

On the south side of the main promontory is a beautiful little bay known as TSluk 
Rubiah (Teluk means " bay "). The name Rubtah is taken from that of a pious lady 
reputed to have given herself up to devotion ou a rocky islet close by called Pulau 
MeVjid (" mosque-island "). She is stated to have been buried on the shore of the bay 
which bears her name. To the left of the landing-place a large mass of quartzite rock 
projects from the hill, near the foot of which are two never-failing springs of clear 
water. At this rock the votaries pay their vows. 

This lady is supposed, according to one native account, to object to vessels passing 
that way, and when she wishes them ill and desires to wreck them, she causes loud 
explosions as of artillery to be heard at the point. This has reference, no doubt, to the 
reverberations of the surf among the rocky cavities of the headland in rough weather. 

Before the construction of the lighthouse on the top of the hill the remains of an 
old kramat were visible there. A kramat is a spot sacred from the presence of the 
tomb of a holy person, or from some natural object to which special powers are attributed, 
due to the protection of some supernatural being ; at such places people of various races 
aud faiths are wont to pay their vows, coming from long distauces for the purpose. J 
The place was known as " Padang Chauti."§ D. HERVEY. 

Early Britain. Codringfam. 

Roman Roads in Britain. By Thomas Codringrou, M.Insi.C.E., F.G.S. *p 
With large chart of the Roman roads, and small maps in the text. London : 1 9 
Society for Promotiug Christian Knowledge, 1903. Pp. iv + 392. 11 x 17 cm. Price 5*. 

This book, forming part of a series which has for its aim the presentation of 
Early Britain at great historic periods, treats at considerable length the question of the 
Roman road system in England aud the south of Scotland. The subject is, perhaps, an 
academic one and does uot lend itself to anything but detailed exposition ; and this 
Mr. Codrington has sought to give. 

Unlike other branches of Roman archaeology the study of the remaius of these 
communications has very little attraction in itself ; indeed, except in isolated cases such 
as that of the paved causeway over Blackstoue Edge, some four miles from Rochdale, 
the remains of a Roman road are not at all likely to attract the attentiou of a casual 
observer. The variations in the methods of construction due to local peculiarities of 
material aud situation, render it very difficult to lay down any geueral definition of a 
Roman road to be used as a test in doubtful cases ; and the popular belief that Roman 
roads were invariably straight is refuted by numerous instances to the contrary, generally 
occasioned by the need for gentler gradients or safer defence. Thus the two obvious 
criteria — Vitruviau regularity of construction and unswerving directness — seem to be 
put out of court to a great extent. But the fact remains that in many cases a road 

* Tanjung, "point," " headland" ; Tuan, "lord,"' "master," but also, as in this Cise, according to 
legend, applied to the other sex. Here the Titan is " Tuan Petri" the princess of Mount Ophir, a fairy 
being said to have left the print of her foot on Gunong Dato' in Rembau— an anything but fairy-like 
print!— on her way back to Mount Ophir. 

f Intan, "diamond " from the quartz crystals to be found in the rocks. 

X From the Arabic karamat, venerable, also a miracle, from harm, a religious man. 

§ Padang means a plain or level spot, Chantik or Chanteh means " pretty," but I was assured it 
was neither, but Chanti, for which no meaning could be found. 

[ 2(5 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Wo. i5 # 

known to be of great age and in parts showing signs of careful construction with layer* 
of stone covered with gravel and grouted with inortar, coiuoidea with the natural shortcut 
way from one Romau station to another ; and this in the case of suoh a road as Watllng 
Street receives corroboration from the Antonine Itinerary. The subject of tho Itineraries 
is so beset with difficulties that it is, perhaps, enough to say that Mr. Codriugton has 
dealt with it somewhat briefly in his introduction. The identification of place names is 
always hazardous, and the ease with which the numerals donotiug distanoe oiut he 
falsified is clearly shown by Horsley's emendations in his Britannia liamana. 

Mr. Codriugton's work, then, started naturally with tho observation of those known 
roads, the Watling Street, Erming Street, Riknild Way, Fobs Way, and so forth ; but 
incidentally the ramificatious of side roads from such " trunk lines " called for study ; 
and it is iu the detection of Roman " branch lines " that the charm and the danger of 
the work lies. Iu many cases, indeed, old limits, such as parish and county boundaries, 
throw considerable light on the subject ; but it would seem that in many cases the Roman 
road was deserted after the Roman evacuation of Britain, and such traffic as thore was 
passed along older lines, such as British trackways, or struck out new coursos for itself. 

This seems to have been the case at least with Ickueild or Ikuild Street, which, 
though it in parts coincides with Roman branch roads (as from Newmarket to Chester- 
ford), seems in general to represent a highway of other time*. Thus it may happen 
that parish boundaries, though of extreme antiquity, do not follow Roman, but other 
tracks ; and in general it may be said that where undoubted Roman remains do not exist 
in the vicinity, no tests of mere directness or of demarcation of districts can be held as 
proof of Roman origin. Nor can stress be laid on the* presence of such names as 
Stratton, High Street, Cold harbour, and so forth, which, indeed, in mauy cases actually 
occur in connection with Roman remains, but in others are found to be due to the 
influence of ecclesiastical Latin, i>., to the presence of a mediaeval monastery. 

A glance at Mr. Codriugton's map will show the extremely fragmentary state of 
our knowledge of the course of Roman roads in this country ; in many cases a branch 
road that strikes boldly oat for some distance from a main line dies away in uncertainty 
without pointing to any definite goal. And it is, perhaps, unfortunate that the supposed 
course of such roads should be represented at all upon a map which purports to be 
scientifically constructed ; fact and conjecture are not sufficiently distinguished. That 
the Romans ever pUnned a complete road system we cannot be sure ; for rapid transport 
of troops such highways as were necessary were no doubt constructed as need arose, and 
afterwards maintained, but the making of branch roads must have l>eeu largely dictated 
by private interests, and mauy of the apparent " deverticula ** may have been little more 
than lengthy drives to the villa of some local magnate. This view of the incompleteness 
of the road system is borne out by similar facts in Italy, and may perhaps acexmut for 
the difficulty of rapid mobilisation of troop* that more than onee confronted the Rowans 
upon the outbreak of disturbances iu unexpected quarters. 

It is not, therefore, possible to hope to make a diagram of Roman communications 
as perfect a* a mil way map ; and, perhaps, it is not unfair to say that in this respect the 
archaeologist must find Mr. Codriugton's book somewhat imperfect. To criticise it in 
detail would \m itnpo»*ible without undertaking the Labour of personally going over all 
the ground covered by the book : and how great thst labour would be it is easy to tell 
from the perusal of a single chapter, 

Mr. CodriugtouV book cannot claim to be so much a contribution to the general 
literature on Rouuau Britain, a* a paiuttak iug survey of numerous roads all possessing 
more or lees ••laiuj to Koui«u origin which when taken together constitute the bulk of 
our knowledge u* to the *.ru-t \*** of traffic during the Imperial occupation. 


f & ] 

STos. 16-17.] MAN. [1904. 

Portugal. " Portugalia." 

Portugalia : — Materiaes para o estudo do povo portuguez. Vol. I., Part 4. +{\ 
Kicardo Severe, Rua de Cedofeita, 548, Oporto. 222 pp., 16 full-page plates ID 
aud numerous illustrations in text. 28 X 20 cm. 

The first eighty-five pages and most of the illustrations of this, the concluding 
number of the first volume of that admirable publication, Portugalia, are devoted to a 
series of articles on the dolmens of Portugal. In 1868 M. Pereira da Costa published 
an illustrated description of several of the antas or dolmens of Portugal, and, since 
that time, M. Cartailhac and other French, Spanish, and Portuguese archaeologists have 
written upon the subject, and their works have been laid under contribution by the 
late W. C. Borlase in the second volume of his Dolmens of Ireland, but the dolmens 
figured in the present work are apparently not the same as those illustrated by previous 
authors, so that the total number of remains must be rather large ; it is, indeed, said 
that 200 have existed in one district. The local type seems to l>e a roughly circular 
chamber, with or without a short passage leading to it ; there is no apparent rule as to 
orientation, but all seem to have been more or less buried in tumuli, and were doubtless 
tombs, though the absence of bones and funeral furniture, or any account of finding any, 
is specially noted by the authors. So far there seems to be nothing unusual about the 
dolmens themselves, but one at least of them appears to have contained a number 
of very remarkably ornameuted stones, many of which are pierced, apparently for 
suspension as amulets. Several of these are marked with little pits like small u cup- 
markings,^ some of which are further ornamented with Hues like rays ; on others 
grotesque faces are carved, and others are incised with figures of animals of the nursery 
nondescript kind, amongst which, however, are some unmistakable reindeer or stags, 
stalked by equally unmistakable archers. Some of these stones furnish specimens of 
more than one variety of ornamentation, and one of them has been called u Noah's Ark," 
ou account of the number of different animals represented upon it. Finally, there 
are stones inscribed with characters, one set of which, at least, may be as susceptible of 
translation as the inscription on the celebrated Newton stone in Aberdeenshire, of which, 
at least seven different versions, in almost as many languages, have been propounded. 
The nature, situation, singularity, and variety of these objects suggest that they should 
be regarded with circumspection, but caution has, no doubt, been duly exercised by our 
Portuguese colleagues. 

There are many other articles of great interest in the number before us, but the 
space at our command will not permit a notice or even an individual mention of any 
of tbem. A. L. L. 

Physical Anthropology. Schwalbe. 

Die Vorgeschichte des Menschcn. Von G. Schwalbe. Brauuschweig : druck *>v 
nnd verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, 1904. 22 x 13 cm. If 

In this little work Schwalbe discusses in a very able manner all the evidence that 
has been accumulated, bearing on the evolutionary history of mau. His conclusions are 
striking and differ in many respects from those previously in vogue. He cousiders that 
in the quarternary period there existed two entirely different types of man. In the more 
recent strata of this period the type, usually knowu as Neolithic mau, was practically 
identical with man as he exists at. the present time ; but in the earlier strata, the type, 
usually knowu as Palaeolithic man, and represented by the Neanderthal skull, was 
intermediate between modern man and the ape. 

When the Neanderthal skull was first discovered objections were raised by Virchow 
to the view that it represented a new variety of man ; the differences which it exhibited 
he considered might be in part pathological, aud in part due to the fact that it was a 
single example and might represent an extreme local variation. All these objections, 

[ 28 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 17-18. 

according to Schwalbe, have now been met ; the pathological character, if such it be. 
has not influenced the other characters of the skull ; the Neanderthal skull is no longer 
an isolated example of its type, since similar skulls have been found at Spy, in Belgium, 
and fragments of skeletons of similar type have been found in other parts of Europe. 
Moreover, a careful comparison of the dimensions of the Neanderthal skull with that of 
modern man shows that the former lies far outside the known limits of variation of the 

To this new type of man Schwalbe gives the name of Homo primigenius. The 
greatest difference between the homo primigenius and neolithic and modern man is in the 
form and capacity of the skull ; there is not so great a difference in the skeletons. 
The stature of homo primigenius was equal to that of the modern middle European. 
Many of the prehistoric skulls which have been referred to the Neanderthal type are, 
according to Schwalbe, of the neolithic or modern type ; for example, to this latter type 
he refers the skulls known as Canstatt, Egisheim, Tilbury, and Denise. He considers 
that, except in the middle European region lying between the great northern ice sheet 
and the glaciers of the Alps and the Pyrenees, no example of homo primigenius has 
been found in any other part of the earth. The American skulls found at Calaveras 
(California), Sarasota (Florida), Trenton (New Jersey), and Lansing (Kansas), all belong 
to the modern variety. 

Schwalbe attempts, with the help of the large amount of new evidence which has 
been accumulated in recent years, to construct a genealogical tree of the descent of man. 
One of the most important items of new evidence is the discovery of Pithecanthropus 
erectus by Dubois. This remarkable link in the evolution of man has given rise to endless 
discussion among anthropologists. Schwalbe's conclusions appear to be safe and reasonable. 
The form of the skull of pithecanthropus stands much nearer to the apes than to man. 
The skull capacity is much greater than that of the apes, but much less than that of 
modern man. By taking casts from the skull Dubois found that Broca's speech convolution 
in pithecanthropus was double the size of that of an ape, and half the size of that of man. 
The femur of pithecanthropus resembles that of man more than that of the ape, and 
indicates a stature of 170 cm., a stature which exceeds that of the Neanderthal man. 
Seienka's study of the embryonic forms of man and those of the Gibbon and Macacus 
show the close relation which exists between man and the old world apes. 

The genealogical tree which Schwalbe deduces from his comprehensive study of this 
question may be stated generally as follows : the American monkeys first branched off 
from the main line of descent, then later in the mid-Miocene period, the old world 
monkeys and the apes branched off from a common point. Further along the main line 
of descent the pithecanthropus branched off, while the main line up to the early 
quar ternary period was represented by the Neanderthal man. At this point neolithic or 
recent man branched off, and the Neanderthal type became extinct. 

This work may be commended to those who wish to obtain a fair statement and 
discussion of all the latest evidence on this vexed and highly interesting question. 


Totemism. Robertson-Smith. 

Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia. By the late W. Robertson-Smith. *q 
New edition edited by Stanley A. Cook. London : A. & C. Black, 1903. lO 
Pp. xxii + 324. 25 x 17 cm. Price 10*. 6rf. 

In the nineteen years that have elapsed since the first edition of this work was 
published considerable advances have been made in our knowledge of the social organisa- 
tion and beliefs of primitive tribes. Not only have we added greatly to our stock of 
information on such subjects as totemism, but we have made our terminology more 

r 29 i 

No. 18.] MAN. [1004. 

accurate, aud in scientific works discarded the old vague nomenclature which did any 
thing hut elucidate the subject. It is, therefore, a matter for regret that the editor 
of the new edition of Kinship and Marriage should have declined to substitute for the 
nomenclature of the 1888 edition — in which tribe, stock, family, clan, kin, and sub-group 
were used as equivalents — a terminology more in accordance with the usage of the 
present day. 

The importance of the point becomes evident when we discover (page 228) that the 
nation of Kalb (dog) was divided into Kalb and Thaur (ox) groups, and then again into 
dog, bear, ibex, lynx, wolf, and daman sub-groups — a point which does not come out 
either in the old or the new edition, the information being scattered over several pages. 
The facts seem to point to a bisectiou of the Kalb tribe into dog and ox phratries. We 
are not told how the clans were distributed in the phratries. It would have been a very 
useful work if Mr. Cook had compiled a table showing the distribution of the clans in 
the larger divisions which we have provisionally termed phratries. How far Kalb was 
alone in this respect it is impossible to ascertain from the lists given by Robertson- Smith. 
If it should turn out that other tribes were similarly organised the totemistic hypothesis 
would, undoubtedly, be much strengthened. In this connection attention may perhaps 
l>e drawn, although the case is not exactly parallel, to the traditional descent of the 
Israelites from Leah (antelope) and Rachel (ewe). 

While the changes in terminology suggested above might have been made without 
so much as altering the form of a single sentence it is otherwise with the general 
arguments of the book. As Mr. Cook remarks in the introduction, the author's own 
hand is the only one which could have recast his work in the light of modern research, 
and the necessary revision could only have been carried out by entirely rewriting the 
work. At the same time the orientalist, no less than the anthropologist, will feel that the 
republication of the work without some indication of the bearing of more recent researches 
on its fundamental theories and assumptions is not entirely satisfactory. An adequate 
discussion of a few even of the more doubtful points cannot be attempted here. Such a 
discussion should have formed part of the book itself in the shape of an introduction or 

Since Marillier's virtually undisputed victory over Jevons {Rev. de VHist. des 
Religions, XXXVI., XXXVII.) to which Mr. Cook does not refer, it can hardly be 
said that totemism is universally admitted to open the way to the worship of animals. 
As a matter of fact, the totem-animal as such is not worshipped ; under the influence 
of ancestor worship it may come to receive a sort of cult, but how far this is from the 
deification of an animal may be seen by comparing the beliefs and customs of the 
Bechuanas, the Betsileos, and the Zulus, who seem to occupy three successive stages ou 
the path from totemism. Among the Bantu, at any rate, the evolution of the animal- 
god is very far from being exemplified, ^ot even the localisation of clans under the 
influence of male descent seems to have provoked any tendency in that direction — an 
important point when we remember the stress laid by Robertson-Smith ou this factor in 
the evolution of the animal -gods of Arabia. 

It cannot, of course, be denied that under certain circumstances the totem-animal of 
a clan may come to be respected by the other clans, as among the Ovakumbe (Les Miss. 
Cath., 1888, p. 262), where the totem of the clau of their chief is hououred by all his 
subjects. But this is an isolated case, and we have no reason for supposing that all 
the many animal deities mentioned by Robertson-Smith reached their position by a 
similar process. Prima facie, only one animal in each tribe could be deified through 
chiefly influence ; Robertson-Smith, however, is disposed to regard the syncretic character 
of the worship at Hierapolis, for example, as the result of fusion of half-a-dozen tribal 
(i.e., totem-kin) or local deities. On the whole, therefore, in the absence of analogies in 
favour of this hypothesis, and in view of the many non-totemistic animal cults, the 

[ 30 1 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 18-19. 

assumption of Robertson-Smith seems, in the light of our present knowledge, hardly 
supported by a sufficient body of evidence. 

Another point on which some remarks might well have been added in an intro- 
duction is the question of forbidden foods. Here, again, the author of Kinship and 
Marriage was disposed to see the influence of totem ism whenever a tabu animal is 
found. But the hare (p. 238) must, if we may judge by the analogy of other races, 
have been tabu, not to a single kin, but to all the Semites irrespective of totemistic 
divisions, just as we find a fish tabu among the Bechuana, not to speak of the numerous 
Australian food tabus unconnected with totemism. 

The panther {ibid.) is clearly a wer-animal, and as such tabu, and the same is 
probably true of the hyena (p. 237). There may be some connection between the 
fundamental ideas of totemism and 1 yea nth ropy, but we cannot use the prevalence of 
the latter as a proof of the prior existence of the former class of beliefs. The Beni 
Harith, we learn on p. 261, /*. 2, might not eat or drink at the hand of a woman, but 
this is more readily explicable as a tabu of commensality than from any ideas connected 
with totemism. 

Again, Robertson -Smith assumed (p. 310, e.g.) that the sacred animals of the 
mysteries and those offered piacularly bore a totemistic character. But so far as the 
mysteries have analogies among other races they are analogous, not to totem kins, but to 
secret societies, which may, indeed, be based on the same ideas as those that lie at the 
root of totemism, but may also spring up in a state of society far removed from totemism. 
So, too, with the piacular sacrifice ; the only example of totem sacrifice, if such it can be 
called, among totem tribes, so far from being piacular is simply a magical ceremony 
unconnected with the idea of expulsion of evils or expiation of wrong-doing. The 
piacular sacrifice, where we find it among totem tribes, is, if we may take the Iroquois 
as an example, of comparatively late origin and in no way specially characteristic of 

If the editor had chosen to accept it, the opportunity was a good one for a 
re-discussion of the general question of Semitic totemism. It is no doubt a useful work 
to republish the book before us with the author's additions and corrections, but u less 
limited view of the scope of an editor's duties would have been more satisfactory to 
tbo!»e who like specialist literature to be up to date. N. W. T. 

Magic. Thompson. 

The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. Being Incantations, translated by *f* 
R. Campbell Thompson, M.A. Vol. I. London : Luzac, 1903. Pp. lxv + 211. l" 
22 x 15 cm. Price 15*. net. 

This volume is the fifteenth of Luzac's useful Semitic Text series, and with its 
companion volume will form an annotated edition of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
parts of Cuneiform Texts, including in all transliterations and translations of about 
240 tablets and fragments. The redaction by the scribes of A s5 urban i pal has not, 
Mr. Thompson thinks, resulted in any considerable re-writing of the spells, and he is 
disposed to regard them as essentially unchanged from the Sumeriau archetype in use 
six or seven thouMiud years ago. 

The introduction classifies the kinds of evil spirits against which protection was 
needed, of which the most important were the utukku and the ekimmu. Both these 
words were used of disembodied human souls, and it does not appear whether there was 
any fundamental difference between the conceptions they embodied. The utukku was 
used of the ghost called from the underworld by the necromancer ; but it seems also to 
have been applied to a ghost that lay in wait in desert places or graveyards. The 
ekimmu was also a restless spirit, the soul of someone whose remains were unburied or 

[ 31 ] 

Nos. 19-20.] MAN. [1904. 

who did not receive from the living those offerings aud libations which, with the dust 
and mud of the nether world, formed the nutriment of the departed. In the one case 
the ghost never reached the " House of Darkness," in the other hunger and thirst 
forced it to leave its abode in Ekurra and seek on earth the food and drink which its 
descendants should by rights have transmitted from the upper world. A second reason 
for its return to earth was that it was entitled to fasten on auyoue who had l>een in some 
way connected with it iu this life, and demand from them the rites that would give it 
peace. The chance sharing of food, the mere act of drinking together, was, we leuru, 
enough to confer this right. Probably hospitality was more honoured in the breach 
than in the observance in Babylonia. 

Another species of demon was the alu, which was supposed to hide in dark corners 
and, like spirits iu general, to haunt deserted buildings. Another side of its activities 
brings it into close connection with the nightmare ; it was supposed to steal sleep from 
tired eyes by standing at the l>edside ready to pounce on the uufortunate who veutured 
to yield to his weariness. It was only half human, sometimes without mouth, ears, or 
limbs, the offspring, perhaps, of a human being and a ghoulish lilitu. 

None of these spirits seem to have been able or willing to do man a serious injury. 
There were, however, others whose fuuetion it was, like Ura, the plague-spirit, and 
Ashakku, the fever-spirit, to disseminate disease. Others, again, like the ghost of a 
woman who died in childbirth, were probably regarded as draining men of their life- 
blood. The langsuyar, to which Mr. Thompson refers as a parallel, is certainly feared, 
not because she returns to fetch her child, but because of her vampyrish propensities. 
At the same time the idea that the child would recall the mother to earth may be the 
foundation of this belief. The not infrequent custom of killiug nursliugs after the death 
of the mother may well have superstitious as well as practical grounds. 

As an interesting parallel to a well-kuown European type of spell may be noted the 
Sumerian practice of repeating in the magical verses long traditional stories of the doings 
of their gods. Perhaps, in the toothache and other spelts, in which Christ aud the 
Apostles figure largely, they have been substituted for the deposed deities of au earlier 
age. " N. VV r . T. 

Folklore. Kaufmann : Smith. 

Northern Mythology. Ry Friedrich Kaufmanu. Translated by M. Steele f%#% 
Smith. The i'emple Primers. London: J. M. Dent, 1903. Pp. xii + 106. ZU 
15 x 10 cm. Price 1*. 

This little volume fully sustains the reputation already won by the admirable series 
of which it forms a part. A translation of Professor Kaufman u's Deutsche Mythologie 
forms an excellent introduction to the study of Germanic mythology. For the benefit of 
those who may not be acquainted with the primer iu its original form, a brief summary 
will, perhaps, uot be out of place. After dealing with the decline of Paganism — a brief 
but extremely lucid account of the introduction of Christianity among the Pagan tribes 
of Northern Europe bringing out clearly the tolerance of the early missionaries, which 
contributed so largely to the preservation, though often in a mutilated form, of the pre- 
Christian mythology — and the attributes of the gods generally, the author proceeds to 
give a brief account of the attributes of Woden, Thor, and Tiw, summarising the chief 
legends iu which they appear. Then follows a short account of the minor gods and the 
goddesses, the early northern cosmogony forming the conclusion. The work of trans- 
lation has- been exceedingly well done, but if wo may venture on one criticism, although 
the translator contends quite justly that her title indicates the scope of the primer more 
adequately, it is, perhaps, a pity that the title of the original work has not been preserved 
in the translation. E. N. F. 

Printed by Kybe asd Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, East Harding Street, B.C. 

err ■ 

Pi ATE C. 

Man, tgc>4 

KlG. 2. 

Fig. 3* 




Fig, 4, 



[No. 31. 

New Guinea : Native Drawings. With Plate C. Haddon. 

Drawings by Natives of British New Guinea. By A. C. Haddon, f%* 

Sc.D.,F.R.S. C\ 

As drawings by uncultured peoples possess considerable interest, some of my 
colleagues and myself obtained several examples from Papuans in 1898. Figs. 1-21 
were obtained at Bulaa (Hula), lligo district, British New Guinea. Mr. Ray asked oue 
or two boys to draw a man (a), dog (b), crocodile (c), turtle (d), fish (e), house (f)» 
and a paddle (<;). These boys were about twelve years of age. 

The least realistic efforts were made by a boy named Pokana (Figs. 1-7). Fig. 6 
was intended for a turtle. 

Fig. 1. 

Fio. 2. 

Fig. 3 (a). 

Those of Igapapa (Figs. 8-11) are not much better. 

Another boy was more ambitious, and put some shading into his figures 
(Figs. 12-13). 

Kila-pai drew Figs. 14-18 and Gimaili Figs. 19-21. 

All these drawings exhibit a very rudimentary power of delineation, and they 
correspond very closely with the drawings by members of the Bororo and of other 
central Brazilian tribes figured iu Chupter X. of Karl von den Steinen's Unter den 
Naturvolkern Zentral-Hrasilicns (1894). Indeed, they are similar to many other 
drawings of nature-folk, and those of our own children. If these drawings are compared 
with those figured in Vol. V. of the Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedi- 
tion to Torres Straits (1904), it will be seen that the Torres Straits Islanders are more 
skilful as a whole than the Bulaa lads. It is true that most of the former have 
passed through mission school; 1 , but they were not taught drawing there, although 
naturally they have seen very numerous pictures of European origin. The Torres 
Straits Islanders, we know, were accustomed to delineate men, animals and other 
natural objects on drums, baml>oo tobacco-pipes and pearl shells before they had 
come under missionary influence. They were also skilful carvers iu wood, as can be 
seen from specimens iu the British Museum and iu other museums, and they showed 

[ 33 ] 

No. aj 



considerable ingenuity in the construction of masks. We found that they readily 
responded to a request for drawings, and they generally managed to represent the salient 
points of the object or scene. I have previously suggested that " it was on account of 
44 the people being in the habit of representing their totem animals that they extended 


Fig. 4 (a). 


Fig. 6 (d). 

Fig. 7 (g). 

" the practice to other forms which were familiar objects about them, or which attracted 
" their attention as being strange or remarkable." (The Decorative Art of British New 
Guinea. Cunningham Memoir. Royal Irish Academy, 1894, p. 23.) 


J u 

Fig. 8 (a). 

Fig. 9 (d). 

Fig. 10 (e). Fig. 11 (g). 

The Bulaa are a people of the Motu stock. Mr. Ray and I have shown that this 
stock is Melanesian in origin (loc. cit. 253-269, and Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. (3) ii., 
1893, pp. 509-17), as opposed to natives to the west, who are true Papuans. In the 

[ 34 1 



[No. 21. 

memoir attention was drawn to the monotony of ideas in the decorative art of this 
Motu stock, and the remarkable absence of delineation of the human or of animal 
forms. So far as our limited knowledge extends these people are no longer totemic, 
and their religious ideas seem to be of the most rudimentary character. The explana- 
tion of this barrenness appears to be that neither totemism on the one hand nor religion 
on the other has had that energising influence upon the decorative and pictorial art of 
the people that is manifested in most other places. 

It must not be supposed that these people are incapable of making more accurate and 
artistic drawings. It is probable that they could easily be educated up to a higher 

Fig. 13 (b). Fig. 14 (c). 

Fig. 17 (p). 

Fig. 18 

t— if* 

Fig. 19 (b). 




Fig. 12 (a). 

Fig. 20 (c). Fig. 21 (p). 

standard of excellence. At all eveuts the drawings of Aluia, a young man, twenty- three 
years of age, who had been educated in the mission school at Port Moresby, show a 
great advance in skill, which probably is not entirely due to greater age. It is true he 
was a member of the Koita (Koitapu) tribe, which is of a "Papuan" and not of a 
"Melanesian" stock, but the general culture of the Koita and Motu is practically 
the same. In his drawing of one of the pile-dwellings, characteristic of the district 
(Plate C, Fig. 1), he has shown the two ends as well as the side of the house, aud the 
front platform is shown partly in elevation and partly in plan. The warriors (Plate C, 
Figs. 2, 3) carry very inadequate shields (kesi), aud one in each drawing holds in his 
mouth the war-charm (musiknka) ; in Figs. 2, 3 some men wear feather oruaments in 
their hair, and two men in Fig. 2 carry stone-headed clubs. The lagoon (Plate C, 
Fig. 4) is near Port Moresby, and parties of white men are occasionally made up to 
visit it for the purpose of shooting wild-fowl. Aluia has depicted such a scene. The 

l 35 ] 




hills round the lagoon are drawn from the point of view of a person in the centre of the 
lagoon, who is looking around, and is, in fact, an annular panorama ; the rushing of the 
ducks through the water is cleverly drawn. The effect of the original drawing is con- 
siderably lost in the reproduction, as is also the case for the drawings of the warriors. 

In a dozen drawings of steamers and ships by Misi, a native of Port Moresby, the 
sea is not once indicated, although the whole hull is visible (Fig. 22). He also drew 

Fig. 23. 

Fig. 24. 

a side view of the kind of house in which Europeans reside in New Guinea, without 
however, showing the gable ends. 

A European is fairly well drawn by Misi in Fig. 23, but the man on horseback 
(Fig. 24) is decidedly poor. 

Figs. 1-21 are of the same size as the originals, Fig. 23 is reduced by one third, and 
Figs. 22 and 24 are reduced by one half. In Plate C, Figs. 1 and 4 are reduced by 
one-half, and Figs. 2 and 3 by one-third. A. C. HADDON. 

[ 36 1 

1904.] MAN. [No. 22. 

Prance : Painted Pebbles. Lang. 

The Problem of the Painted Pebbles of Mas d'Azii. By Andrew t\t% 

Lang. LL 

In IS Anthropologic for November there appears an interesting article by Mr. Arthur 
Bernard Cook on the painted pebbles of Mas d'Azii. As is well known, these relics of 
early neolithic or mesolithic culture are painted, some with dots, varying in number ; 
some with transverse strokes ; some with very conventionalised designs (perhaps) of 
trees, serpents, or plants ; and some with about fourteen arbitrary characters resembling 
letters, or the signs of the prehistoric Mediterranean Signary, familiar from the recent 
discoveries of Mr. Arthur Evans and Mr. Flinders Petrie. M. Piette, the discoverer of 
the pebbles, argues that some of them with dots were used in calculations, and that 
even if they were markers in a game they still imply calculation, scoring in each case so 
many points. In the same number of V 'Anthropologic he reinforces this theory, and, as 
is well known, he regards the pebbles with alphabetiform marks as in some way 
connected with the very early Cretan, Mge&u, and other Mediterranean characters on 
ancient seals, pots, and other objects. 

Mr. Cook replies that " we cannot compare two sets of simple combinations of lines 
" without observing many cases of purely accidental coincidence," and alphabets are 
simple combinations of lines. It seems to me that many marks in Mr. Pe trie's 
" Mediterranean Signary" may be found almost anywhere in the pictographs and 
petroglyphs inscribed by savage or barbaric races. For example, in the Report of the 
Bureau of Ethnology for 1888-89 is Colonel Mallery's valuable work on such inscrip- 
tions. Whoever looks at the plates illustrating the petroglyphs in Owen's Valley, 
California (pages 56-61), will see much to remind him of Mr. Petrie's signs on 
Egyptian pottery of circa 5000 B.C. onwards, in Volume I. of Royal Tombs. Mingled 
with obvious conventionalisings of animal and human figures, in the American rock 
graffiti, are signs, apparently arbitrary, which have their representatives in archaic 
Greek, Iberian, Phoenician, and Runic alphabets, and also among the painted pebbles 
of Mas d'Azii. Anyone who knows the archaic alphabets and the Signary can pick out 
at least thirteen signs common to these and to the Californian petroglyphs. The signs in 
these Californian cases cannot, as a rule, be certainly recognised as conventional debase 
ments of representations of objects, but they are isolated in each case, and do not, as 
in Crete, Egypt, and elsewhere, recur in fixed combinations. They are, therefore, not 
early letters or elements in an early syllabary, though, to judge from the case of the 
inscriptions of Oakley Wells (Report, page 329), they may be totem marks inscribed by 
Indians. These marks at Oakley Wells occasionally represent merely a part of, or the 
track of, the totem animals, and are in three or four cases at Oakley Wells accidentally 
alphabetic in form. In other cases also where the form is alphabetic the origin mag be 
totemistic, though the meaning cannot be interpreted, as it was at Oakley Wells, by an 
Oraibe chief, the last of the Raincioud totems. It is not inconceivable that some signs 
in the Mediterranean Signary may once have been totem marks ; the three-pronged \f/ 
may have represented the track of a bird (as in American and Australian rock paintings 
or petroglyphs) ; but all this is mere conjecture in the case of the Mediterranean signs, 
which clearly had some meaning as characters, perhaps syllabic. 

Mr. Cook's suggestion is that the painted pebbles of Mas d'Azii may have 
corresponded to the painted or incised stones of the Arunta, called Churinga, or " sacred 
things," and interpreted in accordance with the peculiar totemistic and animistic ideas 
of the Central Australians. He shows that there is an example of a French palaeolithic 
pendelor/ue in bone or ivory, which in shape, serrated edges, and decoration (concentric 
circles) is exactly akin to some Australian bullroarers. 

Another, from a Moravian site, is figured in Hoernes's Der Diluviale Mensch, p. 138 
(1903). Dr. Hcernes does not remark on the thoroughly Australian appearance of 

[ 37 ] 

No. 22.] MAN. [1904. 

this object. It may be inferred from these examples and from others in amber from the 
Baltic coasts, published by Klebs, that palaeolithic and neolithic men had bullroarers, 
and probably had such religious ideas as among savages are attached to bullroarers, 
as uttering the Voice (or *' Word ") of some supernormal being. 

But when Mr. Cook argues tbat the site of Mas d'Azil may have been a kind of 
storehouse of "sacred things" {Churinga) like the Ertnatulunga of the Arunta, it 
seems to me that difficulties arise. 

To take but a small objection, perhaps, three of the brochs on Sir J. Barry's 
estate, in Sutherland, yielded a store of painted pebbles curiously aualogous to those of 
Mas d'Azil. A description, with photographs, is in Dr. Joseph Anderson's article on 
Brochs {Proceedings of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries, 1900-1901). It can hardly 
be denied, I think, that, taken as a whole, the broch-painted pebbles are much more akin 
to those of Mas d'Azil than are the Arunta churinga as far as we know them at present. 
Yet the brochs — ingenious, concentric towers built of stone without mortar — represent a 
stage of culture infinitely above that of Mas d'Azil, which again is far above that of the 
Arunta. Religious or quasi-religious ideas and customs may survive indefinitely, but it 
is not very probable that the broch folk of 200 a.d. at earliest kept sacred storehouses 
of churinga. To all appearance the brochs may have been built first in the third or 
fourth centuries of our era, in a late chalkosideric age. Yet they show Asylian 
painted pebbles, whereas Arunta churiuga seem, as a rule, to be fashioned stones with 
incised — not painted — decorations, and the pebbles of Mas d'Azil are all painted, as are 
those of the brochs. The patterns on the broch pebbles are usually dots of colour, 
though lineal designs do occur. The inference, roughly speaking, appears to be that 
as painted pebbles occur in three very different stages of culture — Arunta, Mas d'Azil, 
and early Scotch (or Pictish) — they may in each case have had three very different 
purposes, and it would be indiscreet to argue from the Arunta purpose, which is known, 
to the unknown purposes of Mas d'Azil and Caithness. 

It is next to be observed tbat neither the site of Mas d'Azil nor the brochs of 
Caithness, which yield painted pebbles, answers to the Ertnatulunga, or sacred store- 
houses of the Australians. In these Ertnatulunga they keep their sacred things, which 
sometimes (apparently but seldom) are small painted stones, of which only one figured 
by Messrs. Spencer and Gilleu resembles the pebble of Mas d'Azil. It is a churinga 
of the Hakea tree totem of the Arunta (Speucer aud Gillen, Figure 21, page 5). The 
resemblance in this case is very close, but the Australian painted stone is of a kind 
apparently rare among churinga. Most churinga bear concentric circles and half circles, 
horseshoes, and interconnecting lines incised on stone or wood. The sacred storehouse 
in Australia is " a small cave or crevice ; " the entrance is " carefully blocked up with 
stones ; " the surrounding region is holy, and a sanctuary for wild animals. On the 
other hand, the shelter of Mas d'Azil was a place of human habitation, as is proved by 
the remains of food, bones, plumstones, and other objects, while the brochs which yield 
painted pebbles were mere uormal dwelling-places. It seems to follow that Mas d'Azil 
was no sacred storehouse of mesolithic churinga any more than the brochs were, and 
when this is recognised we seem to see little reason for supposiug that the paiuted 
pebbles of Mas d'Azil were religions objects. Iu Australia a few painted stones and 
many incised fashioned stones are sacred things, or churinga, and are kept in bundles in 
sacred caves and crevices. It obviously does not follow that the painted stones so 
numerous and so variously marked in a mesolithic or early neolithic place of habitation 
were sacred things or totemistic things. As good a guess as any is that some, at least, 
of the Mas d'Azil pebbles, and perhaps of the broch pebbles, were used, like the coloured 
stones in the Mexican game of patolli % " to decide the values in a game by the several 
" designs, and by the pebbles falliug on the coloured or unmarked side " {Report, ut 
supra, page 550). Pebbles with stripes or spots might be, like cards or dice, of various 

t 38 ] 


1904.] MAN. [Nos. 22-24. 

values ; pebbles with other designs might answer to u court cards." Savages are no 
less addicted to gambling than to superstition. But the cards with spots may also have 
been used in calculations ; the " court cards " may have represented conventionalised 
totemistic designs or other designs. In fact, all is matter of conjecture, and though it 
would be most interesting to find churinga of the Arunta sort at Mas d'Azil, as it is 
interesting to find palaeolithic pendeloques of the bullroarer pattern, the evidence rather 
makes against the sacred and in favour of the sportive character of the Mas d'Azil 
painted pebbles. ANDREW LANG. 

England : Archaeology. Lewis. 

The Ooldrum Monument. By A. L. Lewis, F.C.A. (cf. Man, 1904. 12). qq 
From a letter which appeared in the Building News about thirty years ago £0 
it would seem that this monument was first discovered by the Rev. Mark Noble about 
eighty years ago, and re-discovered by the Rev. L. B. Larking, Vicar of Ryarsh, and 
that the first printed notice of it was by Mr. Douglas Allport in a little book called 
Bound About Kit's Coty House, Mr. Clinch (Man, 1904. 12) mentions three other 
printed notices. I myself published a description of it iu Anthropologia in 1874, with 
a two-page plan on a scale of 15 feet to 1 inch. In that plan I endeavoured to show 
that the stones to the west of the chamber might have formed a separate circle, but I 
willingly admit that, when looking at a plan, it seems more probable that there was an 
oblong enclosure round the chamber. On the ground itself, however, the great difference 
of level seems to place some difficulty iu the way, but there may have been more 
interference with the natural surface than I had allowed for. I must further admit 
that, like the other writers Mr. Clinch mentions, I did not discover any unusual 
regularity in the form of the stones or any resemblances to Stonehenge, nor do I 
perceive them even now that Mr. Clinch has pointed them out. When I first visited 
Coldrum in 1869 I was told that a skull had been dug up in or near the chamber, and 
that the collective wisdom of the locality had decided that it was that of a gipsy, but I 
could not find out what had become of it. 

Kit's Coty Hon se, as it now is, could hardly have been a sepulchral chamber, but 
it has been suggested that the stones now remaining are only the end of a large chamber, 
which most likely had a gallery leading to it and a tumulus covering both. There is, 
however, no evidence that anything of the kind ever existed ; the monument has an 
appearance of completeness about it, and was most likely a " cove," or shrine, like 
those at Avebury, Arborlow, and Stanton Drew, but with the addition of a covering 
Atone. Similar open-sided megalithic shrines are found in use in India, where, I think, 
they are always covered at the top. A. L. LEWIS. 

Prehistoric Swords. Naue. 

Die Vorrbmischcn Schwerter aus Kupfer, Bronze und Eisen. Von Dr. Julius f\m 
Naue. With album of 45 plates. Munich : Piloty and Loehle, 1903. Lrw 

Twenty years have passed since Dr. Naue published his preliminary work on 
prehistoric swords of which the present volume represents something more thau an 
amplification. The work is of that thorough-going and careful kind that we are 
accustomed to from Dr. Naue, and is most fully illustrated by an album of 45 plates 
containing reproductions of drawings from the author's hand. The comparative material 
embraces the whole European and East Mediterranean area and is the fruit of most 
comprehensive studies. 

It would be impossible without an abundance of illustrations to do justice to a work 
of this kind. It must be sufficient on this occasion to refer very briefly to Dr. Naue's 
views regarding the original sources of the earliest European sword types. 

[ 39 ] 

No. 24.] MAN. [1904. 

These are represented according to the author's classification by two principal 
types— I. and II. The antecedent form of Type I. is here found in the copper daggers 
of Cyprus with their hooked tang, the blades of which, with their lozenge-shaped section, 
suggest comparisons with the very early Egyptian dagger from Naqada. .This type of 
dagger in Cyprus itself was gradually elongated into a sword of the same form. 
Dr. Naue describes a fine specimen of such a sword found in a grave of the early 
cemetery of Psemmatismeno, accompanied by a copper chisel and the usual red-faced 
pottery with rude reliefs of animals. These associations sufficiently attest its early date, 
but it is necessary to observe that the " Babylonian " cone-seal of agate figured with the 
other objects in Plate II. of the album, and said to have been found with them, belongs to 
a later historic stratum. It is, in fact, an Assyrian cone of an usual type exhibiting a 
crescent-topped pillar above an altar, and cannot be earlier than the eighth century B.C. 

In the early Cypriote daggers, with their hooked tangs, Dr. Naue finds the proto- 
type of the magnificent bronze swords found in the shaft- graves of Mycenae, Types I.b and c, 
according to this classification. But this comparison, which at best must be considered 
remote, suggests great difficulties. The culture first revealed by the shaft-graves at 
Mycenae is, as we now know, more or less exotic in mainland Greece, and its finest pro- 
ducts must be probably regarded as importations from Mindan Crete. Several recent 
finds in the nekropolis of Phsestos, in a tomb at Knossos, and again more recently in a 
beehive tomb at Mu liana in East Crete, show that these so-called " Mycenaean " sword 
types are at home in Crete, and are in reality " Min6an." The Cretan finds referred to, 
and which help to date the shaft-graves at Mycenae, are contemporary with the second 
period of the later Palace at Knossos, and according to the newest data may now be 
approximately dated between 1800 and 1.500 B.C. 

But the culture displayed by this latest Palace period at Knossos is itself the direct 
outgrowth of a still earlier Mindan civilisation, reaching back stage by stage with succes- 
sive evidences of contact with Egypt under the XVth, Xlllth, Xllth, Vllth, Vlth, 
and even the IVth Dynasties. There is no evidence of any real break in the continuous 
evolution of this great Mindan civilisation, and though, owing to the scarcity of metal 
objects as yet found belonging to its earlier periods, the evidence is as yet incomplete, 
every presumption is in favour of the view that the " Late Mindan " sword type was 
the direct descendant of u Early Mindan " daggers. Of " Early Mindan " relations with 
Cyprus we have as yet no indication. With Egypt, ou the other hand, the connection 
was already intimate by the middle of the Fourth Millennium before our era. 

A supplementary note to Dr. Naue's work (pp. 92, 93) coutains a curious piece of 
evidence, with which I was able to supply him, regarding the sword types in vogue during 
the latest Palace period in Knossos, which it is now clear cannot be safely brought down 
below the close of the sixteenth century B.C. This evidence is supplied by the discovery 
of a certain number of clay inventories referring to swords. On these tablets, besides 
the inscriptions aud the numbers, actual pictures of swords are given, belonging to two 
types— one with elongated triangular blades answering to those of the shaft-graves of 
Mycenae, the other with blades with more parallel edges, and in some cases suggestive of 
the leaf-shaped North aud West European types. Allowing for the simplification of 
outline natural to such conventional pictography, it certainly looks as if in the case of 
this latter type we had to do with swords analogous to the more exotic form fouud at 
Mycenae in the Cyclopean House, aud included by Dr. Naue under his Type II. In 
the early representatives of this class the blade, though otherwise straight, curves slightly 
in immediately below the handle, and this feature is clearly reproduced by the Knossian 
scribe, though he has given the whole a more leaf -shaped outline than was perhaps 

If this view is right, we have here the evidence of the introduction of what certainly 
does seem to be a uon-^Egean form as early as the sixteenth century B.C. 

[ « ] 

W04.] MAN. [Nos. 24-25. 

The swords of Type II., illustrated in Greece by the example from the Cyclopean 
House at Mycenae, must in Dr. Naue's mature opinion be regarded as of Italian origin. 
It is certain that they are most abundantly illustrated by a fine series of examples from 
Sulmona, Lake Trasimene, and other sites in Central and Lower Italy, extending from 
Etruria to Apulia. From Italy it seems to have spread to various parts of the Balkan 
Peninsula, to Hungary, Austria, North and South Germany, and thence to Scandinavia. 
The leaf-shaped form is its natural outgrowth, and its off-shoots extend to the British 
Isles. As I pointed out in the Journ. Anthr. Inst, XXX., pp. 218, 219, this western 
and northern type of bronze sword really supplies the prototype of the early iron sworda 
found at Curium and Marion in Cyprus. It is gratifying to find that Dr. Naue now 
rejects the view originally accepted by him that these Cypriote iron swords were of 
Phoenician origin, and that he recognises their affiliation to the great western and 
northern family. ARTHUR J. EVANS. 

Moravia : Archaeology. KM2. 

Beitrdge ziir Kenntnis der Quartarzeit in Mdhren. Von Dr. Martin Erif. f%r 
Mit 180 Ulustrationen. Steinitz : 1903. 23 X 16 cm. ZD 

Dr. Krig's investigations, continued for many years, have been conducted with the 
minutest care and patience, and rewarded with remarkable discoveries. Broadly speaking, 
they fall into two classes ; some researches have been conducted in open sections, others 
in caverns in the Devonian Limestones. In each case the result has been similar in 
general conclusions, such as are touched on in this article. The first series described — 
nearly half of the book — comes from a section of great interest. In our own country we 
have of late years become familiar with implement -bearing sections, which lie on water- 
partings, and not within the basins of existing rivers, such as the sections at Savernake,. 
between the sources of the Salisbury Avon and the Kennet. Dr. Kri2 has found a section 
of this character at Predmost in Moravia, on a portion of the central water parting of 
Europe, where the Becwa flows southwards to join the march to the Danube, and the 
Oder northwards to the Baltic Sea. The soil of the position is formed by a deep bed of 
loess, a kind of loam which partly owes its origin to rain-wash and river-floods, but is in 
largest measure deposited by the wind. In this bed Dr. Kri2 dug fifty-five pits, carefully 
marking the contents of each. The general section has four divisions ; the lowest is 
pre-glacial, which is decided by animal remains ; there are no relics or tools of man ; the 
second is glacial, and is crowded with glacial animals and with relics and tools of man ; 
the third is post-glacial, and contains human relics ; then there is a persistent interval, 
usually a metre of loess, above which lie neolithic tools, sepultures, and remains of 
domestic animals. Southward in the Alps, northwards in Germany and Britain, inter- 
glacial divisions of the Diluvium play an important part. In Moravia certain strips of 
vegetable remains leave faint traces of a possible interglacial period, but are believed by 
Dr. Kriz to be local rather than general phenomena. He believes that for Moravia there 
are no more than three divisions of the quaternary deposits — pre-glacial without man ; 
glacial with man ; post-glacial with man and animals of the steppes. 

His theory is that man entered from the north. In the circum polar regions his 
faculties had been brought forth, and he was far removed from the fruit-eating semi- 
arboreal man who may have flourished in more genial climates. The cold had taught him 
to procure fire, and to find defence in clothes. To gain fur and food he had learned to 
hunt, which called forth his courage, his observation, his cunning, and inventions. He 
was armed with the lance and bow,jas well as with the knife and axe. Clothing had led 
to the invention of the needle, and the thread of thong or gut, and leather was tanned 
and polished with flattened bone ; the beginnings, the author thinks, of the distinction of 
women and of the life of the home. 

[ 41 ] 

No. 3d.] MAN. [1904. 

The implements and works of art found in this situation are peculiar. The 
character of stone implements found does not seem to be that with which we are 
familiar in English quaternary deposits. They are divided by the author into knives 
or flakes; scrapers (Schaber), defined as "flat pieces with a sharp edge"; axes 
defined as " similar to the Schaber, with stronger and more massive back, capable of 
being fastened in wood " ; lance points, arrow points, nuclei, and splinters or spalls. 
Among the many illustrations given there is nothing that resembles the pointed or oval 
instrument so common in England, or, indeed, any of the type-implements of Sir John 
Evans. A hasty judgment would infer that the tools would not date from what we call 
Palaeolithic time. In view of the animals, mammoth, cave-bear, cave lion, and others 
with which the relics are found, such a conclusion is absolutely untenable. 

We have said that Dr. Kri2's finds are of two classes. The second class comes from 
caverns, of which he has explored many with the systematic care which characterises 
all his work. He describes the stone-implements there found (p. 431) as the " ordinary, 
familiar, flaked (zagehauen) implements of flint, hornstone, chalcedony, and quartz." The 
quartz axe, however, given as an illustration, is not flaked on both sides, but is rather 
what we should call a trimmed flake, and far from any type-implement of quaternary 
time known to us. Again, apparently in describing the finds both from open sections 
and from caverns as a whole, the writer says : — u The various forms of flint-tools, 
44 Chelleen, Acheuleen, Solutreen, Magdalcnien, are found throughout, so that the 
44 particular forms cannot be united with any single horizon (p. 534)." We are not 
ourselves satisfied that the usual forms do appear. The prevalence of shapely flakes, 
large and small, and of small nuclei, is not to our kuowledge paralleled from English 
quaternary deposits. It is unsafe to hazard conjectures without having seen the actual 
objects on which conclusions must be based, but the impression left on our mind is that 
Chelleen and Acheuleen men were absent from Moravia. 

Perhaps the most remarkable of Dr. Kriz"s finds are various carved objects. Among 
them is a mammoth rib decorated with about forty indented lines in a herring-bone 
pattern. On a portion of one side the pattern is altered by making one set of lines at 
right angles to another, and in one set the lines are chiefly parallel to each other. More 
remarkable is an ivory amulet (Anhtingsel), if such it was, four inches in length, covered 
partly with parallel lines and partly with three sets of concentric ovals. The ornamenta- 
tion is only on one side. Similar concentric ovals occur in auother very peculiar carving, 
worked on a fragment of mammoth tusk, which we do not pretend to decipher, but 
agree with the author in thinking that part of it represents the pattern of a portion of a 
woman's dress. With these should be named a fragment of bone from the Kulna cavern 
marked with thirty-nine parallel scratches nearly at right angles to the edges. It bears 
an extraordinary resemblance to a message stick of the Australian aborigines. The 
interest of these carvings to our mind overshadows that of other engraved work found 
in the caverns. As a whole the designs are decorative rather than imitative, which 
in itself places them on a level of their own, when compared with the carvings of 
Southern France. 

In the open section at Predmost Dr. Kri£ was fortunate enough to find a human 
skull in good preservation, but without the lower jaw. It belonged to a young man. In 
this, as in so many other of its revelations, the quaternary of Moravia has an independent 
position. The skull is very far removed from the Neanderthal or Spy type ; the super- 
ciliary ridge is not developed, and the frontal bone is but slightly depressed ; in most of 
its measurements it corresponds to a modern skull. 

We have touched but slightly on some of the chief results of numerous and thorough 
investigations. To treat of the various animals of which Dr. Kriz has collected the bones, 
and of the life-labour which he has given to be able to collate them accurately with 
the skeletons of their existing representatives, a further article would be required. 

[ 42 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 25-26. 

We Lave said enough to show that primeval man in Moravia arises under some 
peculiar circumstances and possesses some peculiar attributes. The interglacial divisions of 
-southern and northern Germany cannot be distinguished, nor yet the divisions of Southern 
France ; the implements alike of stone and of bone have some peculiar forme, but the great 
facts are prominent. First there is a time when the Mammoth was present, but not 
Man ; then Man appears, and like Pallas, in full armour. He has skilfully made 
weapons of bone and stone for the chase ; his home is warmed by the fire on his hearth ; 
his dress is of skin.-*, carefully prepared and sewn together. He is painted, either to 
attain an ideal of beauty or to strike terror in enemies ; his body is adorned with 
carved fragments of ivory, and his artistic taste finds impressions in grotesque imitations 
•of the human form, and the patterns of its clothing. Then there is a break in the series, 
and Primeval Man has disappeared. With much that surprises us from its dissimilarity 
to our own records, perhaps the similarity in the break between Palaeolithic and Neolithic 
is more surprising still. In the low watershed of Europe, hardly touched by the 
greatest expansion of northern ice, a continuity between the old and the new might 
have been expected, but is not found. Dr. Kriz's pages add an integral portion to our 
knowledge of the history of early man in Europe ; many of his facts are for the first 
time brought to light ; his conclusions are striking, and always deserving of considera- 
tion ; and his works will, wa believe, find a place on the shelves of all students of the 
-early history of mankind. A. M. BELL. 

Scotland : Place-Names. Johnston. 

Place -Names of Scotland. By James B. Johnston, B.D. 2nd ed. Edinburgh : aa 
David Douglas, 1903. Pp. cxi + 308. 18 x 12 cm. Price 6*. iX) 

This volume is the second edition of a work that appeared in 1892, and is now 
enlarged by about fifty pages. The introduction is pretentious. The author speaks 
disdainfully of his predecessors in the same field, and assures the reader that "this 
" study will be no dilettante trifling." Yet the whole style and tone of the introduction, 
its asides, its appeals to the gallery, and the jejeune, partly inaccurate introduction to 
the study of Gaelic, betray the hand of the amateur. What is known to Irish gram- 
marians as " aspiration " is treated in a single loosely -worded sentence which might 
give rise to an erroneous view of its nature and cause. Further on we are told more 
than once that the Gael ** almost always " aspirates his s. Here the term "aspirate" is 
used in a new and erroneous sense, for on these occasions the author means that the 
Gaelic spirant s is pronounced "almost always" like an English sh. This loose 
terminology is due to the accident that a Gaelic $ when aspirated is now written sh 
(though with the sound of h\ and has therefore the same form as the English spirant sh. 
At page xliv the reader is led to believe that the genitive of the definite article is repre- 
sented by the feminine na, no notice being taken of the masculine. After stating that 
u with masculine uouns beginning with a vowel the article is an € or /'," he goes on to 
say in a fresh senteoce, " The same is true of feminine nouns beginning with $ ; here 
the / eclipses the *, as iu . . . . caol an € snaimh and cinn fsaile" The reader 
will naturally infer that snaimh and saile are nominatives feminine ; in reality they are 
genitives masculine. The same carelessness is observable through the whole volume. 
The author seems never to correct his proofs. In the alphabetical list of place-names 
forming the bulk of the volume he gives what he conceives to be the Gaelic form of the 
name if it is of Gaelic origin. The list contains many uncorrected mistakes, such as 
wrong genders, aspirating nouns in the genitive after na 9 omitting to aspirate the 
genitive of masculine nouns after an, a, when this ought to be done. For instance, Aber 
a choille for na coille ; Barr na choille for na coille ; A I It na bhealaich for a bhealaich ; 
Ath nUnnis for na h-innse ; Ath na fheidh for anfheidh ; Achadh na cairn for a chairn ; 

[ 43 ] 

Nos. 26-27.] MAN. [1904. 

Bail na chath for a chatha ; Beinn na buird for a bhuird ; Both ceannair for ceannaire ; 
Cul a chudninn for na cudainne, &c. &c. 

Another form of carelessness is taking a name in the genitive from some old 
document and allowing the reader to suppose it is a nominative. For instance, Ego t 
pette, Doiradeilinn, Ruim, Glut vein, are all in the genitive. When citing a name taken 
from a chronicle, it is uncritical and misleading to date the form of the name by the year 
under which the name is found iustead of by the date of the manuscript. Yet this is the 
invariable practice of the author. At every page explanations of old place-names are 
proposed, which show that in Celtic philology he stands on the same stage as the 
predecessors he affects to despise. Where he hits the mark it is because it would be 
impossible to avoid it, or because he has been aided by others ; left to himself his 
guesses are most unfortunate. The simplest explanations often escape him. Menstrie 
is no doubt contracted from mainistrech, " belonging to a monastery," but the author 
suggests a highly improbable meith or meinach sralha, " rich, sappy, fertile, strath." 
Ardnamurchan is explained by aird na mor chinn, " height over the great headland." 
The gender of the article is wrong, and the simpler explanation is ard na murdhuchan, 
" height of the mermaid." 

The best parts of the book are where the older forms of the place-names are given. 
And the author might still do good work by publishing all place-names that appear in old 
documents as completely as possible with the dates adjusted to the date of the document. 
But he ought to eschew attempting to explain them, for the present volume shows that 
that would be raising a ricketty structure on a foundation of sand. J. A. 

Italy. Pigorini. 

Le piu antiche civilta deW Italia. By Luigi Pigorini, being a lecture delivered gvy 
before the King and Queen of Italy and the Royal Academy of the Lincei, £f 
June 7, 1903. Reprinted in the Bullettino di palctnologia italiana. Anno XXIX. 
Nos. 10-12. Rome, 1903. 29 x 21 cm. 

In this lecture the doyen of Italian archaeologists describes the unwritten history of 
his country as revealed by the excavations of the last forty years. Much that is 
contained in it will not be new to readers of the Bullettino di paletnologia italiana 
whom Signor Pigorini has already familiarised with his general views, especially in regard 
to the lerremare, of which he and Strobel were the first discoverers. The clear and 
succinct review of the whole subject, however, as it is here presented by the distinguished 
director of the Prehistoric Museum of Rome, will be of the greatest value iu enabling 
students to obtain a connected idea of the early history and relations of Italy. A brief 
epitome of the lecture may be given in these pages. 

The first traces of man in the peninsula date from the quaternary period. The 
islands and the western slopes of the Apennines were still uutroddeu, but in Umbria 
and Basilicata nomads armed with palaeolithic weapons of " Chellean " type hunted the 
elephant and the hippopotamus. Before the elephaut had become extinct a second group 
of families had appeared using a different type of stone implement (" the Mousterian ") 
and living in caves — unlike their predecessors, who had no shelter from the sky. Their 
arrival coincides with the earliest settlement of western Italy and of Sicily. With such 
savages, whose level of culture may be aptly compared to that of the recently extiuct 
Tasmanians, begins the history of Italy, arid it is curious to note that down to the last 
days of the Roman republic palaeolithic man maintained his ancient habits of life in the 
remote Veronese mountains. To immigration is ascribed the first great change implied 
in the sudden appearance of a neolithic civilisation vastly superior to anything earlier. 
The new epoch is revealed by those remains of villages of circular huts which dot the 
plains of Lombardy : the dwellings of a pastoral people, who also established themselves 
in the hills, where they lived in caves that sometimes served also for the burial of their 

[ 44 ] 

1904.] MAN. [ffo. 27. 

dead. Whenever it was possible, however, the people of the neolithic period, rather than 
content themselves, as they were sometimes obliged, with surface graves in the plain 
or cave-burial in the mountains, hewed elaborate tombs out of the solid rock. In form 
these, which are the earliest sepulchres of Italy, resemble a narrow oven (i.e., their 
ground plan is identical with that of the contemporary house), and the entrance is 
furnished either by a sloping passage or by a round pit. The invariable rite is inhumation, 
the dead being laid in the u contracted " or " embryonic " posture. The construction of 
such graves shows how much can be achieved with quite primitive implements, for metal- 
working was still unknown, though tools and weapons were skilfully fashioned from 
stones which seem in some cases to be foreign to the country. The superiority of the 
newcomers to the aboriginal inhabitants is shown, not only by their dexterous manufacture 
of polished stone implements, but also by their skill in pottery making. They did not, 
however, extirpate or entirely absorb their ruder neighbours, who continued here and there 
to maintain an independent life. 

The third stage in the cultural evolution of Italy is signalised by the introduction 
of metal-working. This, like the last great change, must be attributed to an unchronicled 
immigration, which no doubt came from the East, and perhaps reached Italy across the 
sea. The introduction of the use of copper marks the close of the Neolithic Age, but 
the employment of stone implements does not cease abruptly ; it is an eneolithic period 
which begins. The habits and customs of* the preceding time were not immediately 
revolutionised, but a great impetus was given to the arts and industries, in particular to 
the manufacture of pottery and of weapons. At the same time commercial relations 
were opened with the other Mediterranean countries, and foreign imports increased the 
luxury of life. A most important characteristic of the period is the development of 
funerary grottoes hewn out of the rock, and the construction (confined, however, to the 
Terra d'Otranto and to Corsica) of megalithic monuments similar to those which are 
found all over western Europe. The significance of this development will be variously 
estimated according as the archaeologist accepts or does not accept unreservedly the 
author's opinion that " an artificial eneolithic grotto in Italy speaks the same language 
" as a dolmen in Andalusia, Great Britain, or Drenthe." (For the arguments in support 
of this view see Bullettino di paletnologia italiana, anno VIII., p. 21.) If megalithic 
monuments and artificial grottoes are to be regarded as constituting a single species, the 
remainder of the theory follows quite logically. For such constructions are eutirely 
absent from central Europe, while it is precisely in that part of the continent, viz., from 
Wurtemberg and Savoy to Bavaria and Austria, that lake-dwellings occur. The two 
phenomeua then would be mutually exclusive, one civilisation being characterised by 
the presence of megalithic monuments, and another of quite different origin by that of 
lake-dwellings. The latter would be the work of a fresh race which came along the 
valley of the Danube tempted by the chain of lakes. They pushed like a wedge into 
the heart of Europe, but all round them their predecessors remained undisturbed, so that 
at the present day we may observe bow the megalithic monuments encircle the settlements 
of the invaders with a ring which winds from the Caucasus to the Atlantic. The Alps 
were no barrier to the lake-dwellers, who crossed into Lombardy and freely planted their 
cities there, especially about the Lake of Varese. Like the people amongst whom they 
settled their culture was eneolithic, but they showed themselves superior in all arts and 
industries with the exception of pottery making. Living in communities of a considerable 
size they kept large herds of cattle and cultivated flax and corn on an extensive scale. 

The earliest lake-dwellers did not penetrate as far south as the valley of the Po, 
and their progress eastwards was abruptly checked by the arrival of a race which was 
to fashion the future destinies of Italy, the ancestors, in short, of the Romans. Ethnically 
these fresh invaders were of the same stock as the other lake-dwellers, for their habits 
of life and their industries were substantially the same. Like them they lived in pile 

[ 45 1 

Nos. 27-28.] MAN. [1904. 

dwellings, but these they constructed not only in the lakes but also on dry land, a 
circumstance to which we owe the preservation of their tombs, which reveal a new 
burial rite — namely, that of cremation. Their remains can be traced to the valley of the 
Danube ; they imported the amber of the Baltic, and brought with them the secret of 
bronze working, though they had not wholly abandoned the use of stone implements. 
Though their emigration took place at the moment when the civilisation of the East 
was at its zenith, it is not clear as yet whether they had any sort of relations with it ; 
and not only is there no trace of any intercourse with further Asia,' but there is little- 
satisfactory evidence of connections with Asia Minor or the JEgean. Arriving in 
Croatia, Moravia, and Lower Austria, their hordes spread out like a fan, one branch 
passing down to Bosnia, and another into Venetia, whence it spread into the territory 
of Mantua, Brescia, and Cremona. They next crossed the Po, invaded Emilia, and 
penetrated to the hills of Porretta. 

It was towards the close of the second millenium B.C. that they loft the valley of 
the Po, and, following the eastern slope of the Apennines, made their way through the 
Marches and the Abruzzi as far south as Tare u turn. This brought them into peaceful 
contact with the flourishing communities of Sicily, which they made no effort to conquer ; 
and admitted them to participation in the benefits of trade with the JEgean. But 6pace 
forbids a detailed account of the development of this splendid Bronze Age civilisation on 
which the greatness of Italy was reared. The student must turn to Signor Pigorini's 
pages to read how the civilisation of the terremare became the parent of mighty 
Rome, and how the construction of the pile dwellings determined the very walls and 
streets of the Eternal City. D. RANDALL-MACIVER. 

Method. Bury. 

An Inaugural Lecture delivered in the Divinity School, Cambridge, January aq 
26, 1903. By J. B. Bury. Cambridge: University Press, 1903. 42 pp. £Jj 
20 X 13 cm. Price 1*. 6d. net. 

This inaugural address of Lord Acton's distinguished successor in the chair of 
modern history at Cambridge may be read with profit by students of primitive culture. 
It contains a plea for the establishment of historical science upon the broadest and most 
comprehensive basis, and a protest against its treatment either as a branch of literature 
or a mere register of political eyents. Far from confining itself within such narrow 
limits science must avail itself of all possible sources of information bearing upon the 
material and spiritual activities of mankind from the dawn of the stone age down to the 
present day ; and though it need not be indifferent to the advantages of literary style, it 
must never forget that scientific accuracy is the aim and justification of its existence. 
The change introduced by the idea of development into modern thought has indeed 
transformed the old historical ideals, bringing within the scope of the historian all 
records, unwritten as well as written, of the culture and works of man in society, so 
that religion and philosophy, literature and the fine arts, archaeology, folklore, and 
ethnology are all associated ill one comprehensive scheme of knowledge. This inter- 
connection of the histories of various parts of civilisation must be accepted by the 
historian as an ideal, even though its complete realisation may at present appear quite 
impracticable, and even though it is no longer possible for any single man to cover more 
than a small part of so vast a field. The modern conception of history demands the 
sacrifice of individual ambition ; it involves much tedious spade work which will bring 
little recompense in the form of wealth or recognition ; but it is only on the foundation 
laid by such unassuming labour that the great structures of the future can be erected. 
This is not to say that the specialist need never lift his eyes from the trench in which 
he digs, for even the narrowest work will be the better performed for a general training 
in history and a grasp, however slight, of historical perspective. As an instance of a 

[ 46 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 28-30. 

special subject which still needs patient investigators, Professor Bury cites the problem 
of Celtic civilisation in western Europe, the obscurities of which are so perplexing to 
those who would trace the course of Western history during the Middle Ages. 

This little book may be heartily recommended to anthropologists both for its 
singular breadth of view and for its recognition that the obscure unwritten records of 
primitive peoples are no less legitimately a subject of historical research than those 
archives of civilised nations to which the attention of historians has been so exclusively 
confined. O. M. D. 

Melanesia. Audrey. 

In the Isles of the Sea : the Story of Fifty Years in Melanesia. By Frances aa 
Audrey. London : Bemrose and Sons, 1902. 25 x 20. Pp. xiv + 148, with £>%J 
appendices and map ; illustrated. Price 5s. 

The history of missionary work possesses a twofold interest for anthropologists ; on 
the one hand it will always be remembered that for the first and often most valuable 
contributions to the knowledge of little known peoples, anthropology has frequently been 
indebted to the workers in the missionary field ; while, on the other hand, the account 
of their labours sometimes throws much light upon the problems which arise when two 
peoples of different race and at different stages of culture come into contact. In the 
Isles of the Sea is a brief outline of the history of the Melanesian Mission from 
its origin with the appointment of Selwyn as Bishop of New Zealand, to the 
present day. It is obviously impossible in the short space of some 140 pages to cover so 
large a field in any great detail, and the book is intended to be an introduction to the 
subject rather than a complete history ; native customs are only touched upon incidentally r 
and the writer in dealing with these matters shows a lack of that sympathy with the 
native point of view which is so essential to good work among them. As a result tabu, 
the one important institution among the natives of the Pacific, is regarded as foolish. 
Although the writer pays no attention to this side of the matter, the mere record of 
events given here affords abundant illustration of the importance of an understanding of 
the native modes of thought. It would be possible to show from this author's account 
alone that civilisation and conversion entail, in the first instance, not so much a change 
in the mode of thought as in its manner of expression, action is diverted into another 
channel, but the motive which underlies the action is unchanged ; it is precisely under 
those circumstances which give rise to a train of emotion for which, to the native mind, 
civilisation provides no adequate means of expression, that we find the native reverting 
to a " barbarous " or *• foolish " custom ; as, for instance, Christiau natives have been 
known to revert to cannibalism under the stress of great fear or excitement. On the 
other hand, it is equally true that it is precisely in proportion as the civilising process 
has been adapted to the psychological needs of the native that it makes a stronger and 
more lasting impression upon him. 

In the Isles of the Sea is well illustrated and is also provided with a map and 
appendices, one of which deals very briefly with "head hunting/' and another with 
the " labour traffic." E. F. 

London. Anthropological Institute. 

Ordinary Meeting, Tuesday, January 12th. Mr. H. Balfour, President, in the j*f| 
Chair. UU 

The election of Captaiu Pope-Hennessey and Mr. R. B. Seymour Sewell as 
Ordiuary Fellows was announced. 

Mr. F. C. Shrubsall, M.D., read a paper on Hospital Patients ; a Study in Natural 
Selection, The paper was discussed by Mr. Martin, Mr. Gray, Sir H. Johnstou, and 
the President. 

[ 47 ] 

Nos. 30-3L] MAN. [1904. 

Annual General Meeting, Tuesday, January 26th. Mr. H. Balfour, President, in 
the Chair. 

The Reports of the Council and Treasurer were presented and adopted. 

The Officers and Council for the ensuing year were elected. 

The President delivered his address on The Relationship of Museums to the Study 
-of Anthropology. 

The official minutes of the meeting with the Reports and the President's address 
will be found in full in Journ. Anthr. Inst., XXXIV., p. 1, et seq. 

Ordinary Meeting, Tuesday, February 9th. Mr. H. Balfour, President, in the 

The election was announced of Mr. 6. L. Stallard, LL.B., Mr. F. Mel land, and 
Mr. W. J. Lewis Abbott, F.G.S., as Ordinary Fellows of the Institute. 

The President exhibited a collection of specimens from the Solomon Islands to 
illustrate the influence of one design over the over. 

The Assistant Secretary read a paper by Captain S. L. Cummins on Sub- Tribes of 
the Bahr-el- Ghazal Dinkas. 

Ordinary Meeting, Tuesday, February 23rd. Mr. H. Balfour, Presideut, in the 

Mr. W. L. Allardyce, C.M.G., delivered a lecture on The Fijians in Peace and 
War, and described the Fire -walking ceremony. 

The paper was discussed by Mr. Ray, the Hon. H. Hannan, Dr. Garsou, and the 

London. The Sociological Society. 

When we contemplate the considerable number of scientific societies already Q4 
existing, we are, perhaps, inclined to receive with some uneasiness the announce- I 
ment of the formation of a new one, and to wonder what the effect may be upon the 
older societies. Few, however, if any, will refuse a welcome to the newly-arisen 
" Sociological Society/ 1 which bus come into being under most favourable auspices. 
Legitimate surprise may be expressed at there having been until now no scientific 
organisation in this country dealing exclusively with sociology in a liberal and com- 
prehensive manner. In this we are behindhand amongst civilised countries ; but, while 
the familiar expression " better late thau uever " comes to our mind, we may see positive 
virtue in the " lateness," since it enables the new society to profit by the experience 
gained by the similar organisations of some standing which exist in other countries. 
The formation of the new society began with an informal preliminary meeting on 
May 16th, 1908, which was followed later by a conference of representatives of the 
various studies and practical interests concerned, under the chairmanship of Mr. E. W. 
Brabrook, C.B., who presided in the absence of the Right Hon. James Bryce, M.P. It 
was unanimously resolved to form the society, the resolution being ably and iufluentially 
supported by numerous speakers, who approached the subject from a variety of points of 
view. A code of rules has already been drawn up, and in Mr. Victor V. Branford (of 
5, Old Queen Street, Westminster) au able and enthusiastic secretary has been secured. 
The aims of the society are u scientific, educational, and practical. It seeks to promote 
" investigation and to advance education in the social sciences in their various aspects 
" and applications. Its field covers the whole phenomena of society . . . ." In 
addition to holding meetings for the discussion of subjects of interest, it is hoped to form 
a really comprehensive sociological library, and to publish a journal as soon as the 
finances admit of this being done. The number of supporters is already considerable, 
and signs of a bright and useful future are not lacking. We wish the society all success 
in a friendly co-operation with those other societies and institutions which are directly 
or indirectly concerned with the problems of sociology. HENRY BALFOUR. 

Printed by Btrb axd Spottiswoodb, His Majesty's Printer?, East Hardin* Street, E.C. 

It ATE D. 

Man, 1904 




[No. 32. 

Peru. With Plate D< Read. 

On Two Pottery Vases from the Upper Amazon, Peru. />.'/ G fil qn 

/ •■■..v../. uZ 

The Ethnographical Department of the British Museum bae I an 

aequisitio leiderable importance is •■ mal botfa 

in >i/«- atj'l in mal tug represented in Plate P, Tin* museum owes 

this vain i iie liberaliij tattoo on the 

oppe of iIk a in .in £,000 miles month. Thi 

eoloi *e!s should have readied the British Museum unharmed i- 

thoughtful care o( Mr. Charles Bootl^ who kindly su transport, so thai 

from [quitoc V »I (bare was no transhipm 

A reference to the scale will give an idea Q usual dimension 

represented* which Is about ibeaameah ompnuiop (Figs* I and 2). The 

neter of tin- one shown In the plate ii tea, and the befght S feet \\ Inches ; 

oondf the height it , anil the diams iuches. The hide 

the somewhat unusual proportions of the vessel, the base diminishing 

small foot of about 8 inches in diameter, so <m ■ lei I i* 

BOSK seonre, even when empty. The most remarkable poiut about die reeeel is 

that its Sides an Ottly from a quarter of an ineli In half ao inch in thickness, and for 

any potter to make a -neb dimensions of BUCb thi □ any DOQ&try 

^i ttntt it fvree % bul in the prosenl ease the potter seems to Lave ileiil tdded to 

difficulties by making the upper pari almosi horizontal, while Ihe month Is further 

svetL die hulk of the vertical nerk. How this upper part was supported in the 

of manufacture, and more especially in the firiug of the piece, is not eas\ 

Understand, hut. as the pla nit displays a perfectly symmetrical outline, 

weA from above the side. We have no information as to the 

ular tribe producing these remarkable bat s much smaller specimen which 

been for boom in the British Museum i* stated i«» have been made i.y the 

[adieus of thi f the affluents of the Upper Amazon. This 

hift< identical in farm and lar in ornam tat shown in our ]> 

Tbe&tayof which tb< Is ol tl )mmoo buff colour, the eurl 

of which appeared h> the eye of ihe Indian potter to need some modification; ha 
therefore, tukru n lire win: tin- nature of pipeclay, and has applied tie 

over the whole of the upper part of tie dishing the i bone 

or a smooth stone. Upon this the decoration is applied in ■ kind of distemper, producing 
a aomewhat eccentric geometrical • cecuted in ochre with brown outlines. 

thi- has been originally 1 coat of varnish, now to a great extent wmn off. A similar 

liod of decoration was not uncommon in ancient Mexico, where ih< use of whs 
technically known as M sl1p d1 was thoroughly well under- 1 Land S large number of \ 

from the cemetery in the Island of Sa.:riticios have a white costing as a base for their 

decoration ; hut it is obvious thai. lours not being burnt in and 

protected by a e..rti -li f the vessels must have bees coi with 

little doubt thai the ornamentation, sosaptleated as it appears, 
b:i~ in in plaited designs* This has been well Insisted upon by Mr. William 

II. Holme- Q the fourth Ii* port of ih 

Eiknotopgi i Mr- Holmes there points nut bow s ooxred pattern, - 

iced to plaiti nes lingular, and, iii one instance, Fig. 16Q, demonstrates how 

interlock i ngnlar frel may ; continuous spiral. In the vase shewn 

in our [date it will b tc Indian qusI have carefully set not hi* 

„ r u before proceeding to paint it, as he has throughout preserved the bal inoe of the 
■> and made a r her vase, sent bv Mr. Lofl&SSj 

[ f* ] 

Nos. 32-33.] 



ij somewhat sturdier build (Fig*. 1 unci 2), and, in addition, does tiol show tin- 
amount ion, but it ; an added feature in 

1 wooppofl 

• ml 

uriv bigh relief, 
tuliaritj is the follow- 
ing ; the ornamentation bete 

:res is uot the lama 
on botfa -mIos of the I the 

side (the lower in Figi - ) the 
lines forming tbe pattern are i< 
angular with the radii of the circle 
tied bg the outline of tbe va 

OH die other they intersect the radii 
at :i of lo degrees. The 


* IQ - ■• well preserved, and thus shows 

Dtora Hem I v what was the original intention of the potter. 

It would seem to be fairly certain that thes- unless partly sunk in the earth, 

could enlj have been used lo contain dry contents which must have been tight in ireigbl i 

filled with liquid and standing up 

an even surface the movement of 

the liquid inside would ai 

be disastrous to the vessel* but the 

small ness of the base and the fa. r 
that the lower part is undecornted 
in hoth cases make it probable that 

s were kepi partly em- 
bedded in the floor of the bouse, 

An illustration of thepos-iH. 
method hv which, at any rate, the 
base of Mich vases might be bull I 

up can be seen in the recently 

ptltdi-hid GtMS 00 the d l/iflyititif >J 

the Hnw . the British 

Jfustuut, where, on pag 

shown the method of manufacture 

of 8 Bronze Age bow] from the 
ear)} settlements on thesoufh-< 
in. It would a p| i 

that, a etivityof the required shape lMfl * * 

made b the earth and the clay required to make the vessel was then moulded In the 
hole^ so that (taring the process the whole of the outside was well supported, and at the 

same time the inside could he carefully smoothed, and, if allowed to <hy ut situ, such a 
howl euuld he I safely lired. C. H, READ. 

Africa, West. Report. 

Notes on the Form Of the Binl Government- Extract /mm a lie port a A 

to tin Colonial Offi^e^ permission to reproduce which has been obtained for th* yj 

Anthropological Institute by the kindnSSS at the Trustees of the British Museum. 

As in most African kingdoms, there is a link with the past in the Hini form of 
government. In some cases it is simply a title of the living- king, meaning the spirit 
of the late king ; in the case of Biui it is the i|Uecii-motln i . 

[ w ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 33. 

The queen-mother, Ioba, has her residence at Shelu, near to the entrance gate to 
Benin City on the Yira road. As the mother of the king she maintains a court of her 
own composed of : 

Amoma, her wife. r Iwebo. 

Amada, her naked bojs ; J Ibiwe. 

And the chiefs of the four (following) 1 Iwegwe. 

Affinaa •__ I Twn.aa 

offices : — ^ Iwase. 

Amoma, the wife of the queen-mother, evidently means her companion. Women in 
the Kongo often talk of their greatest woman friend in this way. 
The four offices will be explained as we proceed. 
Ioba had the privilege of sacrificing human beings. 

It is said that the father of the first Bini king (called Bini, one of the six sons of 
Oyo by the Yoruba historians) came to Benin City by the Yira road and asked the 
King of Efa (the people), called Ogifa, for a place to live in. Ogifa is said to have 
granted him that part of the city which he and his people had vacated owing to sickness 
aud death. This son of Oyo after a time declared that the smell of the place displeased 
him (and not being able to speak their language), that he was disgusted and meant to 
leave it. Before going he informed Ogifa that a certain woman, a daughter of Ogiegaw, 
was in child to him and that they could put this offspring in his place. He then left by 
the Udo road and returned to Uhe or Ife. 

This son they called Eweka (the one that clasped or joined the people together), 
and from him the present Overami, the deposed Oba, claims to be descended. But it is 
not my intention to trouble you here with historical folklore, but rather to transmit to 
you a few notes on the system of government in vogue in Benin City and dependencies 
before the occupation. 

The Oba's throne or chair was placed on a mud platform three steps above the 
ground aud was called Ekete. 

His official dress was of beads and composed of his — 

Eruivie, crown. Egwonwe, anklets. 

Odigba, collar. Ebe, a flat kind of sword in his right hand. 

Ewivie, coat. Erigo, a two-pronged instrument in his left 

Eruhan, skirt. hand. 

Egwunbaw, bracelets. 
But you have seen the picture in brass work (see Plate VIII., Fig. 3, Antiquities 
of Benin City), so that further description of him is unnecessary. And I need not dwell 
on the atrocious despotism and abuse of power which finally brought Overami to his 
ruin and necessitated II. M. Government placing the people under the protection of 
His Majesty King Edward VII. 

The king's immediate attendants may be recognised by the custom of wearing their 
back hair divided by three partings, a custom they had the honour of sharing with Oba 
aud Ioba. Their title was that of Ogbon, their manners and offices as under : — 
Eh ioba, representing the spirit of the king. 
Ohionba, „ head „ 

Ewen, the wise man. 

) \ \ His private chaplains (or Ohoen Ovisa, men of God). 
*> (- ) J 
Nabori (1), who helped to dress him and uphold his right arm. 
» (2), „ „ „ left „ 


T > Men in waiting. 

Inaza J ° 

The king had other servauts attached to his household, such as — 

Ihodon, in charge of the Iwarame or herdsmen. 

[ 51 ] 

No. 33.] MAN. [1904. 

Itie Nigun 1 „ r t . , 

Fh 1 2 I orkers id brass and carvers in ivory. 

Awsa, juju maker. 

Amagizemi, storekeeper (from the Portuguese word anutgazem, a store). 
The sons of the Oba were called Obioba, and of these the eldest was called Edaikin 
aud had his residence at Shelu, while the other sons used to be sent out as viceroys to 
govern different outlying districts or collection of towns (Adesebo). 1 may mention a few 
of these districts : — 

Unwan, under Ogie Unwan or Og'Unwan. Use, under Ogyuse. 

Ugo Ni Kekuromo, under Ogugo. Utokka, under Ogutokka. 

Ugo Nikekpoba, under Ogugo. Ebwe, under Ogebwe. 

In the case of Overami, Egwabasimi is Edaikin, and Oswalele the other son, the 
daughter being Ebahabukun, Omono, and Orinyami. 

These viceroys were called Ogisi, and their sons succeed to the title and vice- 

The children of the daughter of the Oba are called Ekaiwi. Osula is an Ekaiwi. 
There are six great chiefs outside the compound of the king who represent the Oba 
hi one or other of the six great offices in the state : — Ezomo, Ero, Oliha, Edaikin, Ogifa, 
and lyase. 

Ezomo in popular parlance is the great war chief ; but, as a matter of fact, combined 
with his office of head of the army is an office equivalent in a primitive fashion to that 
of Lord Chancellor as head of the court of equity. This great chief had a court of his 
own (in which the late Olugbosheri, who is succeeded by his sou, played a prominent 
part) composed of the offices of Iwebo, Iwegwe, Ibiwe, and Iwase. 

Ero was a great judge and head of all the policemen, a kind of Lord Chief Justice. 
Oliha acted as a kind of Archbishop of Canterbury and crowned the king. The above 
three great chiefs had with the Oba and Ioba the privilege of sacrificing human l>eings. 

Edaikiu, as the eldest son, represented the state for his father outside the compound 
and was head of the learned medicine men. 

Ogifa is the head of all the people, who called them all together in case of any 

The above are all succeeded in office by their sons. 

lyase is the head of the nobles of Egaidu, such as Ehaza, Eson, Isogban, and others 
who were the chiefs of different quarters of the city. He had the right to pick men out 
of the different offices of the king's assessors and promote them to be Egaidu ; Ehaza, for 
instance, served under Unwagwe, the crhief of the king's Iwebo, and was made Egaidu. 

lyase may be chosen out of all the great chiefs ; his son does not succeed him in 
his office. When the king dies, and during the interreguum, lyase is regent. The?e last 
three great pro-kings had the right to sacrifice a cow to their father and a cow to their 

Without the compound — that is among the nobles and people — these six pro-kings 
and theEgaibu were paramount, but within the same the chiefs of the six great divisions 
in the king's government were paramount, and the king could be approached through 
one of them. 

The six great offices in the government of the country were called : — 
Iwebo, a primitive form of the court of Equity. 
Abiogbe, „ „ „ Justice. 

Ihogbwi, „ „ „ Church. 

Iwase, „ „ „ State. 

Iwegwe „ „ „ Commons. 

Ibiwe „ „ „ Lords. 

Each office was filled by a pair of assessors aud their followers. 

[ 52 1 

1. Ayabahau. 

2. Osagwe, 






1904.] MAN. [No. 33« 

Unwagwe and Elibo represented the office of Iwebo. When Oba " made father " 
it was Unwagwe's duty to carry to him the plate of cowries to be sprinkled with chalk, 
and the beads that were washed in the blood of the human beings sacrificed. They also 
had charge of these articles and were arbitrators in the compound. The names of some of 
the chiefs I give, and in the following order : — (1.) Those who could sacrifice one cow to 
their father and oue to their mother. (2.) Those who could sacrifice one cow to their father 
and one goat to their mother. (3.) Those who could sacrifice a goat to their father. 

3. Awsolaiyi. 





Nabori I. 

Nabori IT. 

The office of Abiogbe is in the hands of Okaiboga (1), Okai Wagga (1), and 
Okadogira (3). They were the chiefs of all the Okow (or headmen or policemen). 
They looked after the streets and land questions. Okaiboga, for instance, used to allot 
and conduct the king's sons to their districts, and, until H.B.M. Government took over 
the government of the country, used to receive yearly presents from those princes he had 

The Ihogbwi were the sacrificing or the atoning priests and were of three grades : — 

o* c- i f Succeeded by his sou. 

2. Sighure J J 

3. Legama. 

Iwase was the office of the learned medicine men under the chief pair, (3) Igwesibo 
and (3) Ogiemese, some of whose followers were : — 

3. Obemawaw. Obadialu. Obadige. 

Ogimase. Aroyhia. Obariaee. 

Obakbe. Assohan. Otomi Ni Wegie. 

The two chiefs at the head of the office called Iwegwe were Isiri and Bazilu, and 
they had to look after the common welfare of the household. The word Iwegwe is in 
some way connected with the season of plenty or harvest. The names of some of their 
followers were as under : — 

1. Aswen. 2. Obaseki. 3. Zama. > 

Obadisagbon. Obadagboyi. Ogbaylogboi. 

Obanyagbon. Akenowa. 

Otomu Ni Wegbe. Ogwa. 

The office of Ibiwe was confided to the care of Ine (Yamo) and Obazwaiyi. They 
seem to have had charge of the living people of the household and had to keep Oba in 
wives and slaves. They were, in fact, overlords. The names of some of their more 
important followers were : — 

1. Abohon. 2. Arase. 3. Ibagwa. 

Imaran. Obayagbon. Osiogwa. 

Oshudi, in charge of Eholo. 

king's wives. Awbamoyi. 

Awbalaiyi. Usho. 



L 53 ] 

Nob. 33-34.] 



All the chiefs in these six offices had the right to wear the collar of beads called 
Odigba. These pairs of chiefs, with the exception of Ihama are not succeeded by their 
sons in office. Their offspring all come under the heading in which their father served, 
that is to say, all the children of an Iwegwe are of Iwegwe, all the children of an Ibiwe 
are of Ibiwe, and so on. 

No one could approach the Oba save through one of the chiefs in the king 1 ? 
compound, and all tribute (EdigweJ was paid to the king through them, they receiving 
25 per cent, of the same for their work. These chiefs were called Notweyebu. Each 
of these Notweyebu had boys in the towns paying tribute through them, and these were 
called their messengers or Okushuebu, but an ambassador sent by the king was called 

The Bini kingdom then was governed by the (I) king, (2) five hereditary pro-king3, 
one elected pro-king, and (3) twelve assessors, and was divided into six great divisions 
or offices. Thus, bereft of personal attendants, the constitution resolves itself into the 
following formula : — 


Pro- Kings. 

Kinpr or Oba and 


Lord Chancellor - 





Lord Chief Justice - 


Okai Wagga. 








Head of the State - 

Edai Kin. 




Speaker - 





Speaker - - - 





Pahang: Stone Implements, 
Note on Stone Implements flrom Pahang. 


By R. M. fV. Swan. 

(1.) Thirteen well-shaped stone implemeuts and fragments of implements. ■ 

They were found on or near the surface of the ground, or in the possession of 
natives in Pahang in the Malay Peninsula. The native Malays know nothing of their 
origin, but suppose it to be supernatural, and seem to associate them with thunderbolts. 

Most of the imple- 
*X ..' ' ments are of the same 

sort of stone. This is 
found in several parts 
of the state. Some of 
the implements are de- 
composed on the sur- 
face, while others have 
not suffered decomposi- 

J if 



5 T 



PIG. 1. 



54 ] 

lM m w WM.f> 



[No. 34. 

tion or have bad the decomposed matter rubbed off. Similar stone implements are found 
io the neighbouring states. 

(2.) A rude implement was found about 2 feet below the surface in stiff clay. 

(3.) The rudest implement was found by myself at the IxMom of an alluvial 
gold mine in the Tni valley in Pahang, and it had not been disturbed in its position 
when I found it. It lay in a deposit of gravel on crystalline limestone rock, and 
over it had been a deposit of gravel and clay 43 feet thick. This clay undoubtedly 
had been derived from the decomposition of some greenstone hills and ridges which 
form the sides of the valley. It is known that these hills had originally been over- 
laid by the limestone on which the implement rested, and it was only when sufficient 
of the limestone had been dissolved away to allow the greenstone to emerge that this 
latter rock began to yield the clay which was derived from its decomposition. The 
amount of denudation or dissolution of the limestone since this emergence has been at 
least 300 feet. The gravel in which the implement was found had been laid down by 
river action when the surface of the limestone was at least 300 feet higher than it is at 
present, and it would seem that at this period or earlier the implement had been 
fashioned and then lost in the gravel. 

It might be contended that the greenstone hills may not have decomposed and 
yielded their clay immediately on the:r emergence from the limestone, but it is impro- 
bable that there would be any great interval of time between those two occurrences, 
because the greenstone would be decomposed by the action of the surface waters, which 
would reach it through fissures in the limestone while it was still covered by a great 
thickness of that rock, and it would thus on its emergence be in a condition very favourable 
to rapid denudation. I have examined fissures which go down several hundreds of feet in 
the limestone at the Tui, and the greenstone is completely decomposed to great depths. 

It would seem that we might take the denudation of 300 feet of limestone as an 
approximate measure of the antiquity of the implement. The rate of the denudation of 
the limestone is not known, but it is comparatively rapid under the conditions of 
climate and vegetation prevailing in Pahang. The temperature is high and the waters 
are heavily charged with carbonic acid and products of vegetable decomposition. In 
any case it would seem that the implement must be of very great antiquity. 

(4.) The two fragmeuts of a stone ring were found about a foot deep in the surface 
soil at the Tui. They are similar to, but are better formed than, some other rings which 

[ 55 ] 

Nob. 34-36.] 



were found near the Tenon norths One of these Ii 

is, I believe, in L rem) are in the must nm at Tatpiug 

in Pemk. The i rv carefully framed and D 

( ( i Ban be mosl readily shown by piecinj 
;ig around ll ii a pencil, and tnlar are formed by h pair of 

i m Chinese in Pahang have an able theory of the origin of 

, and it > improbable thai beau 

made by either of the**- people*. X^-min^ ilun i] ■ would be made 

utxremeot, I tested the dim* » the I ui one, bur could gel no elm 

ystem oj nent. The use of the via 

cannot have I i on the person an nrnaneota, end they are too lighi and fcagil 

-. The only supposition that suggests itself le that tl 
limy hn tie, H 4 M. \\\ SU AN. 

Obituary. Murray. 

Alexander Stuart Murray, LUD., F.S.A.: born January 8th, 1841; QC 
died March 5th, 1904. 00 

mparutirely early age of sixty-three, of Dr« Alexi 
Murray, the 8 sk an l Roman Antiquities in the British lit deuce Fn 

genera^ and the Museum in particular, has loel one of 1 1 ^ mot si leaders* Bono 

on January 8th, 1841, Dr. Murray wai <l at 

Edinburgh end at Berlin Univaraitiee, and in U 
he began hit long connection with the British 
Museum, being appointed assistant iti the depart- 
ment of Greek and B rtiquitias in Febnu 
of that year. From that time to tlie day of 
deatl Minis* if to the suhjecl ot Tireek 

Roman art He was appointed keeper of hie depart* 
; in I ssii„ and era* further honoured by being 
made a correspondent of th< Institute of Prei 
]\\< published works constated largely of official 

publteattOQS, hut he ulao wrote histories of Or- 
Sculpture and of Greek Arduenlo^v , while as 
recently as Lesl yi ai he published a work on the 
Parthenon Sculpture*, DTi Murray was never a 
Fellow of the Anthropological Institute, hut Ids 
work, dealing as it did with early art in it* beat 
period, if hilly anthropological in chariot 

If is impossible, in so short a notice as this must necessarily be, to pay more than a 

slight tribute to Dr. Murray's work and powers, but enough ha* been said to ihow how 
f is the loss which archeology baa suffered by his early death. 
We are indebted to the courtesy of the proprietor* of the Graphic for the portrait of 

Dr, II 1 1 mi v. 

,i Fry, 




Stiff tj t wtion und Hypnotism** in der Volkerptyekohgie* Von I>r, Had. < Hto Stoll, qq 
2te Auflage. Leipzig : Yeir, L9M. Pp. % [-7%& 24 X 16 urn. Price 16 marks. wD 
In the ten years thai have elapsed Bines this work lirst appeared it has added more 
than 200 pages to its hulk, Nearly one-third of this supplementary matter deals with 
the psychological phenomena of the French Revolution, Of the remainder not much 
lees thai half is devoted to the consideration of suggestive elements, in the individual 

M ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 36. 

and national life of West European peoples, semi-civilised and barbarous nations take up 
another 200 pages, leaving only about 100 pages each for the savages of the present 
day and the civilised peoples of antiquity. 

This somewhat striking disproportion depends in part on the somewhat peculiar 
sense given by Dr. Stoll to the term suggestion ; in part on the fact that as a rule 
anthropologists have, either intentionally or from lack of knowledge, failed to take note 
of the psychological or physiological phenomena which would at once attract the atten- 
tion of observers familiar with hypnotism aud the pheuomena commonly termed 
spiritualistic ; and in part on the fact that the possibilities of suggestion are increased, 
though perhaps the sensibility is diminished in proportion as man rises in the scale of 

Dr. Stoll classifies suggestions into direct and indirect. Direct suggestions are 
such as depend on direct nervous stimulation combined with the results of experience 
as preserved by memory, and include all sounds, so far as they are audible, as well as 
impressions conveyed through the senses of sight, touch, taste, and smell. The sounds of 
understood language and other stimuli, so far as they convey ideas and are less directly 
dependent on immediate sense impressions for their effect, are termed indirect or secon- 
dary suggestions. From this it is clear that in dealing with suggestions Dr. Stoll draws 
no clear line of distinction between effects due to the association of ideas aud effects which 
may be properly referred to suggestion. How far this view of the case carries him may 
be seen from an example on p. 392, in which the Gilbcrtian idea of making the punish- 
ment fit the crime is regarded as a case of suggestion. Jf the work has lost none of its 
interest for the general reader by the refusal of its author to attempt a definition of 
his subject and determine roughly where psychical suggestion, as we may term it into 
contradistinction to the ordinary use of the word, the scientific reader will probably 
regret the somewhat wide field which the author has undertaken to cover. 

It could hardly under the circumstances be expected that Dr. Stoll would desire or 
be able to give us an exhaustive discussion of any of the numerous problems on which 
he touches. To take ouly one example, he quotes only one case of the fire-walk, and 
does not seem to know that Mr. Lang has collected and discussed a large number of 
cases. Prima facie wc have no reasuu to suppose that a certain amount of auto- 
suggestive amesthesia during the performance of the rite, followed by a suppression of 
inflammatory symptoms, for which European hypnotic clinics can supply parallels, will 
uot suffice to explaiu the facts. This question, and mauy others raised by Dr. Stoll, is 
complicated by the necessity of discussing the value of the evidence. It has often been 
asserted that the skin of the fire -walkers shows no signs of the application of heat, 
but this assertion is hardly borne out by the evidence of competent witnesses, and 
scientific evidence of the temperature to which the skin has been exposed is, as a rule, 
lacking. In oue case at least (Hull, de la Soc. de Geog. Xormande, X. 396) a 3inell of 
burning flesh is asserted to have beeu perceived during an analogous performance. 

The ordeal just alluded to was undergone by a member of a sect whom Dr. Stoll, 
singularly enough, does not mention — the Aissaoua. The narrative contains even more 
sensational incidents, as to the reality of which the narrator, a member of a French 
mission, seems to have entertained no doubt. One dervish, for example, is said to have 
taken a rapier and passed it through his body from side to side just beneath the ribs. 
When it was drawn out only slight traces of blood ^\ere apparent. Dr. Stoll cites some 
aualogous cases from Siberia (p. 31) and does not seem disposed to consider the difficult 
question of malobservation, errors of memory, hallucination, or trickery, though it is 
(dear that we cannot discuss problems of this nature with profit without some attempt 
to estimate the siiare of any or all these elements in the story as we read it. 

Another difficult question, which is uot discussed by Dr. Stoll, is the alleged 
immunity against snake and other poisons attributed to certain persons, amongst others, 

[ 67 1 

Nos. 36-37.] MAN. [1904. 

the Aissaoua. Waring tells us {Coll. of Mod, Voyages* VI. 53) that he saw his servant 
stung by a scorpion, accidentally discovered beneath a bed, aud asserts that the man 
suffered from no ill-effects. The other servants, who did not claim this magical power, 
termed Dum* unfortunately refused to allow the scorpion to sting them, and the 
question whether it was temporarily innocuous remained unsettled. 

In dealing with lycanthropy Dr. Stoll quotes the statement in Pierce's Life* 
according to which hyenas, which are the wer-animals of Abyssinia, are frequently found 
with rings in their ears. These he supposes to have been put there by the Budas, who 
have the reputation of being able to transform themselves. It is rather singular that he 
does not quote the far more striking story of Coffin, who hired one of these Budas, 
and apparently shared iu a collective hallucination, if the facts, reported unfortunately at 
second-hand, are correct. The Buda got leave one evening to absent himself till 
morning, and left the camp in broad daylight. Coffin had hardly turned his head when 
some of his other servants called out that the Buda was turning into a hyena. On 
looking he saw only a large hyena, a hundred paces distant on an open plain without 
a bush to hide anyone. With this may be compared a vaguer story given in a note 
to Rawlinson's Herodotus* IV. 105. It is a matter for regret that neither of the 
observers had the presence of mind to try a crucial experiment with a shot-gun. 

On the whole, fascinating as Dr. Stoll's exposition of his subject is, his book would 
have been, from the scientific point of view, far more valuable if the arrangement had 
been topical instead of topographical. A complete discussion of a few problems would 
have been more useful if not more interesting than a work dealing with such essen- 
tially different questions as profound physiological modifications due to suggestion and 
auto-suggestion on the one hand and subjective hallucinations, the advantage to a doctor 
of a good bedside maimer, and the influence of quack remedies on the other. 

The index is hardly on a scale commensurate with the size or importance of the 
book. Even if the arrangement of the facts had been topical and a good table of 
conteuts had been provided, 400 entries for a book of nearly 750 pages would have beeu 
short measure. As it is, nothing short of reading the work through will enable one to 
find all the data on a given question such as lycanthropy. In other words, its utility 
as a work of reference is greatly impaired. N. W. T. 

Egypt. Qarstang. 

Tombs of the Third Egyptian Dynasty. By John Garstang, B.A., B.Litt., g\^ 
F.S.A. London: Constable, 1904. 70 pp. and 33 quarto plates. 32 x 26 cm. Uf 
Price 2 1 s. 

It is only three years since Mr. Garstang's discoveries revealed the first traces of 
the third dj nasty at Bet Khallaf in Upper Egypt, a few miles north of Abydos. In 
the preseut work he follows up his previous account of the period with the record of a 
second season's work in the same neighbourhood. The book is far the best which has 
yet come from his pen and will constitute a valuable addition to the library alike of the 
Egyptologist aud of the general archaeologist. Excavations which were conducted with 
the most conscientious care and minuteness are chronicled in a form which shows that 
the author has devoted much time and thought to the co-ordination and arrangement of 
bis material. Some well-drawn plans and a number of collotype plates of unusual 
excellence illustrate the well-ordered description of the exploration, which is amplified 
by several chapters of a more general historical character. The reader will appreciate 
the author's efforts to present his conclusions in a readable style ; in which, though his 
literary craftsmanship is by no means faultless, he achieves a considerable measure of 
success. In the technique of publication there is little to criticise except a want of 
uniformity in the style of numbering adopted for the plates, and the selection of a paper 
which is rather too unsubstantial for a book that must necessarily be much handled. 

[ 58 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 37. 

At the beginning of the volume is placed a short list of dates, in whbh it must he 
observed that Mr. Garstnng has chosen to follow the new Germau scheme of chronology. 
In spite of certaiu advantages that it offers there are grave objections to this system, 
which has met with little acceptance ontside Berlin ; and we doubt whether it is 
advisable to substitute it even for the unsatisfactory dating in common use. The first 
chapter is introductory and is followed by an able exposition of a thesis on " the con- 
tinuity of the Early History," which a Fachgenosse may allow himself to criticise. 
Mr. Gars tang maiutains that the whole trend of recent archaeological discovery teuds to 
prove the u n broke u continuity of the archaic civilisation. The great pyramid-builders, 
in his view, only inherited and developed a culture bequeathed to them by the first three 
dynasties, and these latter (the " proto-dynastic people") did nothing more than elaborate 
the details of a life which was fixed in all essentials during the pre-dynastic period. It 
is here that we should join issue with our author. He places the beginning of the first 
dynasty — not, indeed, without authority — at the point 80 in the system of "sequence- 
dates." We should prefer to place it at sequence-date 70, and this alteration would 
destroy much of the force of the argument that the products of the latest pre-dynastic 
are identical with those of the earliest proto-dynastic time. The question would then 
be — Is the civilisation after sequence-date 70 so different from what precedes it as to 
necessitate the hypothesis of a different origin ? Here a point of cardinal importance is 
the exact date of the introduction of hieroglyphs, and we cannot unreservedly accept 
Mr. Garstang's argument on the subject. He adduces the El Amrah slate and certain 
inscribed vases of uudoubted predyuastic type which were purchased from a dealer as 
proof that the knowledge of writing is older than the first dynasty. But it is still open 
to doubt whether the sign on the El Amrah slate is strictly hieroglyphic, and while it 
may be couceded that there is no evident trace of forgery in the letters upon the bought 
vase s, yet they stand alone against the strong negative evidence of many hundreds of 
pre dyuastic tombs which have been opened by trained archaeologists who have not found 
in them a single trace of writing. Until unimpeachable examples can be brought 
forward to prove the coutrary we shall continue to hold that the introduction of hiero- 
glyphic writing is only contemporary with the first dynasty ; aud tliat an innovation of 
such significance may justifiably be viewed as markiug a discontinuity of culture though 
not necessarily a discontinuity of race. 

On the other hand, the assertion that the third dynasty is in respect of its civilisation 
the natural successor of the first and second and the no less natural precursor of the 
fourth is amply demonstrated by the facts recorded in these pages. Many of the types 
of pottery and objects characteristic of the first and second dynasties survive in the 
third with an admixture of precisely those which have hitherto been regarded as peculiar 
to the Old Kingdom, and a series of illustrations exemplifies the evolution of the complete 
raastaba from the early stairway tombs. The comparative studies of tomb-construction 
indeed are among the most valuable features of the book. It is shown that the arch, 
of which the earliest appearance may now be dated to the third dynasty, was spon- 
taneously developed under the necessity of devising a means for spanning a wide space 
with brickwork ; and the stages which led to its invention are convincingly described 
and illustrated. Moreover, the observations made at Reqaqnah and in the neighl>ourhood 
have explained much that was obscure in the work of previous writers. Thus the 
stairway-tombs of El Kab are for the first time put into their proper relation, and a 
special chapter devoted to the curious pot burials shows that they must be regarded not 
as mere pauper graves but as a distinct and peculiar class of interment. 

The numerous objects found in the graves are fully figured in the plates and 
described in the text of this very complete memoir. D. UANDALL-MACIVEK. 

f 59 ] 

Kos. 38-39.] MAN. [1904. 

Ethnography. Keller. 

Queries in Ethnography. By Albert Galloway Keller, Pb.D., Assistant Pro- QQ 
feasor of the Science of Society in Yale University. Sew York : Longmans, JO 
1903. 16 x 10 cm. Price 2s. 

This baudy little manual of seventy pages will be found useful by travellers and 
others. It is admittedly inspired by tbe Notes and Queries on Anthropology issued 
by the Institute, and the writer frankly confesses his indebtedness to that volume. Tbe 
difference in plau, however, is slight, and Somatic anthropology is altogether omitted. 
Dr. Keller has grouped his questions under more general heads, such as Maintenance, 
Perpetuation, and the Societal System, including even language in the first of these 
divisions. There is in reality no essential difference between the present Queries and 
the Institute's publication, and I must confess my inability to see the difference of 
method in the queries themselves that Dr. Keller finds betweeu the two. The Iustiiute, 
however, welcomes any book likely to forward its studies, and this little volume may be 
included in that category. C. H. READ. 

British Genius. Ellis. 

A Study of British Genius. By Havelock Ellis. London: Hurst & Blackett, QQ 
1904. 22 x 13 cm. Price 7s. 6d. 0u 

The estimation of the amount aud distribution of genius iu the British Isles is a 
subject which has attracted the attentiou of Mr. Galtou, Sir Conan Doyle, aud other 
students of the scieuce of man, and in this work of Mr. Havelock Ellis the subject is 
agaiu dealt with in a very fascinating style, and more exhaustively than by any of his 
predecessors. The object of these studies appears to be to form some estimate of the 
mental capacity of a people by ascertaining the percentage of persons who pass above a 
certain high-water mark of ability, and to aseertaiu the biological and psychological 
characteristics of these men of genius. 

The publication of the Dictionary of National Biography has supplied the author 
with the material he requires. Out of the 30,000 names iu the famous dictionary he has 
selected about 1,000 (1,030) which he considers to be the most eminent. His method of 
selection appears to be as nearly perfect as is possible under the circumstances, and we 
may take it that if selections of 1,000 of the most eminent men were made by other 
independent persons there would be no substantial difference iu the geniuses included in 
the list. 

Cattell has estimated that of 1,000 most eminent persons iu the civilised world about 
one quarter are British. If this flattering estimate is correct the British people form one 
of the most promising fields for the study of genius. 

Mr. Ellis finds that the number of eminent men produced in the British Isles per 
century gradually increases from 5 in the eleventh century to 372 iu the eighteenth 
century. This increase is no doubt partly at least due to the increase of population and 
to the fact that the environment has become more favourable to the development of 
genius in the later centuries. 

The author, however, appears to forget the effect of this iucrease of the number of 
geniuses when he comes to the conclusion that the second halves of centuries produce 
more geniuses than the first halves. Taking the figures given for the seven centuries 
preceding the nineteenth we find that 313 geniuses were born in the first halves and 
479 in the second halves of the centuries [the numbers are incorrectly given by the 
author as 323 and 487]. This gives an excess of 166 in favour of the second halves. 
This looks a large difference, and at first sight would seem to imply that the purely 
arbitrary divisions of time had some influence on the production of genius. But the 
application of statistical analysis will show that there is no significant difference in 
the genius-producing power of people living in the first aud second halves of centuries. 

[ 60 ] 

1904.] MAN. [ff<K Ml 

Even if we neglect r.h*» Eniliieiiee of the increase of population we shall find* on making 
the necessary <?aI*aJa£R>«i,. that the ditFerenee between the means for the first and second 
half group-* won Li require to be four time* greater than what it is l»cfore we could be 
certain that there was any reaL drtferenee iri the genius -producing power of the peopl* iu 
the two jrroap** tbat are being com pared. 

The above i* deed as aa example that erroneous conclusions mar l»c dr&wu from 
difference* of average* when the material we are dealing with is uot perfectly uuilfortu 
and homogeneous. When the material, dealt with consists of a finite number of units* all 
differing more or le^s from the average of the group, the difference between each pair of 
sampler drawn for comparison will pcobaMy be different, so that no safe conclusion e&u 
lie drawn from the difference of one pair of samp'es. This, however* is what Mr. Kllis 
is continually doing throughout this work : be makes no allowance for the variation in 
his groap>s nv for numbers in his group*. His conclusions may happeu in most 
case? to W right* but thev cannot be received as established scientific conclusions till the 
nece*sary statistical analysis has been made. 

WitL tills reservation we may accept temporarily the many interesting conclusions 
which Mr. Ellis has arrived at from his study of British genius. Mr. Kilts finds that 
of his geiiin«es 659 are Ecglisb. 28 Welsh, 137 Scotch, 63 Irish, aud the re^ mixed. 
This on the b*.-i* of present population gives per unit of population 21 to En&laud ami 
Wales. CO to Scotland, and 14 to Ireland. The best geuius-producing crosses among 
British nationalities are English and Welsh, but English and French has proved a far 
superior cross to any purely native mixture. 

In England there are three principal genius producing districts ; — (H East Anglia 
(Norfolk. Suffolk, and Essex) ; (2) south-west district (Wilts, Somerset, Dorset, Devon, 
an* J Cornwall; : (3) Welsh border i Gloucester, Warwick, Hereford, Shropshire, and 
Cheshire >. Each district appears to produce a distinctive class of genius ; the south* 
west district, for example, has produced by far the largest number of distinguished 
sailors, while the genius of the Welsh bonier district is artistic and poetic. 

Scotland stands at the head of the list for the production of distinguished soldiers 
and scientific men. Ireland excels in one thing only, namely, in the production of actors 
and actresses. 

Of all social classes the clergy, in proportion to their numbers produce the largest 
numl>er of geniuses : they also produce the largest number of idiot*. Carpenters stand 
far ahead of other craftsmen as producers of genius ; 35 per cent, of distinguished artists 
are the sons of carpenters. No eminent sons of doctors have ever become doctors. 

It appears lhat the p.ireuts of geniuses have much larger families than the normal. 
The average size of the normal family is 1*5, while the average si/e of the gcuiu*- 
producing family is 6'5. From an examination of the figures given this fact appears to 
be well established, and not merely due to chance, and it appears to ha\e a most 
important bearing on the theory of the origin of genius. 

Mr. Ilavelock Ellis is of the opinion that there is a close- connection between genius 
ami idiocy. He is opposed, however, to the view expressed by some other writers, that 
genius is connected with insanity, seeing that only 4*2 per cent, of his 1,(KK) became in. Mine. 
It appears to me that the occurrence of genius aud idiocy in largo families merely 
indicates a wide rang>3 of variation iu such families ; we get, therefore, a wider range of 
mental capacity without any groat difference in the average. Genius, on thirt view, 
though occurring in the same family with idiocy, would be at the opposite polo of mental 
capacity, ami it would be illogical to assume that there was any affinity between them. 

Mr. Ilavelock Ellis has evidently expended an enormous amount of painstaking 
labour on this work. It is only a preliminary sketch of the whole of the material lie 
has collected, and it is to be hoped that he will soon present us with a more elaborate 
exposition of this interesting subject. J. (1 HAY. 


Nos. 40-41.] MAN. [1904. 


Buddhism : An Illustrated Quarterly Review. Vol. I., No. 2, December, m ft 
1903. Rangoon: The International Buddhist Society, 1903. 24 X 16 cm. *HJ 
Price 2 rupees (3*.). 

This review is an interesting result of the mutual interaction of East and West. In 
it are found articles by European scholars, which, bring the light of modern research to 
bear upon the writings and doctrines of Buddhism, and others by Burmese Buddhists 
who have been influenced by the results of Western enquiry. 

The article of greatest interest to non-specialists is that by the editor, Bhikkhu 
Anauda Metteya, on the recognition by the British Government of the appointment of 
the Thathanabaing or Patriarch of Burmese Buddhism, sometimes spoken of as the 
Burmese Archbishop. This statesmanlike act of Lord Curzon has evidently been 
received with the greatest enthusiasm by the population of Burma, and an extremely 
interesting account is given of the circumstances which led to the election, and the 
promulgation of the Sanad by Sir Hugh Barnes, the Lieutenant-Governor, at a durbar 
attended by all the leading men of the province and hundreds of yellow-clad monks. 
Such a ceremony may be taken as a demonstration that the British Government is not, 
as some think, devoid of sympathy with the desires and aspirations of the races gathered 
within the fold of the Indian empire. 

To anthropologists, and students of folklore in particular, the account given of the 
legend of Upagutta in an article by Maung Kin is of the greatest interest. It is clearly 
of non-Buddhist origin, and is reprobated by the learned iu the faith, but is believed in 
by the mass of the people. In the contest between Upagutta and the wicked Mara we 
may recognise one of the origins of the widely-spread tale of the struggle between the 
good and evil magicians who go through a series of transformations. 

Professor Rbys Davids, in his article on Pali and Sanskrit texts, brings forward his 
views on Sanskrit and Prakrit, which he has dealt with more fully in his recent volume 
on Buddhist India. Although Sanskrit scholars, as a body, are by no means converted, 
it cannot be denied that Professor Rhys Davids makes out a verv good case for his 
theory that Sanskrit ceased to be a spoken language before the period to which the 
earliest Buddhist inscriptions (in Prakrit) belong, and that the classical Sanskrit of 
Inter times was never, iu the true sense of the words, a spoken language ; that is, that it 
was never the mother- tongue of any part of northern Iudia, but ouly the language of the 
learned, like Latin in the Middle Ages, a positiou it has maintained without a break up to 
the present day, while the modern dialects derived from the Prakrits have gone on side 
by side with it as the real languages of the people. 

In "Transmigration" Ananda Metteya makes a very interesting attempt to 
reconcile the Buddhist doctrine of transmigration with the teaching of modern science. 
Other articles deserving of notice are '* The Bo-ta-taung Paya," by E. H. Seppings, and 
" In the Shadow of Shwe Dagou," by Anauda Metteya, which describes the training of 
a Buddhist novice. 

Buddhism deserves success. Not only are its contents excellent, but it is well got 
up, printed and illustrated, and is a credit to the place of its production. 


Rome : Archaeology. Burton-Brown. 

Recent Excavations in the Roman Forum, 1898-1904: A Handbook by m + 
E. Burton-Brown, with a preface by Commendatore Boni, director of the excava- ^T I 
tions. London: Murray, 1904. Pp. xvi -f 224. With nine photographic illustrations 
aud four plans. 16 x 10 cm. Price 3*. 6d. 

Mrs. Burton-Brown's very useful little book supplies a need that must have been 
felt by all English visitors to the Forum in the last few years who have not been 

[ 62 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Wo. 41. 

privileged to have the guidance of the excavators themselves, Hitherto the results of 
Commendatore Boni's systematic excavations have been accessible to students mainly 
through the tardy pages of the Notizie degli Scavi which, apart from their cost, are 
unwieldy and obscured by a mass of detail. A shorter Italian account by L. Vaglieri, 
Gh Scavi Recenti ncl Foro Romano, gives a rSsumi which is useful on the spot, whilst 
the pamphlet of Dr. Chr. Hulsen, Die Ausgrabungen auf dein Forum Romanum, 1898 - 
1902 (reprinted from the Mittheilungenof the German Iustitute in Rome, 1902), contains 
many valuable suggestions and criticisms of the work up to that date. But, with the 
exception of Mr. Rushforth's exhaustive paper on S. Maria Antiqua in the Papers of 
the British School at Rome, 1902, there was no trustworthy account in English of all 
the great discoveries that have been yielded in the last six years by a site which is, 
perhaps, the most interesting in Europe 

Mrs. Burton-Brown has very wisely made her volume of a portable size, so that 
those who are interested in the newly-found remaius can read their history on the spot. 
She has also given a slight sketch of the monuments already prominent, so that with 
her book in his hand the traveller need not be at a loss for the name and function of any 
of the shattered buildings that he will see within this wonderful enclosure. The accom- 
panying plans have the merit of exceeding simplicity ; all the confusing detail necessary 
for the archaeological specialist — for whom the book is not intended — is wisely omitted 
and only the essentials given with a clearness and accuracy that is admirable. 

The book is divided into thirteen chapters dealing respectively with the Forum in 
general, the fountain of Juturna, the JEdes Vestas, the Atrium Vestalium, the Regia, 
the Area of Vulcan, the Comitium, the Black Stone, the Rostra, the Forum under Julius 
Cresar, the Primitive Tombs, the Sacra Via, and the church of S. Maria Antiqua. 
There is also a useful explanatory note on Roman methods of building, an appendix 
giving a short bibliography, and a table of classical references illustrating the text, the 
last -named a very valuable adjunct. 

Although much of the matter dealt with is controversial, Mrs. Burton-Brown has 
succeeded in putting the main points at issue very clearly before the reader, at the same 
time explaining mythological references, &c, where necessary. Hence it will be possible 
for a visitor to form for himself some opinion of the value and importance of those 
remains which without adequate guidance he might pass over as insignificant. 

To criticise a few points in detail, it. may be noticed that many interesting parallels 
are drawn between early Roman and Athenian institutions, showing the similarity of 
many points in the two civilisations. But it is well to remember that the Dioscuri 
(p. 14) are not native Roman gods, but imported from Greece via* Etruria ; probably 
Postumius deliberately propitiated his enemies' gods in the war with Tusculum, and, 
gaining the victory, gratefully introduced their worship into Rome. 

Jn discussing the fountain of Juturna (p. 22) and the many vicissitudes it underwent 
it might have been well to mention that, though deeply buried in the Middle Ages, it 
never ceased to flow, and occasionally caused chasms to appear in the ground, so that 
the spot earned for itself the name of "The Hell " (Lanciani, Ruins and Excavations, 
p. 125). 

The octagonal foundation iu the Atrium Vest® (p. 46) is of fourth -century brickwork, 
and it was suggested in 1902 that it may have been erected by the vestals to enshrine 
the statue of Vesta from the Paiatiue temple when heathen worship was stopped by the 
edict of Gratian. 

The circular fountain mentioned on p. 87 shows signs of having been brought from 
elsewhere and carelessly reset, not accordiug to the numbering of the slabs. 

Mrs. Burton-Brown accepts the theory of Boni, that the arched building discovered 
between the site of the arch of Tiberius and that of Septimius Severus represents the 
rostra of Cajsar (p. 113). That the masonry is of the first century B.C. seems fairly 

L 63 ] 

Nos, 41-43.] MAN. [1904. 

•certain, but it is difficult to believe that this humble building with its low niches paved 
with broken brick, so soon masked at one end by the arch of Tiberius, is really the 
rostra of the period, unless it has lost some perishable facing, such as a veneer of marble 

It is interesting to notice in connection with the so-called " pozzi rituali " (p. 125) 
that there has recently been discovered a similar pit beneath the base of the equestrian 
statue of Domitian, clearly giving evidence of the inauguration of the monument, and 
proving by the simplicity and archaic type of the pottery which it contained the con- 
servatism of religious ritual at Rome (vide Morning Post for March 17, 1904). Similar 
sacred pits seem to be also characteristic of Athenian religion (£. A. Gardner, Ancient 
Athens, j>. 426). 

Perhaps a little more might have been said about the " strong rooms " in the base 
of the Temple of Castor (p. 136), of which Richter gives an interesting accouut 
(Topographie, p. 88, cf. Jahrbuch des k. d. arch. Instituts y 1898). 

In the description of the curious " prisons " — if prisons they are — beueath the wing 
of the Heroon Romuli (p. 166), it is surely misleading to speak of "flint concrete." 
Speaking from memory, the extraordinarily hard mass of rubble which I saw being cut 
laboriously away from these rooms was of lumps of lava (selce) from broken -up paving 
Hocks set in the firmest pozzolana concrete. 

It should also be observed that on the external wall of the Chapel of the Forty 
Martyrs (p. 189) were painted the same figures of Fathers, with the same quotations 
f from their works, as on the wall flanking the apse of- the church itself (p. 205). The 
identification of these quotation? is given at leugth in Mr. Rushforth's paper. 

A few errors might be corrected, e.g., p. 17, Curculius should be Curculio ; p. 23, 
Kallirhoc is the more usual spelling ; p. 82, the date of Guiscard's sack of Rome is 
1084, not 1048 ; p. Ill, Volsces might with advantage be altered to Vohci or 
Volscians ; page 185, surely Kyriakon (icvptaicdv) ; p. 190, ante-chamber, not anti-. 

A word must be said about the preface. Commendatore Boni's kindness to students 
is well known to all who have come into contact with him, and it adds not a little to the 
value of this book that he has, iu a prefatory note to it, expressed in English the aims 
of that great work which he is so ably carrying on, and which has already yielded such 
strikiug results. " C. H. BLAKISTON. 

Tibet. Bishop. 

Among the Tibetans. By Isabella L. Bishop, F.R.G.S. Loudon : Religious m j% 
Tract Society, 1904. Pp. 159. 18 X 12 cm. Price 1*. 6d. *tL 

At a time when Tibet is very much in the public notice, this cheap edition of 
Mrs. Bishop's book on the inhabitants of that mysterious region is particularly opportune, 
although the part of the country she visited was far removed from Lhasa, beiug, in fact, 
the Imbra valleys and the country round Leh, on the Kashmir border. Consequently 
the people she saw and mingled with are by no means strangers to the European. 
Mrs. Bishop spent four months in the country, and in this little book gives a very 
readable account of her experiences. Anthropologically the book is of little value, 
although there is a brief chapter on manners aud customs, to a great extent, uufortunately, 
at second hand, but as a popular account of a fascinating and little knowu people it has 
considerable merit. Mrs. Bishop is never dull, aud tells cf her experiences iu a pleasaut 
and chatty manner. She is particularly good in her descriptions of sceuery and of the 
beauties of the country. A very interesting account is given of her visit to a Lama 
monastery aud temples. 

The book is illustrated by pencil sketches made by the author. These are of unequal 
merit, but possibly have lost somewhat iu the reproduction. We cannot help feeling that 
a few good photographs would have been more satisfactory if less nrtinic. H. S. K. 

Printed by Kyke and 8potti&\voodk, Hir Mmesiv's t'riuterF, Lasi Harding Mreet, K.C. 

Plate E, 

Man, 1904, 





Fig. 6, — the granite threshold. 




[No. 43. 

Egrypt: Deir el-Bahari. With Plate E, Hall, 

Discovery of an Xlth Dynasty Temple at Deir el-Bahari, Egypt. m q 
Put tL & I tall, M.A. *t0 

evations of tli' tair el-Bubari, can tiring 

the i m under the direction of IV SariHe, assisted by myself, have resulted 

in the discovery of the oldest temple at I of the oldest 

temples hi Kl!'\ |H. It ia the funerary temple of the Pharaoh Meatohetep Ncbkherura, 
of the Xlth circa ml 2500. Most of tli» pillars fri 

veral of those of the hypostyle ball are Mill in place, and iu one place 
SOIft njil Xlth Dynasty coloured reliefs are faf, A temple of the 

early Middle Empire, ami one as well preserved as this, is a rarity. 

lay tuuier the heaps of debris immediately to the south of the great 
h. lit ■• l-Haliari temple (XVlIIth Dynasty, B.C. 1500). These heaps of d&rii are not 
merel\ tbe w l rubbish heaps left by former explorer* of the main temple; tl 

are merely en the surface. Beneath them is aie-i» rat dtbru July not been 

time, and beneath this, el iug from 8 to 20 

were found the pillars of the colonnade and hall. The pillars of the colonnade have not 
Keen seen possibly lifUM the Ramcssidc period, when, as Seems pcobable at present, the 
Xlth Dj tuple was overthrown. Vet it had been known tor D tore 

the I tecovery of tlie temple that some building nf Meoiobetep had existed sonn - 

'■■ir el-Hahavi, because both M, Marietta and MM . and E. B 

had found Blabs with the name of this king in the vicinity of the main temple ; 
but the situation of this building and its character, were unknown till the ex 
of tli!- season. A gt IS and one or two fragm {One! OOlfl 

v in the extreme tonthert] earner of the drqut of 
iri, at the mouth of a tomb excavated many years ago by Lord l)utl 
had been conjectured to belong to the uuknowu building of Mentuhetop, and the pvl 
excavations ns I Ihffl '<> be correct; they Jin- pillars from the hypostyle hail. 

lh< main portion temple is built upon an artificially -squared platform of 

I from the wall of the Harbor-shrine of the main temple by an open court 
aboill UK) feet across. Two sides of the platform have been uncovered during thih 
season's work, revealing a facing wall of fiae white limestone blocks, measuring some- 
time by nearly 4 feet, sci in bonded one large, one small, one large* one 
I, .hi q fottndaHon <>t great sandstone blocks •> feet across and I foot high. The 

oitifully tine, and the stonework can be placed among the best in Bgypt. 
1 1 h typical Middle Kingdom work (Plate E., Fie 

In front of the western face of the platform (the temple is oriented in the tame *ey 
SI the greet temple, the latter having beeu built parallel to it) is a colonnade, originally 
twenty-four square columns, each about 2 feet square ami aVool I I Eeef i r ■ 
hrejlii arranged la two rows of twelve each. One of these rows is perfect in number 
of column*, but all the columns are broken off at heights varying from 4 to 7 Ism 
tie ground. Kaeh bear- the cartouches MrrttuJictrp and Ncbkherura alternately, and 
the ka-u;iUM 3*Wh>TQW (Flats BL f FJgi 2). The pavement OS which the colonnade 
stands is perfectly preserved , as may )*e seen froni the accompanying photograph 
(Plat . 1). 

The facing wall of the Oolomiadc rae originally OOVered with reliefs, of which 

a fragment, r» <g a pros n< titU* The i tS facing 

wall has here been entirely rem ore. The pillars hear 

XlXth Dynasty graffiti, wind, shows that at that time the building was falling into 

tlOD took place prol 

-, ] 

No. 43.] MAN. [1904. 

At the end of the colonnade is the ramp, leading up to the top of the platform 
15 to 18 feet above the colonnade. This ramp is not jet uncovered. It goes up to a 
door-threshold of splendidly polished red granite, in situ (Plate E., Fig. 6), one of the 
finest things found. Of the remains of the gate itself, which was probably a red granite 
trilithon, like that, still existing, of the main temple, nothing has yet been found. This 
gate probably marks the centre of the hypostyle hall of octagonal columns on to which 
it opens (Plate E., Fig. 4). These columns are small and thin, their circular bases 
measuring 4 feet across ; the intercolumniations are very small, measuring only about 
7 feet from centre to centre. The best preserved of those in position is 9 feet high. 
This bears the cartouche of Mentuhetep on the western face, as did all the rest originally. 
On one the label of a Barneses has also been cut. These columns, like those of the 
colonnade, are of a dark grey sandstone, with a white colour-wash over them ; the 
hieroglyphs are painted sometimes blue, sometimes yellow. 

Of the walls of the hypostyle hall only the two lowest courses of fine limestone blocks 
remain at any point. These walls were originally decorated with coloured reliefs, of which 
many fragments were found. They are of two or three different styles, varying greatly 
in merit, some fulfilling our traditional idea of the rude work of the Xlth Dynasty, 
while others are of very fine work, like the best Xllth Dynasty, Tha latter may well 
be the work of the famous sculptor Mertisen, who flourished in the reign of Nebkherura. 
The subjects are those appropriate to the funerary chapel of a king ; scenes relating to his 
coronation, processions of warriors and magnates, among whom the captain Kheti and 
the judge Beza seem to have been among the most prominent, scenes of boat-buildiug 
and cattle-numbering, &c. From the smashed condition of these reliefs, none of which 
have as yet been found in situ, it is evident that the temple was at some period purposely 
overthrown and broken up, aud the fact that a large number of wooden mallets, wedges, 
and levers, as well as a fine copper chisel with hardened edge, were found among the 
debris, confirms this conclusion. They are the lost or thrown away tools of the 
Ramesside workmen who broke up the temple. 

A number of fragments of statues and stelae were found, some of which show that 
the King Nebkherura was worshipped here as a tutelary deity of Deir el-Bahari in 
conjunction with Amen-Ra. On one battered figure, of the later Middle Kingdom, 
is an inscription containing adorations to the Sun-god and mentioning the land of Punt. 
I thought at first that it also contaiued a mention of the Hyksos King (?) Aapehti, to 
whose period it belongs, but further examination of it has convinced me that this is 
uncertain. In the court was found a rubbish deposit containing a great uumber of 
objects of blue faience, beads, scarabs, fragments of blue bowls and cups, &c, some 
of which were obviously votive offerings from the Hathor-shrine in the main temple, 
thrown down into the court by the priests when the sanctuary became too full. 
They vary in date from the Xllth to the XXXth Dynasty, the major portion being of 
the XVIIIth. 

The excavation of the Xlth Dynasty temple is now about half completed : when 
finished its grouud-plan will be of the highest interest to students of Egyptian archi- 
tecture. One thing is already clear, that the main idea of the great temple of Deir 
el-Bahari, which Senmut built for Hatshepsut, with its terraces and colonnades, is taken, 
not from the u terraced hills " of Punt or Somaliland, but simply from the older temple 
to the south, in which we have the prototype of the great temple, with its terrace, 
colonnade, and ramp, on a small scale. Only the arrangements on top of the platform 
are different in the two temples. Hatshepsut's temple was then in the time of the 
XVIIIth Dynasty a magnificent piece of archaism. H. R. HALL. 

[ CG ] 

1904.] MAN. [ffo. 44. 

Totemism. Lang. 

A Theory of Arunta Totem ism. By Andrew Lang. m m 

Messrs. Spencer and Gillen have shown that totemism, among the Arunta and ^T 
their neighbours towards the north, is highly peculiar. The totem is not, as elsewhere, 
hereditary, either in the male or female line ; men aud women of the same totem 
may marry, contrary to universal law elsewhere, children derive their totems from the 
local ghosts (who haunt the Oknanikilla or spots where the ancestors of the " dream 
time" "went underground ") near the supposed place of each child's conception. Such 
Oknanikilla (ghostly local totem centres marked by rocks or trees) are scattered all 
about the country. 

Thus totems do not, as elsewhere, mark any exogamous limit. Exogamy is 
determined by each person's "matrimouial class, 11 and the class depends on that of 
each child's father. Among the living, as among the dead, totems are local, the people 
at one place may be almost all cats, or emus, or grubs, and so on. 

Thus the Arunta totems have no importance in social law, they come to the front 
chiefly at Intichiuma, where men of a totem work magic for the purpose of its increase 
as part of the tribal food supply. 

It has been suggested by Mr. Spencer and Mr. J. G. Frazer that, perhaps, the 
Arunta may be the original or oldest extaut form of totemism. Originally totem groups 
may have merely been co-operative magical societies, with no bearing on marriage law. 
In other places the totems only became exogamous after an exogamous bi-section of 
the horde was made, and when no totem was allowed to occur in both exogamous 
divisions — " primary classes " or " phratries." The Arunta did not thus arrange their 
totems,- all other men did, therefore the Arunta totems alone are not exogamous.* 

The objections to this view are patent. The "primitive" type of Australian 
tribe, in Mr. Howitt's opiuion, has two phratries, with the arrangement that no totem 
kin occurs in both. "Matrimonial classes," the primitive type has none, and descent is 
reckoned in the female line. The Arunta reckon in the male line, and have no known 
phratries, only four or eight opposed sets of " matrimonial classes." Totems, thanks to 
the Arunta method of obtaining them by the accident of locality, are not confined to either 
opposed set of exogamous classes, and, therefore, are not exogamous. Now, local 
totemism is the necessary result of reckoning in the male line, it can have no other 
cause, and such reckoning cannot be primitive ; therefore, Arunta totemism is not 
primitive. But let us observe that among the Arunta reckoning in the male line must 
be very old. Their myths allow for no other mode of reckouing, even in the " Dream 
time " — the Alcheringa. This is obvious, because the wandering ancestors in the myths 
are always vagrant groups, setting out from a local totem centre, while in each case all 
the members are of one totem. This can only occur, in fact, under a system of reckoning 
in the male Hue. Given three brothers, all emus, their children, whatever the totems of 
their mothers may be, are all emus also. Thus, even now, most members of an Arunta 
local group are all of one totem.f 

Yet this is a very extraordinary fact, because to-day the Arunta do not inherit 
totems from their fathers. Thus the prevalence of local totemism to-day can only be 
accounted for by one explanation. Each group must wander in search of food in an 
area where the Okuanikilla, or ghostly local totem centres, are mainly all of one totem, 
which communicates itself to the children. 

At Alice Springs, where the natives are almost exclusively Grubs by totem, they 
must have been conceived, almost exclusively, at places where their ancestors of the 
then local totem Grub " went under ground." No other explanation is conceivable. 
Therefore, the Arunta hold, rightly or wrongly, that even in the dream time their 

* Se^ Mr. Spencer io Journ. Anthr. Inst., XXVIII., 275-80 ; Mr. Frazer, 281-86. 
t Xa tires of Central Australia, p. 9. 

[ 67 ] 

No. 44.] MAN. [1904. 

mythical ancestors were in local totem groups, which, again, can now only he the result 
of reckoning in the male line, which is not primitive. 

At each Oknanikilla the ghosts of men of the dream-time, who lived in local totem 
centres, u went under ground M — practically, were buried. Their ghosts specially haunt 
the churinga, or stone amulets, engraved with totem ic devices, which are found on the 
spot. When a child is born, the churiuga that was his in a previous stage of existence 
is hunted for, and is sometimes found. Mr. Spencer supposes that an old man pur- 
posely drops a churinga on the spot, but he knows natives who have actually found 
them.* If they cannot find a stone churinga they make one — of wood. It does not 
seem to me that it would be easy to drop an old stone churinga, " and the same with 
intent to deceive," because each stone churinga has its known owner in the tribe, 
and all are kept in sacred hiding places, Ertnatulunga, aud are frequently taken out, 
rubbed with ochre, carefully reviewed, and used for magical rites. 

It is plain that the people, the supposed ancestors, who dropped the stone churinga 
all over the place, did not, as now the Arunta do, regulate the descent of these articles, 
when an owner died or a totem group became extinct, by the present well-organised 
system of inheritance. Each churinga now is carefully conveyed to its proper legal 
Ertnatulunga. Clearly this was not the rule in the dream time. Nothing is said to that 
effect in the myths, as reported ; the mythical ancestors merely dropped their churinga 
where they went under ground. No longer are they thus dropped, they are carefully 
guarded, but the myth has to take the shape that they were dropped of old, because 
the churinga are found, near the Nanja, or spirit trees, of the dead ancestors. 

Thus, the Ertnatulunga, the sacred places where churinga are kept, are a relatively 
later institution. 

In themselves the churinga are but inscribed stone amulets, of a class familiar to 
American and Portuguese archaeologists, and not unkuowu in Scotland. My conjecture 
is that the Arunta, having found these objects in old local totem centres, mythically 
cemeteries, have imagined that the amulets are specially haunted by old local totemic 
ghosts of ancestors, and on that belief have based their actual and most peculiar theory 
of re-iucaruatiou of the said local totem ghosts, and also their own practice of thiib 
locally inheriting the totem in association with the haunted churinga. 

For we must remark, that eliminating the churinga belief, the Arunta system of 
totemism is nothing at all but the familiar and confessedly secondary system of totemism 
with descent in the male line, aud, consequently, with local totem centres as at 
present. It is the churinga belief, and nothing else, that has made it possible for the 
same totem to appear in both opposed sets of matrimonial classes, so that a kangaroo 
may marry a kangaroo, by totem, so long as she is in the matrimonial class, not his own 
into which he must marry. The totemic spirit " deliberately chooses to go into a 
" Kumara instead of a Bukhara woman, so the natives say " — that is, into a woman of 
the wrong class — write Messrs. Spencer and Gillen.f Even now, the great majority 
of members of each totem still belong to one of the two exogamous moieties of the tribe, 
what we call phratries in tribes of primitive type.J 

Now totems among the Arunta would be exogamous, as elsewhere, if, as elsewhere, 
each totem belonged entirely to one only of the exogamous moieties, or sets of matri- 
monial classes. But the churinga belief enables a person to belong to a class which is 
not that of his Alcheringa ancestor. § Therefore it is plain that the churinga belief 
causes the Arunta abnormality : the totems are not exogamous. Messrs. Spencer and 
Gillen themselves say : " It seems as if in the central Australian tribes the totemic system 
" has undergone a somewhat curious developmental 

* Natives of Central AmtraUa, p. 132. f iVitfir* Tribe* y p. 125. 

X Op. c'tt., 125 ; for examples see pp. 169, 189. 
§ Op. tit, p. 125. || Op. cit., p. 211. 

[ 68 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 44 45. 

That is precisely my own argument. The system of the Arunta hud, quite 
normally, reached the stage of totem ism with local totem centres, due to reckoning in 
the male line. At this point arose the churinga belief, which causes the abnormality. 
That very peculiar and unusual belief is due to speculation about the stone churinga 
found at Nanja — trees or rocks believed to mark the burial places, practically, of 
ancestors. Excavations might elucidate that point though the churinga are not dug up, 
they are " surface-finds." The belief cannot and does not arise in places where totem - 
marked stone churinga are unknown. In all probability the marks— concentric circles, 
half circles, and other archaic ornaments— familiar in European sites, palaeolithic or 
neolithic, had originally no totemic significance. That is only the explauation given by 
the myth. 

If these elucidations be deemed probable, they merely fall into line with the regular 
evolution of totemism. " All abuormal instances," writes Mr. Howitt, " I have fouud to 
" be connected with changes in the line of descent. The primitive and complete 
" forms" (of totemism) "have uterine descent, and it is in cases where descent is 
" counted in the male line that I find the most abnormal forms to occur." * 

Of all forms the Arunta is the most abnormal, and the abnormality is due to the 
churinga belief, arising in a society where, already, reckoning in the male line prevailed. 
The Intichiuma, or totemic magic rites, are not found, to my kuow ledge, amoug tribes 
with phra tries and female descent, except amoug tribes which are near neighbours of 
the Arunta, such as the Urabunna and Dieri, and, in these cases, may be explained by 
borrowing, which is demonstrably very active in Australia. 

If there is right reason in these remarks, we need not look for the origin of 
totemism among the peculiar practices of the Arunta, with their absence of phratries, 
their numerous matrimonial classes, their totem local centres, their inheritance of office 
and class in the male liue, and their peculiar churinga superstition, itself based on a myth 
accounting for the discovery of stone amulets near burial places, real or supposed. 

It cannot be denied that Arunta totemism, save for the churinga superstition, is 
only ordinary totemism with reckoning in the male line. I may err in guessing at the 
origin of the churinga superstition, but, undeniably, it can only exist where stone 
amulets exist, and is a consequence, not the cause of their existence. And it would 
not have existed if the preseut customs of sacred treasure house**, Ertnatulunga, and 
definite inheritance of the churinga of the dead, had always, from the first, beeu observed. 
I do not mean that belief in the reincarnation of ancestral spirits is peculiar to the Arunta, 
of course, but that the association of the belief with the stone amulets found at Oknanikilla 
is the only cause of the non-exogamous character of Aruuta totems. 


Fiji. Allardyce. 

The Fijians in Peace and War. Being an Abstract of a Lecture de- *P 
firered before the Anthropological Institute on February 23, 1904, by the Hon. w%3 
/F. L. Allardyce, C.M.G. 

According to the native tradition Fiji was peopled by immigration. Three brothers 
landed at Vunda on the north-west coast of Viti-Levu, and after living there for a short 
time went up into the hills. Here the eldest brother became ill, and calling his people 
to him, bent them out to colonise the other islands of the group, which iu this way 
received their population. It is interesting to note that the word 4fc Vunda " means 
u our origin." The tradition of au origin from the north-west receives further confirma- 
tion from the belief current eoneerning the spirits of the departed. Across Viti-Levu 
run* a spirit path called by the natives Sala ni ya!o, along which travel the ghosts of 
the dead, until, niutr many adventures, they reach Vunda, whence the ghosts plunge 

• U'pvrt of BsgtHi* of the Smithsonian InMUmtion, 1883, |». 801. 

No. 45.] 



iuto the ocean and finallyfriiut it io the home of their an jiatlfl OQ \ 

Levu further regard tbems e people, but ?>> «tmon st- 

salutation « 

frequently passes be 
i mitt v. 

distances apu 

i he J Meet — Kai Vu nS 

-^ Xouof my foun- 
dation h )« In spit 
this belief, I jos 
physical type through- 
out the group i 

i rid a eer- 

tain admixture of Poly- 

;i blood and culture 

appeal! to have taken 

place, particularly in the 

: n portion of the 

group. In Viti-Lrvn and Vanua Lcvu the Melunesinn dominates, but further east may 
l>e met individuals with longer liair, which shows a tendency to bang over, a lighter skin, 
and more refined i In the 

inland parts the houses are conical 
in shape, with a centre post and 

;i tingle door, and covered with a 
shag -it j on the ooaal iliey 

are oblong with an angled roof 
supported by a projecting ridge- 
pole (Fig. 1). The latter, in the 
case of the dwellings of chiefs, is 
ornamented at the etids with 
DOWrieBi In the so nth -east are 
Found houses with rounded end*, 
a sure Sign of Polynesian in- 
line nee. Ill* chief's house is a 
large erection, divided by a par- 
tition iuto two portions, 
which serves as the chiefs private 
apartments, and the other as the 
common moating plaee of the 

village. On this partition are 
fastened various official doetttto 
relating to matters a wait in 

the chief, phi red V#b( 
they will catch his eye when, 
he enters bis private dwelling 
The bouse is btiill by 
the united effortaof the villagers, and in return the chief baa to si > the builders 

are prop rise remunerated. House*bnildlog ia on thi aunal 

principle, a division of the Iribe being responsible for n section* 

L 70 ] 

I it;. 2. — IS i KfitOR "i • in l.i - 1 ML 



[No. 45. 

I b( veral kind- used on the 

i bringing produce down t<> the e i roads >r in 

many ca s e s followed the heights, and were thi for transport. For 

irJng there is a cm i which is k. . and a large 

trian This form of 1 1 sail very slot wind, bill mil 

deal of red with an oar. [q the old 'i i the 

>f two canoes connected by ■ platform, with a 

the attention of two 

the industries of the Fijiana the mosl important phically is tb< 

y, an art which la practised Lu a few oub ms, Next to 

of formality and l. and in thin 

connection the Fijian* observe i Technically the 

owner of the a the Cava u drank has je of taking the Bret 

k, hut in pna v wain _ht in favooi of the bight 

present Attn ihe chief 

his bencb 

nivaji the 

rlgbl of 

drinking, thru the ohief 
then J 1 1 =-* 
Matauivamia, and - 

The oat&vea have 
dances, which they per- 
reriona " 

; in One Of tl 

the -pear dance, the 
performers a p p 
swathed in mauj folda 
of ba • much of 

which is renio?ed and 
uteri to the on- 


War was common in the old days between the many chiefs and their respective 
retaiti jrs< Before the commencement of operations the aneei always 

raited* Fighting took the form mainly of ambuscade* and desultory skirmishing in 
the hush ; en its in the op rate* The Fijian attitude towards war is 

well seen in the I apler, which may be translated : — 

♦* p Tii Dei tain death to brai 
Tis hut a feel to join the rout 
In t8M tWO I eaten in Vanua Levu, and the lecturer 

country \% i t f i some of the native eonstabolai est the pc the 

fllC follow 

place, The ; rr> the front, am him 

shouted, "Do yon set an ? row attendee will to-morrow.* 1 Be retired, and another 

"I am the folio id; I am the south-eu-t trade; I 

wilt tore me. M Then aootn aud musket, the I 

ground with the wot.!-. M the ohtb tn but not 

i the locality refased to deliver up theerfmii 
iri on a hdl, surrounded on three si 
and on the lonth bj tl e, from which 

[ 71 ] 

No. 45.] MAN. [1904. 

floated long streamers of white native cloth, and fortified with large branches of orange 
trees. The fort was stormed, captured, and burnt. Among the objects found in the 
village were some " mbotha." These mbotha are memorials of slain warriors. It was 
formerly the custom when a man was killed in war to wrap his head or waist cloth 
round his spear and keep it in memory of him. The custom has long been obsolete, and 
consequently the mbotha are very rare. 

With regard to the fire- walking ceremony, which is performed only on the island 
of Beqa and by the members of a particular tribe, the following legend is told of its 
origin. In the old days in the village of Navaikaisese lived an old storyteller of the 
name of Dredre. It was the custom to gather on certain days in a house and listen to 
the legends he used to relate and to reward his services with a present. A certain man 
named Tui Qalita was informed that he would be expected to provide the reward on 
the next occasion, so he took his digging-stick and went to a spring where he knew was 
a large eel. He dug and dug but found nothing, until at last he felt a hand at the 
bottom of the excavatiou ; further efforts disclosed an arm, then a head, and finally he 
pulled out a man, who immediately begged the finder to spare his life. Tui Qalita 
refused, meaning to serve up his captive as a present for Dredre. The following 
dialogue then took place : — 

u Spare me and I will be your god of war." 

" That is no good to me ; my troops are always victorious." 

" I will be your god of property." 

"I always import my cloth." 

" Your tiqa god." (Tiqa is a game played with a weighted stick.) 

" My tiqa-stick flies always far beyond the rest." 

" Your god of women." 

" Heaven forfend ! No ; you must be my present to Dredre." 

Tui Qalita then asked his name, and he replied, " Tui Namoliwai, and my home is 
«* the home from which you have unearthed me. Permit me once again to speak, sir. 
" Hereafter you people of Sawau shall bake Masawe (Dracaena). Let you and me be 
" baked together with it for four nights. This power I will confer on you." 

After much persuasion Tui Qalita at last consented ; both emerged from the oven 
unharmed, and Tui Namoliwai conferred the privilege of immunity from fire on Tui 
Qalita's descendants for ever. 

The ceremony which is supposed to commemorate this event is conducted as 
follows : — A circular pit is dug, 3 feet deep and 30 feet across ; this is filled with 
alternate layers of timber and stones. The pile is kindled and burns for about twelve 
hours, when the embers are removed by means of non-combustible vines, and the red-hot 
stones are levelled by means of levers made from similar materials. The twelve or 
fourteen members of the privileged tribe come forward and walk round and through the 
oven on the stones. The heat of the latter is considerable ; a handkerchief laid ou one 
of the stones was cnarred, and a thermometer suspeuded over the centre of the oven 
registered 280 deg. Fahr., when the solder melted. Mr. Allardyce examiued the feet 
of the performers both before and after the ceremony, and was convinced that no 
preparation of any kind was rubbed ou them. No signs of burning were discovered, and 
even the hair on the leg was not singed. The length of time occupied by this part 
of .the ceremony is not more than a minute; the performers walk quite slowly. After 
this leaves and Masawe are thrown on the stones, and the latter baked and eaten. 

As a partial explanation of this appareut immunity from fire the lecturer mentioned 
the fact that the village faces north-west, and is consequently sheltered from the 
prevailing wind (the S.E. trade), while it is exposed to the full heat of the sun. The 
natives are accustomed to walk about barefoot on the rocks when the latter are at such 
a temperature that an Europeau canuot keep his hand on them, and in this way the 

[ 72 ] 



[No*. W-46. 

soles of the feet become hardened. Doubtless the iutenso faith of the performers also 
contributes to their security. 

[As an instance of the amount of heat which the foot, oven of an European, will 
stand, I may mention that I have seen a cadet in the merchant norvioo, who had been 
accustomed to walk about the deck bare-foot, hold a lighted wax match under hU heel 
with the flame licking the skin until burnt out. Ho assured me that he felt uo luoou- 
venience from the heat, and cortaiuly no signs of burning appeared on the skin. — Kl>,] 

Easter Island. Edge-Partington. 

A "Domestic Idol" ftom Easier Island (Rapa-nul). tty «A Edge* mj* 
Partington. xO 

I have lately acquired one of the so-called u domestic idols'* of Easter Island, which 
differs somewhat from those in the British Museum, figured in the Ethmgraphfonl Album 
(Plate 2). It is carved out of a 
naturally bent piece of Toro-miro 
or Edwardsia, a species of mimosa, 
and represents a male human 
figure with the head and tail of a 
lizard. The eyes are represented 
by an inlay of bone and obsidian. 
In nearly all these " idols " repre- 
senting human forms the arms, are 
placed at the sides, but in this 
case they are drawn up and 
represented in very low relief on 
the underside of the chest and 
head ; from this it would appear 
that the intention of the crafts- 
man was to emphasise the lizard- 
like rather than the human aspect 
<rf the figure. This specimen re- 
sembles those of purely human 
form in having the ribs and back- 
booe strongly defined, and over 
the lumbar region is carved the 
ring common to th?m all. The 
Fp'fue at its base spreads out into 
a fan-shaped end partly covering 
tfte buttocks, frtHD which ex- 
tends a long taperinir tail, lying 
in the Loilow form**} by the 
closed leg*'- The baekboue is 
piereed at tbret diflerent points 
for su*peusiou. 

Jdr. JLiutvu .Pa-liuer b*\*> that tbeae images were kept in gra*s bout**, either iu 
niche** ot «u*peiiued ftoiu t.h* tid#e-pvle- and were carefully wrapped up in native clotb or 
Utpa * Lit. unit J'Ld. Kw .. /spoof. J*73j„ but were not worshipped (Jo*r*, fi&f. (J* v. 
ton*.. JSL., y. \*0j. PawuabU-r 'J h«nu*»on iu $milkw*ua# Report. \HW. p. 5#4, speaks 
ul iiieM: tigure*- a*- iuuU* tv i«?pfe*»etit deceased ebiefs a,nd persons of note, and «tate* that 
tn«*v *»**, ^»\*3i. a pia<;«, at leant* and »*jreujouie*^ Tiik. probably,, would ouly apply to 


Nob. 46*48.] 



those of human form. Mr. Linton Palmer suggests that they may have been used for 
divining purposes (loc. cit. y p. 16), and quotes similar customs in New Zealand as 
noted by Sir George Grey in Polynesian Mythology. 

On the heads -of the male human figure are generally found carved in low relief 
representations of birds, &c. It will be noticed that in the figure before us there is what 
looks like a totemic mark on the under jaw of the lizard. J. EDGE-PARTINGTON. 


Figures. By J. 



Tien-tsln Mud 

Edge-Parting ton . 

Among the most friable of China's art 
manufactures are the sun-dried mud figures of 
Tien-tsin. Out of the number I brought home 
with me in 1880, the one figured here is the 
only one that remains, owing to the fact that it 
was kept under glass ; the rest crumbled away 
from exposure to the air. It is 8'3 inches in 
height and represents a very old man with white 
hair, which from all appearances has been fixed 
in the soft mud previous to drying ; that he is a 
man of substance is shown by the length of his 
nails. Considering \he high artistic quality of this 
manufacture, it is remarkable that more specimens 
have not been preserved in spite of their very 
fragile nature. The figure is now in the British 

By C. Hill-Tout. 



Totemism : A Consideration of its Origin and Import. 
(Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, 2nd Ser., IX., pages 61-99.) 

The subject of totemism was discussed in Man, 1903, 75, 84, 85, by the late Major 
J. W. Powell, Mr. E. S. Hartland, and myself. In that controversy, unhappily cut 
short by Major Powell's lamented death, I took exception to the terminology of 
American anthropologists and pointed out that it did not make for clearness, which 
is the first essential of a scientific nomenclature. This controversy Mr. Hill-Tout now 
take3 up and defeuds the position adopted by Major Powell and, apparently, by all other 
American anthropologists. 

I pointed out in my note on the American view that three questions were at issue : 
(1) How far the terminology came up to a scientific standard ; (2) how far their 
definition of totemism fulfilled its purpose of strictly defining the limits of the system of 
ideas to which American anthropologists apply the name ; and (3) how far the 
classification of primitive ideas which they adopt is both logical and useful. Under 
the impression that the formal quest iou of terminology is identical with the fundamental 
question of the basis of the whole system, Mr. Hill-Tout now argues that my criticism 
of Major Powell was based on an eutire failure to comprehend the Americau point of 
view. The justice of this criticism, which seems to me to rest on a serious confusion 
of thought, I cannot admit. 

[ 74 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 48. 

Major Powell used the term totem for (1) a body of people (gens or clan) united 
by ties of consanguinity, (2) the name of this body, and (3) their mark or " clay " ; 
(4) the object from which the mark was derived, and to which alone the term totem is 
applied in Europe, is elsewhere (Johnson's Encycl.) a totem ; but this sense is omitted 
in Man ; it is (5) the name of a tribe formed of two or more ciaus or gentes ; it is 
also (6) the puberty name of an individual, and (7) the object from which the name 
is derived ; it is, further, (8) the name of a shamanistic society, formed by voluntary 
association, and (9) the object from which such a society takes its name. To this 
system of nomenclature I objected that everything was called by the same name, a view 
which I see no reason for changing, but, pace Mr. Hill-Tout, that has absolutely nothing to 
do with my acceptance of, or refusal to accept, the American classification under one head 
of the primitive beliefs and practices with which Major Powell was dealing. I will 
make this clear by a simple example. Four-legged objects, such as elephants, babies 
(before they find their legs), chairs, and crocodiles, have, from the point of view of legs, 
a unity of their own. It may be desirable to discuss them from that point of view, but 
I cannot see that anything is gained by calling them ail elephants. If in reply to 
Mr. A., who uses this name for the four classes of objects, I object that his terminology 
is confusing aud obscures his meaning, I by no means deny that the objects in question 
possess, from the point of view adopted, a certain unity. But the question of the value 
of the classification of the universe into four-legged and not-four-legged objects is quite 
another matter, and must not be coufused with the question of whether they are all to 
be termed elephants indiscriminately. 

The adequacy of the definition is again a different question from both that of 
terminology aud that of the underlying principles of classification. If we are dealing 
with four-legged objects I may enquire whether the definition does not unintentionally 
include objects with heterogeneous legs, such as a man on crutches, &c. Mr. Hill-Tout 
has done excelleut work in other directions, but in taking up Major Powell's controversy 
he has been unfortunate. 

Mr. Hill-Tout defends Major Powell's terminology on the ground that (1) the analysis 
of primitive beliefs on which Major Powell based his conception of totemism is 
accurate and logical, and (2) that the Algonquin* did, as a matter of fact, apply the 
term totem to all the objects (phenomena Mr. Hill-Tout terms them) enumerated 
above. I have already shown that his first contention is based on a confusion of 
thought. As regards his second, no evidence has so far been produced to the effect that 
the Ameriuds actually use the term in all the nine senses enumerated above. Even 
were it otherwise I caunot admit that the Algonquians are better acquainted with the 
esseutials of a scientific terminology than we are. Native usage is important as showing 
the nature of primitive classification and as an aid to discovering the ultimate meaning 
of native beliefs and practices, but we are no more bound to call everything a totem 
than we are bound to follow the natives of Calabar, to whom horses, carriages, and 
wheelbarrows were unknown in pre-European days, in calling a wheelbarrow "a white 
man's little cow house." Terminology is a matter of civilised convenience, not of 
savage usage. 

I uow turn to the second point mentioned above — the adequacy or otherwise of the 
definition. Major Powell tells us totemism is a doctrine of naming and does not define 
it further in any formal way. I have quite failed to discover why, if the definition is 
accurate, Major Powell includes the puberty name of the individual aud excludes other 
personal names, magical or nou-magi'jal. Mr. Hill-Tout se^ms to differ from Major 
Powell here and decides the toteinic character or otherwise of the name by the criterion 
of the source from which it is drawn. If it is derived from a tutelary spirit it is 
toteinic, but not otherwise. As I pointed out iu my criticism of Major Powell, it was 
only by showing some inner unity of this kind that his positiou could be justified. Ou 

i 75 ] 

No. 48.] MAN. [1904. 

this point, therefore, Mr. Hill-Tout, unconsciously, as it appears, accepts my criticism of 
Major Powell as well-founded. 

I therefore pass on to the third question. Does the underlying unity postulated 
by Mr. Hill-Tout exist ? Is a tutelary spirit, who gives his name to a person or body 
of persons, associated with (a) individuals, (b) clans and gentes, (c) tribes, and 
(d) voluntary shamanistic associations ? 

The first of these cases hardly calls for discussion. It is abundantly clear that an 
affirmative answer is correct. I may, however, ask Mr. Hill-Tout why, if the tutelary 
spirit is the essential feature of totemism, he excludes the witch with her familiar and 
the werman with his animal double. Does he in this case accept Major Powell's view 
and make the absence of the name decisive ? 

As regards the last case, Major Powell and Mr. Hill-Tout seem to be at variauce. 
The former says "it may be that the name (!) of the society becomes its tutelary deity," 
but of this there is yet insufficient evideuce. Mr. Hill-Tout, on the other hand, has no 
hesitation in assigning a guardian spirit to the " medicine societies. 91 European anthro- 
pologists may, perhaps, be excused if they regard the American view as unsettled, both 
in this case and that of the canon of totemism, and ask American anthropologists to 
agree among themselves on fundamental points before they charge us with a failure to 
appreciate the evidence. 

The tutelary deity of the tribe Mr. Hill-Tout leaves unmentioned, whether because 
no case is known to him or because he does not regard such a belief as properly classifi- 
able under totemism, I do not venture to say. Here, again, America seems undecided. 
The question of the tutelary deity of the clan or gens (i.e., matri- or patri-lineal 
totem-kin) is also a point on which Mr. Hill-Tout differs from Major Powell. According 
to the former, whose view I propose to discuss later, the totem-kin is the expanded 
family of an individual or of the sister of an individual who had for his nagual 
(a term I propose to use for the " individual totem ") the subsequent totem of the kin. 
Major Powell, however, writes : " the totem name of the clan and the geus . . . 
u become the tutelary deities of these bodies." In Mr. Hill-Tout's view the deity existed 
before the kin had come into being. Mr. Powell, on the other hand, believed that 
the name (not the thing denominated by the name) becomes the tutelary deity and 
thus takes a view of the origin of their totemism which closely approximates to 
that of Mr. Lang. Elsewhere, however, Major Powell conceives that the kin adopted 
the god, who gave his name to the clan {Johnsons Univ. Cycl. y Art. Indians), a view 
which seems irreconcileable with that put forward in Man, as well as with Mr. Hill- 
Tout's view. 

I am not, however, here concerned with questions of origin, but with questions of 
fact. Both Major Powell and Mr. Hill-Tout ascribe a tutelary deity to the totem^kin 
which is of the same nature as the tutelary deity of the individual. We must, I suppose, 
regard this as the accepted American view. But, apart from the evidence derived from 
the tribes of the north-west, which can hardly be regarded as typical cases of totemic 
peoples at the present day, still Jess of pre-totemic peoples emerging into totemisms by a 
process of unhampered evolution free from extraneous influences, I am not aware that 
any evideuce has been published which justifies the statement. 

Iu my article of 1902 I set forth all the facts known to me which could be held to 
justify in any degree Mijor Powell's assimilation of kin totems to those of individuals. 
I was able to quote two cases from Australia iu which animistic ideas seemed to 
be associated with kin-totemism. These were, however, very far from justifying the 
assertion that there was a tutelary deity of this clan. 

In the case of the Geawe-Gal (Kamilaroi and Kurnai, p. 280), which formerly 
occupied part of the Sidney district, it was asserted that they believed every one had 
within himself an affinity to the spirit of some beast, bird, or reptile, a fact which they 

[ 76 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 48. 

connected in some way with their generic names. The name Geawe-Gal means " the 
men of Geawe" ; if, therefore, they were a totem-kin it follows that they must have 
had male descent, a condition which, in Australia, is associated with all sorts of abnor- 
malities. The only other statement to the same effect, slightly more definite, which I 
have found, refers to another of the same group of tribes, a fact which seems to indicate 
an abnormal development. 

The other piece of evidence 1 was able to produce was derived from the burial 
custom of the tribe of Elgin Downs, North Queensland, which I have not been able to 
identify, but which may be the Narboo Murre or one of the sub-tribes on the Belgando ; 
they divined from the track of an animal the totem of the sorcerer who had killed the 
dead man ; from this I inferred that, like the wer-man and the wizard of other countries, 
the Queensland black believed he was able to take animal form, that this form must be 
that of his kin-totem. Mr. Lang has urged against this that it would be impossible to 
identify a man if only his kin-totem were known, though it might be possible if his 
individual totem were discovered. I cannot admit that the objection is a valid one. In 
the first place, there is no reason to suppose that it would be easier to identify the 
malefactor by his individual totem (nagual), for there may be just as many or more persons 
with the same nagual as with the same kin-totem. In the second place, it is a matter of 
common knowledge that, in the absence of the individual crimiual, it is, on all the 
principles of savage justice, sufficient to kill his kinsman. Consequently if the Myall can 
discover to what kin the sorcerer belongs he need seek no further. I therefore uphold 
my interpretation of the facts. This is, however, very possibly an exceptional case, and 
in any event it is a far cry from a wer-animal to a tutelary deity of the kin. So far as 
Australia is concerned, therefore, I find no support for Mr. Hill-Tout's assertion. It is 
unfortunate that he has not given us the American evidence, the nature of which I have 
no means of knowing. 

It will perhaps be convenient at this point to draw attention to an extraordinary 
statement made by Mr. Hill-Tout (p. 85), which is certainly not true of any existing 
Australian totem group, nor, so far as I am aware, is there auy American case. 
44 American tribal society presents us," says Mr. Hill-Tout, " with totem groups living 
44 under eudogamous regulations and marrying strictly within the family or totem group. 
44 And the same thing is found in Australia.'' That is to say, we are to believe that 
there are clans or gentes who may not go outside the limits of their own group in search 
of a wife. Until Mr. Hill-Tout quotes his evidence I decline to believe it. Endogamy 
is, it is true, a term that has been loosely used to denote tbc prohibition of marriage not 
outside the kinship group, but outside the tribe. Endogamy in this sense does not exist 
in Australia, so far as I am aware, nor is the term in this sense the correlative of 
exogamy, which means the prohibition of marriage within the kinship group. But 
Mr. Hill-Tout does not use exogamy in this sense, nor yot in the still looser sense iQ 
which it only implies that tribesmen or clansmen are permitted to marry within the 
tribe or clan. I can only suppose that Mr. Hill-Tout is using his term in some cryptic 
sense. That this may be so I iufer from a passage in Proc. Roy. Soc, Canada, VII., 14, 
where I find that he writes " the gens has developed by amalgamation " into the clan " 
amoug the Kwakiutl. 

This passage remained incomprehensible until I discovered that Mr. Hill-Tout 
(Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1900, p. 477) uses clan to denote a group composed of blood 
relatives to the sixth generation (which had therefore neither exclusively matri-liueal 
descent nor any fixed limits) and gens for the local group formed by an aggregation 
of u clans." 

Mr. Hill-Tout complains that European anthropologists do not understand the views 
of American studeuts. Possibly the reason is to be found in part iu the extraordinary 
looseness with which they use terms which have in Europe a recognised meaning. I 

[ 77 j 

Nob. 48-49.] MAN. [1904. 

venture to thiuk it is due in part also to a fundamental looseness of thought aud 
inaccuracy of statement, or the part of American students, of which the various arguments 
aud statements to which I have taken exception in the foregoing are examples. 


Paragruay. Grubbe. 

Among the Indians of the Paraguayan Chaco : A Story of Missionary m q 
Work in South America. Told by W. Brabrooke Grubbe and his fellow- *TU 
workers. Edited by Gertrude Wilson, B.Litt. London : South American Missionary 
Society, 1904. Pp. xiv + 176. 23 x 13 cm. Price 2s. 6rf. 

This interesting little book is in many respects supplementary to the paper on the 
Lengua, published in Journ. Anthr. Inst. y XXXI., 280 et seq. The Towothli, the 
Paisiaptos, and the Suhin, as well as the Lengua, are, however, included ; and, unfortu- 
nately for those who regard details of savage beliefs and customs as subjects on which 
exact statements are desirable, we are not told in many cases to which of the tribes the 
information applies. From the same point of view it is a matter for regret that we have 
no means of knowing how far the words of the book are the work of the editor, and how 
far Mr. Grubbe is responsible for them. This is particularly the case when explanations 
of the superstitions are attempted. We read, for example, that no one touches a knife 
when a rainbow is in the sky for fear of cutting himself. The original reason is more 
likely to have been a fear of offending or injuring the rainbow, and it would be well to 
know if the explanation is that given by the Indians themselves. The suggestion on 
the same page that when the sun is trying " to break through the clouds a lighted stick 
u is held up to encourage him " savours strongly of European influence ; it is hardly 
likely to be a product of the unsophisticated native mind, and is probably not derived 
from the natives at all. With a little more care in indicating sources aud distinguishing 
in an unmistakeable manner the racial provenience of each item the usefulness of the 
book would have been much increased at no cost to its interest as a record of missionary 

The view is taken that witchcraft is all jugglery and imposition. So far as the 
witch doctors deal with cases susceptible of amelioration or cure by suggestion, this is 
hardly accurate ; the influence of the witch doctors no doubt depends a good deal ou 
charlatanism ; their power of suggestion is thereby enhauced in a manner which, if 
hardly legitimate, can, perhaps, be paralleled in civilised countries. But to put down 
the cures effected by them as eutirely superstitious is to ignore the universally prevalent 
element of suggestion, with or without hypnotism, in medicine. If the savage witch 
doctor sucks a beetle or a fish-bone out of your leg when it hurts you, he is only doing 
in his way what the fashionable physician does in his way when he prescribes a bread 
pill or some equally harmless aud in itself inoperative remedy. 

Among other items of interest is the mention of a deluge myth, the details of which 
are, however, very meagre. It seems to be of the same type as the Araucanian story. 
A mythical serpeut, Boyrusu, is said to swallow girls at puberty, if they are not confined 
to their huts. At marriage the husband goes to live with his wife's people, but not 
infrequently spends part of his time in his own village. On page 69 we find a possible 
trace of totemism. Some Iudians will not eat wild cat, others object to the flesh of 
the fox. 

Some interesting information is given about technology, dancing and singing, and 
other points, but hardly in a systematic manuer. lu this respect English missionaries 
might well copy the Germans, who are encouraged by their Government to supply 
information as to the natives with whom they come in contact, aud in many cases do 
most excellent work in this direction. N. W. T. 

[ 78 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 50. 

Africa* Johnston. 

The Nile Quest : a Record of the Exploration of the Nile and its Basin, r A 
By Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. (President of the African Society), DU 
With illustrations from drawings and photographs by the author and others ; with maps 
by J. G. Bartholomew. London : Lawrence and Bullen, Ltd., 1903. Pp. xv + 341. 
Index and two appendices. 23 x 15 cm. Price 7 *. 6d. 

The history of North Africa in the ordiuary sense has yet to be written. Hitherto 
it has been almost exclusively the history of individuals, the record of their struggles 
and achievements in a quest as dangerous and almost as difficult as that of Arthur's 
knights ; calling, like it, for faith, courage, and endurance, and too often ending in 
failure and death. It is, therefore, peculiarly fitting that this volume should be the first 
of a series which, the editor tells us, is to be an effort to " make the story of exploration 
" circle round the personality of the men who had the leading share in carrying on the 
" adventurous work." 

Sir Harry Johnston has given us an eminently readable account of the story of the 
search for and discovery of the sources of the Nile. In these days the public demands 
its information in a condensed form ; few general readers care to attack a four or five 
volume record of one man's experiences, especially when a certain proportion is open to 
contradiction and correction. Yet it becomes more and more evident that Africa is a 
factor in the future to be reckoned with, not merely as a happy hunting ground for 
explorers, not even as a bone of contention between nations jealous of each other's 
prestige, but as a practical outlet for the energies of Europe. It is then increasingly 
desirable that we should be enabled to realise what this country is like which has been 
opened up at the cost of the blood and sweat of so many. 

This book traces the contributions of each race from the earliest times to the present 
day. It is with considerable surprise that we learn the extent and accuracy of the 
knowledge possessed by the Phoenicians and Greeks concerning the interior of Northern 
Africa and the sources and course of the Nile. The efforts and successes of modern 
explorers have overshadowed those of their predecessors that we are apt to ignore the 
latter, and it is probable that the name of Bruce will be the first to fall with a familiar 
sound on modern ears. Nevertheless, Johnston tells us that the Mountains of the Moon 
and the twin lakes at the source of the White Nile were described to Diogenes, the 
Greek explorer, by Arabs in the year 50 a.d., and the geographers of that day and even 
earlier made astonishingly accurate maps of the Nile basin. 

The plan of giving a separate chapter to the emissaries of each nation or race, 
though it has the advantage of avoiding any unfairness, despite the unavoidable 
preponderance of British names in the list of those who have devoted themselves to the 
solving of the great riddle, involves a certain amount of repetition. Another drawback 
is that it occasionally results in confusing the reader as to dates. He is carried on to 
the present day in one chapter and then finds himself thrown back forty or fifty years 
in the next. That the solution of the problem is by no means solely due to the restless 
energy of the Anglo-Saxon is made abundantly evident on glancing through the roll of 
names given at the eud of the book, wherein are shown French, Germans, Italians, 
Portuguese ; in fact, almost every race in Europe may claim to be represented. It would 
be interesting to trace the relative success of the various nationalities to their characteristic 
physique. It is noticeable that the sturdy Britons and Germans usually withstood the 
material difficulties of the way, while the slighter Gaul seems to have succumbed to the 
inevitable hardships. Of Italians, all who have made the attempt appear to have 
attained a great degree of success, especially Romolo Gessi, Gordon's ally. 

Among the most interesting chapters in the book we may note those on Bruce, 
Speke, and the famous Emin Pasha. That on Dr. Schweinfurth also contains much 
to arrest the attention ; indeed, whenever the author allows himself to dwell on an 

[ 79 ] 

Nob. 50-51.] MAN. [1904. 

individual, as in the romantic tragedy of Miss Tinne, he arouses interest, while his brief 
quotations frequently leave one, like Oliver Twist, asking for more. There is, on the 
other hand, a perhaps unavoidable crowding in those chapters devoted to the less 
distinguished or successful seekers. It is, of course, impossible to give in any detail the 
experiences of every man, but the attempt to enumerate all in so little space occasionally 
results in a feeling of congestion. We regret also a tendency to dwell on disputes better 
forgotten, and even at the time of their occurrence purely personal, between some of the 
most famous men whose exploits are recorded. Some jealousy and heartburning was no 
doubt inevitable, but since they have done noble work nobly we caunot but think it a 
pity that attention should be drawn to the weaker traits in their characters. 

Apart from these minor defects, however, the book contains much that should not 
only interest the general public but should also lead many to study the older and more 
detailed accounts of Kile exploration as well as awakening more personal attention to 
the fact that a rich and habitable country now lies open to our occupation. Why should 
not the stream of emigration now flowing to America be turned in time to this fertile and 
scantily-populated country, thus converting what is at present a dead loss to the mother 
country into a source of increasing wealth ? 

The text is accompanied by numerous interesting illustrations and most excellent 
maps. R. W. FELKIN. 

Argentina. Ambrosetti. 

Los pucos pintados de rojo sobre bianco del valle de Yocavil. Por r4 
Juan B. Ambrosetti. (Offprint from the Anales del Museo National de Buenos %} | 
Aires. Tomo IX., pp. 357-369.) Buenos Aires, 1903. 26 x 18 cm. 

Cuatro Pictografi&s de la region Calchaqui. Por Juan B. Ambrosetti. (Offprint 
from the Anales de la Sociedad Cienttfica Argentina. Tomo LVI., p. 116.) Buenos 
Aires, 1903. 25 x 17 cm. 

The first of these two papers contains a description of some rare ancient Calchaqui 
pottery found at ruins in the north of Argentina. The " pucos " (the word is not 
Castilian) are dishes or bowls of varying diameter and depth, but generally of small size. 
Only about a score of them are known to exist. They are made of a native red-burning 
clay and are generally unpolished on the outside. Inside they are burnished and covered 
with a white slip, turning to straw-colour with time and exposure, on which desigus are 
painted with a fine brush. These are divided into two classes. In the first the scheme 
is composed of four or five chevrons, the apices of which are not carried down to the 
centre, so that there is a space which may be either left plain or else ornamented with a 
detached figure such as a square composed of reticulated chevrons or a circle enclosing 
a swastika-like development of the overshot angle. In the second class the field is 
partitioned into four parts by two narrow bands crossing at the centre, and each of the 
divisions so formed is occupied with a rudely-drawn bird's head. Occasionally the 
outside rim is decorated with a band of blue, which indicates the transition to a better 
known type of trichrome ware. Sefior Ambrosetti's promised continuations of this 
subject will be anticipated with interest. 

In the Cuatro Pictografids the same author describes some curious rock-drawings 
found in a neighbouring district. They represent scenes in which men, animals (llamas), 
and gods are figured. One which is probably connected with a phallic cult seems to 
show the native hunters praying to Pachamama, the goddess of animals, for success in 
the chase of llamas. Another is interpreted as being the illustration of a native myth, 
in which the lightning-god, typified by a serpent with white crosses on his body, 
emblematic of rain, is attacked by four small men representing the black clouds. The 
serpent is shown swallowing one of the little men, and his victory over them is what 
gives the blessing of rain. D. RANDALL-MACIVER. 

Printed by Stbb and Spottiswoodk, His Majesty's Printer*, East Harding Street, E.C. 

Plate F. 

Man, 1904. 















1904.] MAN. [No. 52. 

Peru : Copper Implements. With Plate P. Gigrlioli. 

Hafted Oopper Implements from Peru. By Professor E. H. Giglioli. pa 

I have had occasion to photograph some copper implements from Peru found 02. 
in tombs (huacas) and provided with their original hafts, which form part of my 
collection, and as such specimens arc decidedly rare and of high interest, showing, as they 
do, various modes of hafting, I believe it may prove interesting to the readers of Max to 
see a reproduction of those photographs with short explanatory notes. The specimens 
illustrated are the following : — 

(a.) Copper Axe. — Long and uarrow, chisel-shaped ; it widens slightly at the 
butt end, where it evidently widens further so as to have a T-shaped butt, which fits 
(possibly in a groove) against the wooden handle, to which it is firmly bound by a broad 
piece of stout raw-hide, through which the blade passes ; the hide is doubled back and 
projects as a square appendage at the back of the handle, being kept tight by a treble 
stitching of raw-hide. No more stout and solid binding could be devised ; the hide is 
well preserved, the haft is cylindrical and has the polish of use ; it is of a tough yellow 
wood, also well preserved. In point of fact this implement does not look ancient, and it 
certainly recalled to my mind the assertion of David Forbes (Joum. Ethn. Soc. y II., 
p. 71 (extract) ; London, 1870), that the Aymard or Colla Indians yet used copper axes. 
My specimen was found at Carabuco on the eastern shore of Lake Titicaca, within the 
old Colla-suyu, the territory of the Colla or Aymard, Length of haft, 515 mm. ; of blade 
and binding 190 mm. Width of blade at uncovered butt end, 30 mm. ; thickness of blade 
at same place, 5 mm. This is evidently a good working implement and might prove an 
efficient weapon. 

(6.) Copper Ceremonial Axe. — Blade crescentic, with a piece cut out parallel to 
the outer contour ; it has a short peduncle which widens out into two lengthened, 
horizontal, narrow prolongations, T-Kke, which fit into a groove cut into the haft, to 
which the blade is secured by a binding of cord and cotton twine, blue and yellow, 
artistically wound. The haft is a stout cylindrical stick of chonta, i.e., palm wood. 
This singular axe was found in a huaca at Chimbote in the ancient Yunca-suyu and 
pertained, I believe, to Chimu people ; I think it was a ceremonial badge, for the blade 
is thin and has no cutting edge. Length of haft, 890 mm. ; length of blade from haft, 
102 mm. ; width of blade, 120 mm. 

(c.) Copper Axe. — Thin, straight, semi-lunar blade, with a long narrow tang ; this 
passes right through a slender cylindrical haft of chonta or palm wood ; the haft is there 
strengthened by an artistic binding of blue and yellow cotton twine. The end of the 
long tang is bent. The copper blade is sharp and may have been used for light 
choppiug, certainly not for heavy work. From a huaca at Ciclayo, in the land of the 
old Chimu. This implement is very similar in shape to some of the battle axes of 
the Zulus and Basutos of South Africa. The length of the haft is 550 mm., that of the 
blade from the bent end of the tang to the cutting edge 135 mm., the vertical width of 
the blade is 138 mm. 

(d.) Copper Axe. — Also chisel-shaped, but widening at the cutting edge, stout 
and thick ; its narrow but thick ish butt passes right through a stout cylindrical haft 
of chonta, which is strengthened by an artistic binding of blue cotton twine. This is 
evidently an efficient working tool ; it was found in a huaca near Truxillo, Peru, the 
centre of Yunca-suyu and the old Chimu Kingdom. Length of haft, 510 mm. ; of 
blade, 135 mm. ; width of blade at cutting edge, 38 mm. 

(e.) Copper Hammer. — It is oval in shape, with a raised incised zone round its 
middle, simulating a binding. It is hollow, and has an aperture on the under-side, into 
which is fitted the end of a flat-pointed handle of tough light wood ; it is well balanced 

[ 81 ] 

Nos. 53-53.] MAN. [1904. 

on its handle. This small bat efficient tool could only have been used by gold and 
silver smiths ; it was found in a huaca at Ciclayo. Length of haft, 285 mm. ; long 
diameter of head, 40 mm. ; short diameter, 34 mm. 

(/.) Copper Chisel. — A big, massive implement with a hollow butt-end, into 
which is fitted a stout cylindrical rough handle of tough wood. From a huaca near Eten, 
at the northern end of the old Yunca-suyu and of modern Peru. It is a most efficient 
tool, but can hardly have been used in excavating " dug outs," for which it appears most 
adapted, for the region where it was found can boast of no trees, and, besides, balsas 
(rafts) and not boats were used on that coast ;, it might have been an agricultural tool. 
Total length, 680 mm. ; of copper blade, 230 mm. ; width, 28 mm. ; thickness at the 
base of quadrangular portion, 30 mm. E. H. GIGLIOLI. 

Totemism. Thomas. 

Further Remarks on Mr. Hill-Tout's Views on Totemism. By pa 

N. W. Thomas, M.A. OO 

In my remarks on Mr. Hill-Tout's paper (Man, 1904. 48) I dealt with his 
definition and canons of totemism, leaving for future discussion the American theory of 
origin and the criticisms passed on some European conceptions of totemism. With the 
latter I do not propose to. deal fully, as they do not, with one exception, concern essential 
features. This exception is the question of exogamy and the idea of kinship. 

Mr. Hill-Tout argues that social organisation is, indeed, frequently associated with 
totemism, but that this conjunction is purely accidental, that the clan is a normal unit 
of organisation, and that it does not depend for its extension or its limitation on its 
association with totemism. With regard to exogamy his contention is the same. 
Admitting that it has become in a measure associated with totemism, he says, " Is it not 
" because the endogamous (sic) or incest group is the same thing as the clan group ? " 
On the same page he argues that " if the canon of exogamy were of totemic origin, we 
" ought to find a uniformity of practice," whereas we, in fact, find " totem groups living 
" under endogamous regulations,. and marrying strictly within the totem group." 

The objections to Mr. Hill -Tout's views and arguments are numerous. In my 
criticism of his definition and general treatment of the subject (Man, loc. cit.) I pointed 
out that for the endogamous totem clan we had no evidence. Eveu if we call 
Mr. Hill-Tout's village communities clans it is not true. For the mere practice of 
marrying with the local group, which Mr. Hill-Tout calls a clan, is not, properly 
speaking, endogamy. There is no sanction, so far as I kuow, attached to the violation 
of the custom. Supposing, however, that the totem kin, as defined by Mr. Hill-Tout, 
were sometimes endogamous, it is by no means clear how this fact proves that the 
totem kin, as defined by English anthropologists, is (or was in its typical stage) anything 
but exogamous. If I am asked if I have been to London it is hardly a reply to state 
that I have a brother who has been to Liverpool. Unless Mr. Hill-Tout can produce 
totem-kins in the English sense, which are not, and never were, exogamous, his case is 
a mere ignoratio elenchi. 

The Papuan evidence cited by Mr. Hill-Tout to prove the non-coincidence of the 
kin with the exogamous group (I may point out in passing that he has himself asserted 
their identity) is, as he admits, inconclusive, for the very simple reason that the people 
in question are passing out of totemism. If this fixity of species is not true in biology 
it is still less true in sociology. Unless social organisation, once brought into existence, 
is unchangeable and changeless there must be mixed forms. A crocodile, in the art of 
primitive man, may look very unlike a crocodile, but that does uot entitle us to say that 
it may not, as a matter of convenience, be called a crocodile. If the crocodile appears in 
savage art without legs, we may term it a crocodile without committing ourselves to the 
doctrine that it takes its walks abroad on the banks of the Nile without these appendages. 

[ «* ] 

1904.3 MAN. [No. 53. 

So, too, if we speak of totem ism in Torres Strait we do not imply that it is anything 
but decadent totemism which has lost some of its central features. 

The other case cited by Mr. Hill-Tout is that of the Arunta. The same remarks 
apply here. The evidence drawn from their myth that in the past the kins were 
endogamous is for more than one reason unsatisfactory : — (1.) The myth is a savage 
guess ; savage guesses are notoriously wide of the truth. (2.) We can explain their 
present development, as I hope to show, without going beyond known facts (Max, 1904, 
infra). (3.) The great mass of each kin is in each case in one phratry. This implies 
that at some period the kin were grouped in the ordinary way, i.e., all the members in 
one phratry, and is inexplicable on the supposition that the totem never had the same 
connection with marriage regulations which we fiud elsewhere. (4.) The myth is, like 
the Arunta system, unique, which it would not be if endogamy were, at the origin of 
totemism, a normal phenomenon. The Arunta are, as Dr. Durkheim has conclusively 
proved, in no sense primitive. Consequently we cannot assume that they are typical of 
totemistic peoples at any early stage. 

On the question of the origin of totem kinship I can hardly reconcile Mr. Hill-Tout's 
contention that the kin is the natural incest group with his subsequent statement that 
strictly endogamous kins are found. I await with interest his explanation of how the 
incest group, " which is the same body," ever came to be anything but exogamous, let 
alone strictly endogamous, as Mr. Hill-Tout asserts. The Arunta have an incest group, 
viz., the class, which was probably later than the totem kin, but was not based upon 
the kin, and never coincided with it. If the myth be our guide the kin never was an 
incest group. How, then, can it be asserted that the kin is the same as the incest group ? 

Mr. Hill-Tout holds that the kin are descended from a single pair. I find it 
difficult to reconcile the assertion that the kin is a blood-related group (Proc. R.S. Can., 
IX., ii, 84) with the assertion (Brit. Assoc. Rep., 1902, p. 409) that the society of the 
sqoiaqi, which Mr. Hill-Tout (Proc. R.S. Can., VII., ii, 14) regards as "a totemic 
gens or phratry," is recruited by marriage. Apparently, for Mr. Hill-Tout, affinity, 
consanguinity, and kinship are all the same thing. 

Quite apart from this confusion, the derivation of the totem kin from a single pair, 
and the assumption that it is consanguinity and not kinship that holds the kin together, 
seems to be based on an entire misapprehension. In the first place, consanguinity is a 
question of fact, not of opinion or law. The father of a child is the father, whether the 
child be legitimate or not, but he is not akin to it by English law, though he may in 
Scotland become its kinsman by subsequent marriage. The Australian black recognises 
the fact of paternity and paternal authority, even though descent (i.e., kinship) be 
reckoned through the mother. The mother, too, does not cease to be consanguine 
with her child though the rule of descent be patrilineal. 

Again, in America, Torres Strait, and elsewhere a change of totem or adoption into 
a clan is possible. But no conceivable legal or customary device cau change the con- 
sauguineal relationships of a man. Were Mr. Hill-Tout's theory correct, if I become 
a kangaroo man, my blood relatives in England should also be regarded by the blacks 
as kangaroo men and women, for the fact that I have, on his view, entered into fresh 
relations of consanguinity by no means abrogates those previously existing, and my 
blood relations must be theirs also. The mere fact, too, that no one can be a member 
of two totem kins (according to the English definition) is sufficient to demonstrate that 
Mr. Hill-Tout's position is untenable. It proves that totem kinship is determined by 
law 8 or customary rules ; membership of a family is, on the other hand, determined by 
birth, and by birth I must be cousanguineally related to at least two families, unless, 
indeed, my father happened to follow the example of the Ptolemies. 

It is not, we may note in passing, easy to define how far consanguinity extends, 
inasmuch as it is differently conceived by different peoples : Welsh cousinship is, for 

[ 83 ] 

No. 58.] MAN. [1904. 

example, proverbially extensive. But as it does not appear that any inconvenience will 
arise from leaving its limits undefined, we may in each case adopt those of the people 
with whom we are dealing. 

Before I leave the question of totem kinship I may point out an important point 
in which it differs from other systems of consanguinity or kinship. The kin is com- 
posed of totem brothers and totem sisters, and of these exclusively — a sufficient proof, 
if more were needed, that consanguinity is not a term which can be properly applied to 
the relationship between them. 

I now turn to a consideration of the naguai theory of the origin of totem ism. I may 
perhaps, before pointing out in what respects it is inapplicable to totemism as understood 
in England, draw attention to the fact that it is hardly effective as argument to attempt, 
as Mr. Hill-Tout does, to prove that the European theory of the origin of totemism, 
defined in the European way, is wrong because it does not take into account facts which 
no European anthropologist regards as haviug any connection with totemism. If 
Mr. Hill-Tout's definition of totemism permits him to speak of the group-totem as 
*' spreading outside of the family into the tribe or even beyond it," for the reason that 
" here the factor of affinity is operating as well as that of consanguinity," the statement 
is more valuable as throwing light on psychological processes than as a demonstration of 
the fact that Mr. Andrew Lang is wrong in his contention that personal totems do not 
become group totems. If a certain definition of totemism is accepted, and a theory of 
the origin of totemism is proposed by those who accept the definition, and if a critic 
points out that this theory overlooks a fatal objection, it is no reply to inform him that 
the theory explains the origin of totemism defined in an entirely different way. 

Mr. Hill-Tout argues that totemism originates in a patrilineal just as much as in 
a matriiiueal state of society, and that consequently Mr. Laug's contention that it is 
impossible to derive his totem from the naguai because in a matriiiueal society no father 
ever bauds down his naguai to his children, is not a disproof of the naguai theory as 
applied to certain peoples. Assuming for the moment the accuracy of Mr. Laug's 
contention, which is, however, called in question by Mr. Hill-Tout, it may be admitted 
that the point is a good one so far as proof is given that totemism really does originate 
in a patrilineal tribe. 

In that case, however, in the absence of auy disproof of Mr. Lang's contention with 
regard to matrilineal tribes, we must either recognise a double or multiple origin of 
totemism or hold that though in the patrilineal tribe the naguai might have been the source 
of the totem, it was, as a matter of fact, not so derived. Mr. Hill-Tout's choice then 
lies between the former of these alternatives and a disproof of Mr. Lang's contention. He 
adopts the latter course and cites a myth of the Tsimshian Bear kiu to show that 
among matrilineal peoples too the totem may be derived from the naguai and that the 
clan originates wheu a man's naguai becomes hereditary in the family by his sister or 

Here, too, it may be admitted that the point is a good one, so far as it is proved that 
naguals actually are handed down in the way in question. We must, however, bear in miud 
(1) that the myth is almost certainly post-totemic, (2) that such myths are demonstrably 
valueless as evidence of origin, (3) that consequently this myth not only does not tell us 
how the Bear clan actually originated, but (4) does not oven prove that the Tsimshian, 
at the time when totemism originated among them, held the views about the descent 
of the naguai which would have made the uagualistic origin of totemism possible. 
This is, of course, in no sense a disproof of the naguai theory of origin as applied to 
Tsimshian totemism. It may have had that origin, though we cannot prove it. At the 
same time we cannot disprove it, though against the naguai theory tells the fact that 
the Tsimshian have only four totem-kins — raven, eagle, wolf, aud bear — aud we can 
hardly suppose that totemism originated among them when the whole tribe consisted of 

[ 84 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 53-54. 

eight persons at most, four of whom were possibly imported from outside. Yet such 
must have been the case if Mr. Hill-Tout's " uterine kinship" theory of the basis of the 
clan is correct. 

However this may be, it is more important to notice that the nagual theory can 
hardly be applied to Australia, and that, consequently, we can only derive the totem from 
the nagual in America, if we are prepared to face the possibility of a multiple origin of 
totemism. The nagual is in Australia almost non-existent. It is reported among the 
Euahlayi in New South Wales, the Wotjoballuk in Victoria, the Yaraikanna of Cape 
York, and probably among some of the northern tribes on the other side of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria. But with these exceptions there is no evidence for its general diffusion, 
much less for its importance and priority in time over the totem. But if the nagual iB 
almost non-existent in Australia, it is clearly difficult to derive the totem from it. Not 
only so, but where the nagual is found there is no trace of an hereditary nagual and no 
myth of a nagual origin of totemism. The probability is, therefore, entirely against 
Mr. Hill-Tout's hypothesis. At the same time I readily admit that much remains to be 
done before we can regard our knowledge of Australian totems as adequate, and that, in 
particular, the origin and nature of subsidiary totems demands close investigation. 
Nothing, however, that has been yet recorded of these suggests that they are of the 
nature of naguals or are inherited from the maternal uncle. 

On the whole, therefore, it appears that the American theory of totemism finds no 
support in the Australian facts ; at the same time the possibility of a multiple origin 
must be kept in mind, and no theory of origin, otherwise acceptable, dismissed on the 
ground that the Australian evidence either does not warrant its acceptance, or is actually 
inconsistent with its assumption. On the other hand, any theory which successfully 
explains Australian totemism must, if applicable to American or African totemism, or 
both, be admitted to have a greater degree of probability than a theory which explains 
one group of facts only. 

Mr. Hill-Tout's definition of totemism being entirely different from the one accepted 
in England, and the application of it being, as I endeavoured to show in my review of 
his paper, vitiated by a disregard for facts, I abstain for the preseut from a discussion of 
the evidence he has collected among the Salish. If uuder the stress of Mr. Hill-Tout's 
dialectic English anthropologists are driven to remodel their ideas on totemism, to 
regard the totem as a tutelary deity and the totem kin as occasionally built up by affinity 
and normally held together by consanguinity, I may return to the subject. Totemism, 
however, divorced from exogamy, and defined in the American fashion, seems to present 
few problems of interest, and will probably cease to be a household word. 


Chile : Physical Anthropology. Latcham. 

Notes on an Ancient Skull from the Chilian Andes. By R. E. mm 

Latcham, Local Correspondent of the Anthropological Institute. Ut 

A short time ago 1 received a skull found in an ancient barrow on the Andes slopes, 
iu the Province of Coquimbo. 

The cist, from the description giveu of it, was probably of the pre-Incasic period, 
that is to say, Wore the Incas invaded Chile in the latter part of the fourteenth century. 
It was formed of slabs of rough-hewn stone placed on edge, and covered with other 
slabs rather thicker. 

There is some reason to doubt, however, if this skull belonged to the primary inter- 
ment or to a subsequent one, as the skull belongs to a female, and females were not usually 
buried in these cists. There were also several other bones, some fragments of pottery, 
and a kind of flute formed from the thigh bone of a huanaco or vicuna. These, however, 
did not come into my possession, nor could I obtain any reliable description of them. 

[ 85 ] 

No. 54.] 



The skull is very small, almost microcephalic, iu fact. In general outline it is 
similar to that of the Araucanos, but presents several peculiarities not found in that 

race. Although it has a decided tendency 
, x /wv'/^n-w to microcephaly, the skull is well de- 

N X j A /s\ veloped, and shows a normal corre- 

N -Ll^-^ " - \ spondence in all its parts. 

Nornla Vertical™ (Fig. 1).— The 
outline seen from above is elliptic ; the 
91 _ ~ r>\\ curves from the stephania are regular, 

~ while the frontal is flattened laterally in 

the region of the temporal crests. The 
w l \ brow is rather depressed between the 
supra-orbital ridges and the frontal 
eminences. These latter are lost in the 
general outline, but the former are 
strongly marked. The skull is fairly 
isomm \ pha3nozygous and has a considerable sub- 

ix6*~ V nasal prognathism. The squamose edges' 

of the temporals are both visible in this 
norma, while the parietal eminences are 
not noticeable owing to the rounding off 
in this region. A pronounced occipital 
I / torus breaks an otherwise perfect pos- 

► £ ./ terior curve, the lambda being plainly 

N ' seen from above. The sutures in this 

and all the other norma) are simple, but 
fig. l.— norma vebticalis. there is a slight synostosis of the coronal 

before it reaches the temporal crests. 
Norma Lateralis (Fig. 2). — From the glabella to the metopic point there is a slight 
depression of the frontal. From the latter point to the lambda the curve is continuous, 
but here the very pronounced occipital torus before mentioned breaks its outline, which 
then reassumes its gradual curve 
as far as the opisthion. 

When placed on a plane 
surface the skull rests on the 
anterior alveolar border, and the 
posterior edge of the foramen 
magnum which curves down- 
wards. The mastoids are excep- 
tionally small ; that on the left 
side being hardly at all developed, 
and does not reach the plane 
mentioned by 15 mm. The other 
is a little larger, but still wants 
8 mm. to reach the plane. 

The forehead is retreating, 
the glabello-metopic line forming 
an angle of 50 degrees with the 
afore-mentioned plane. The nasal 
skeleton is flattened and rounded off at the point, and thus has a slightly aquiline 
appearance. The fronto-nasal line is only broken by the curve of the glabella, there 
being no nasal notch. There is little facial prognathism, but the subnasal projection 

[ 86 ] 




[No. 54. 

gives a gnathic angle of 70 degrees. The malars are not prominent, a line drawn from the 
supra-orbital point to the max illo- malar suture being only 3 degrees oat of the vertical. 

The zygomatic portion of the malars is flattened, as are also the squamse of the 
temporals and the lower part of the parietals. The sphenoids are greatly scalloped, the 
temporal crests firmly outlined in the frontal region but discontinued in the parietals. 

Norma Facialis (Fig. 3). — In this norma the skull loses many of its Araucano 
characteristics. The shape and proportions of the orbits and the nasal skeleton are 
quite distinct, as are also the facial proportions in general. The malars are more 
flattened, forming a vertical line from the superior external angle to their lower border, 
while in the Araucano this generally has an oblique tendency, the inferior facial diameter 
being greater than at the fron to malar suture. This flattening is not only lateral, but also 
facial, extending to the max Maries, which are full, and drop straight to the second molar. 

The infra-orbital sutures are plainly marked in " pars facialis." The simian grooves 
are not so large as in many Araucano skulls. 

The orbital cavities are large in proportion to the size of the skull, and are almost square 
in form. In the Araucanos the major axes form a very oblique line, often meeting on the 
glabella ; here the obliquity is much less, 
and the minor axes are almost vertical. 

The square outline of the orbits is 
broken by the large lachrymaiyb««, but 
the bi-dacryc distance is greater than the 
size of the skull would seem to warrant 
(23 mm.). The nasal bones are long 
and narrow, the maxillary apophyses 
being small. The apertura piriformis 
is heart-shaped, but constricted, and the 
nasal index very low (44*6). 

The forehead is relatively broad and 
sharply defined by the temporal crests. 

Taken as a whole the facial portion 
of the skull presents few characters of 
the Araucanos, but seems to accord most 
with those ancient skulls which I have 
already described, found near Serena. 

Norma Occipitalis. — The outline of 
the skull as seen in this norma is that of 
a regular arch with vertical walls. The base is also curved, posing only on the leaf- 
shaped posterior edge of the foramen magnum. The mastoids are very small and placed 
high up, or rather the conceptaculse cerebelli are very voluminous, their downward bulging 
bringing the opisthion considerably below the mastoid plane. The occipital torus already 
mentioned is strongly marked, the thickness of the skull in this region being 8 mm. There 
are no wormian bones, but the par ie to-occipital suture is more complicated than the rest. 

The parietal foramina are very small and irregularly placed, one being situated in 
the centre of the suture, the other a little to the left. Two other foramina of the 
same type appear in this same suture, one about 15 mm. above, and the other about 
the same distance below those already mentioned. There is a considerable depression in 
the skull in the region of the posterior half of the parietal suture, which terminates 
at the lambda, where it is crossed by the occipital torus. The post-zygomatic ridges 
are heavily marked, terminating in a supramastoid protuberance, where the greatest 
transverse diameter of the skull is found. 

Norma Basialis. — The foramen magnum is ovoid in contour, and larger than would 
be expected from the small size of the skull. The occipital condyles are small and 

[ 87 ] 


Vo. 64.] 



assymmetrical, one being flattened and the other prominent. The post-condylar foramina 
are fairly large, the styloids short and feeble. The meatus audi tonus is placed farther 
in than in most races, but is of fair size and well opened. 

The palate is parabolic in outline. All the teeth are wanting, but the loss has 
been post-mortem as the alveolars are not filled. There are indications of considerable 
dental prognathism, but the molars do not seem to have had that inward inclination 
so common to the Araucano skulls. The pterygoid plates are small, the " alte " being 
only slightly developed. 

The general characteristics presented in this norma are not those of the Araucano?, 
where the condyles, mastoids, and styloids are usually large and symmetrical. 

The skull may be classified as follows : — semi-microcephalic, sub-brachycephalic, 
metricephalic, phsenozygous, lightly prosopic, chamrcprosopic, megasemeleptorhine, and 

From a close comparison of this skull with others of the different aboriginal races 
of Chile, I am rather inclined to the opinion that it represents a mixed type, possibly 
that of the Moluches with the prehistoric remains I found near Serena. 

As regards the general features of the skull they are timilar to those of the former race, 
while the facial portion and basial formations are more like those of the latter, but with 
such scanty data at my disposal I would not venture to advance this as an hypothesis. 


Sex - 

Age - 

Anterior- posterior (maximum) 
Glabeilo-lambda - 
Tran8verso (maximum) 
Frontal (maximum) 
„ (minimum) 
Ba3i-bregmatic (height) - 
Bi-orbital (external) 
., (internal) 
Bi-dacr) c 
Orbital (length) 

„ (breadth) - 
Nasal (length) - 

„ (breadth) 
Foramen magnum (length) 

tt » (breadth) 

Palatal (length) 
„ (breadth) - 

I 35-40 

162 mm. 

157 ., 

130 „ 

127 „ 

132 „ 

111 „ 

91 ,. 
121 „ 
108 „ 

95 „ 

23 „ 

38 „ 

36 „ 

47 ., 
21 .. 

92 „ 
92 „ 

103 „ 

«9 ,, 

4<> „ 

34 „ 

48 „ 
38 „ 



Bi-jugal - 

113 mm. 

Bi-zygomatic - - 

128 „ 


79 „ 


Frontal - - 

112 „ 

Parietal - 

HI » 


110 M 

Total sagittal (to basion) 

373 „ 

Ml!" * 

465 „ 

„ horizontal 

470 „ 

Supra-auricular - - 

306 „ 

Na8o-malar - 

114 „ 






Breadth ,. - 


Mixed „ - 






Staphylinic - - 


Uranic - 


Facial (Broca) 


„ (Kollmann) 




Stephanie - 





[ 88 ] 

1904.1 MAN. [Nos. 55-S6. 

Australia. Lang. 

New South Wales 8tone Ohuringa. By Andrew Lang. pp 

In Native Tribes of Central Australia, p. 150, Messrs. Spencer and Gillen Ov 

publish a churinga of very peculiar shape, possibly phallic, "one of the only five 

*• churinga of this shape which we have seen amongst a very great number. . . . 

44 The churinga was evidently a very old one." 

The markings are concentric horse-shoes and a serpentine set of curves. It is a 
churinga of the lizard (echunpa) totem. 

We have not hitherto heard of stone churinga south> of the central region, but a 
friend of mine, who has not studied the subject, found on his station iu New South 
Wales a stone object, about 15 inches long, closely resembling the example figured by 
Messrs. Spencer and Gillen. The ornament, as usual in the south, consisted of mere 
criss-cross lines, deeply cut. From a sketch the thing is erect, without the curve of the 
Arunta specimen. My friend writes that on visiting the museum at Sydney recently he 
saw there several similar specimens, in shape exactly like that figured by Messrs. Spencer 
and Gillen, but all decorated with linear patterns. He learned that these objects 
were of unknown use and were chiefly found in the region of New South Wales, where 
his station lies. A black fellow, who was disincliued to speak out about the object, if, 
indeed, he had any information, was cross-examined. We have not heard of any use of 
stone churinga by the blacks of New South Wales. They seem there to be obsolete, 
and I think it probable enough that the present Arunta creed as to stone churiugas is, 
as it were, a myth explanatory of ancient objects which they find, while they do not 
know their original signification. In New South Wales it may be too late to ask 
questions. I hope to receive photographs of the specimens in the museum at Sydney. 


Arabia. Hogarth. 

The Penetration of Arabia. By David George Hogarth, M.A. Forty maps pa 
and illustrations. London : Lawrence and Bullen, 1904. Pp. xvi + 359. 00 
24 X 13 cm. Price 7*. 6d. 

Under the general title of The Story of Exploration, and under the able editorship 
of Dr. J. Scott Keltie, the enterprising publishers, Messrs. Lawrence and Bullen, have 
undertaken to issue a series of standard works embodying a complete history of 
geographical discovery from the earliest records down to the present time. This 
attractive programme opens favourably with the almost simultaneous appearance of 
Sir H. H. Johnston's The Nile Quest and the volume which is here under considera- 
tion, and in the sub-title is accurately described as " a record of the development of 
" western knowledge concerning the Arabian Peninsula." In the preface the author 
tells us that he has himself no personal acquaintance with the Peninsula, and that 
" his sole qualification for writing the story of Arabian exploration rests on a study of the 
u literature of Arabian travel, which the fascination of the subject has led him to pursue 
" for some years." Those who are familiar with the solid work doue by Mr. Hogarth, 
especially in Asia Minor and Crete, and with his Devia Cypria, The Nearer East, and 
numerous other scholarly works on the history, geography, and archaeology of the 
Levantine lands, will at once understand that the story of Arabian exploration could not 
have been placed in more competent hands than those of this profound student of " the 
literature of Arabian travel." 

This literature ranges from Herodotus through iElius Gallus, Ptolemy, the Arabs 
and Varthema, down to Niebuhr, Seetzen, Burckhardt, Burton, Wellsted, Halevy, 
Glaser, Sadlier, Palgrave, Euting, Huber, Wallin, Bent, von Wrede, Fresnel, Blunt, 
Reinaud, Miles, and the few other modern names that have acquired distinction in this 

[ 89 ] 

Nos. 56-57.] MAN. [1904. 

difficult field of exploration. As was to be expected, the author gives his readers, not 
merely a bald statement, but a broad survey and critical appreciation of the actual work 
accomplished by them, and, where necessary, of the documents in which that work is 
recorded. The result is eminently satisfactory, as we thus get, besides a rather complete 
bibliography of the subject, a really trustworthy picture of the physical features, social 
institutions, and ethnical relations of the land, presented in the pleasantest possible 
manner by following the footsteps of the pioneers themselves in the several regions first 
revealed by them. The volume thus becomes something more than an ordinary book of 
reference, a sort of vade mecum, what the French call a livre de chevet that the student 
likes to have always at hand. 

One is glad here to find a thorough vindication of our old friend Ptolemy from the 
charge of " fraudulent precision " brought against him by Bunbury, who speaks of the 
imposture of filling empty spaces on the Arabian sheet of his atlas with purely fictitious 
names assigned with a vain parade of science to imaginary situations. The point is ably 
discussed, with the conclusion that to Sprenger belongs " the merit of restoriug, in our 
" century of wider knowledge, the credit that Ptolemy enjoyed in the Middle Ages.'* 
On the other hand, that erratic genius, W. G. Palgrave, is severely handled, and while 
full justice is done to his great qualities as a shrewd observer and brilliant writer, it is 
pointed out that he was necessarily biassed by the conditions of his " secret mission," 
hence yielded to the temptation to exaggerate where exaggeration served his purpose. 
He is even charged with " vagueness and haste, artificiality, vulgarity, aud a fatuous 
" garrulity which is truly Levantine. His 4 Odyssey ' is the antithesis of Dough ty's. 
u It is saturated with the man, egotistic from cover to cover, the record of an individual 
" and no more than an individual." 

Should anyone suspect that this language may be somewhat highly coloured, he 
will at any rate subscribe unreservedly to the unstinted praise lavished on the author of 
that most wonderful record of travel, the Arabia Descrta. Referring to his amazingly 
vivid picture of Arab nomad life, Mr. Hogarth aptly remarks that "of the tenting 
44 society in steppes and deserts, which is of one character ail the world over, and 
44 changes as little with the procession of centuries as anything human, Doughty's 
44 presentment may well be final ; for not only did he see it whole, and despite a certain 
44 prejudice against all things Semitic, with a sympathy that has never been excelled, 
44 but he has described it in language which with all its untimely elaboration has the 
44 precision and inevitableness of supremo style. . . . No word of Doughty's best 
44 descriptions of the desert and the desert folk can be spared. Each falls inevitable and 
44 indispensable to its place as in all great style ; and each strikes full and true on every 
44 reader who has seen, be it ever so little, the dusty steppe aud the black booths of hair." 
Quoting these words in a periodical specially consecrated to ethnological studies, I feel 
inclined, both for myself personally and on behalf of my fellow anthropologists, to 
teuder our warmest thanks to Mr. Hogarth for this generous and eloquent appreciation 
of the eminent services rendered to those studies by Charles Montagu Doughty amid the 
tented children of the desert. The volume is adorned with a fine portrait of the great 
traveller, who here finds himself iu fitting company with Niebuhr, Burckhardt, Walliu, 
Halevy, Blunt, aud several others of his illustrious forerunners aud followers in the field 
of Arabian exploration. A. H. KEANE. 

Africa: Central. Duff. 

Nyasaland under the Foreign Office. By H. L. Duff*. London : George r "f 

Bell & Sons, 1903. 22 x 15 cm. Pp. xvi + 422, with illustrations and map. Of 
One appendix. Price \2s. 

There is much in this volume to interest the reader. Nyasaland, as the writer 
truly remarks, is a comparatively little known part of our dominions, partly on account 

[ 90 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 57-58. 

of the peaceful manner in which it has been acquired, and partly because those parts 
which are habitable by the white man have hitherto been so inaccessible that few besides 
missionaries and adventurers have penetrated to them. Now, however, the railway and 
telegraph are opening up the interior, and we may expect the country to advance rapidly 
along the road to civilisation during the next few decades. This is the more desirable 
if, as Mr. Duff thinks, it is capable of becoming the great agricultural and agrarian 
district of the continent. With training, too, the natives promise to become tolerable 
farm workers, but for many years to come the government and management of the 
country is likely to remain in the hands of the white man owing to the indolence of the 

It is interesting, in view of the heated controversy at present ragiug over the vexed 
question of forced labour, to note the unbiassed view taken by a man who has had 
intimate personal experience of native methods. Mr. Duff emphasises the incorrigible 
indolence of the negro, which makes it necessary to use a certain amount of force in 
order to obtain even the minimum of work from him. In these disputes it seems to be 
too often forgotten that we have any right to claim even a moderate return for the time, 
trouble, and expense that have been ungrudgingly bestowed on the effort to reclaim and 
civilise the races under our care. It is time that the public learned to take a reasonable 
view of these questions. 

There are some interesting chapters on the various races which now inhabit this 
part of the country and their relative capabilities. The Angoni, fierce and warlike, have 
already been the subject of various writings, but I do not think the Wa-yao and Bantus 
are so well known. I am inclined to think that Mr. Duff somewhat underrates the 
intelligence of the latter. At auy rate I have heard from other reliable sources that they 
are not only eager students but in many cases show a decided turn for mechanics, and a 
fair amount of inventiveness. They are also capable of making very fair teachers, 
though in all these directions they naturally require a good deal of supervision as yet. 
The finest races, he tells us, make excellent soldiers, delighting in drill exercises and having 
great endurance and hardiness as well as plenty of courage. Probably their cheerful 
temperament and affectionate and sociable disposition also tell in this direction, while 
the necessary training in order and method may lead the way to the exercise of these 
qualities in other callings. Mr. Duff also points out that the Bantu negroes, almost 
alone among the dark races of mankind, not only survive the invasion of whites, but 
even thrive and increase. That this is not owing simply to their fine physique is 
evident from comparing them with the Maories, who, though quite equal to them 
physically and, I believe, superior in other respects, yet require to be preserved as 
carefully as game to prevent their total extinction. 

Among the most interesting chapters in the book are those dealing with the fauna 
and flora. Indeed, the reader's chief regret is likely to be that Mr. Duff has not dealt 
more fully with these subjects and avoided that of politico-economical history, in which 
he does not seem to be very deeply versed. To return to the fauna ; we are to some 
extent already familiar with these from the accounts of previous travellers, but the flora 
have, so far as I can recollect, received hitherto but scanty attention, and we would bo 
glad of a more accurate and detailed description of them. 

The illustrations from the author's sketches are satisfactory. R. W. FELKIN. 

Africa, South. Kidd. 

The Essential Kafir. By Dudley Kidd. London : A. & C. Black, 1904. tO 
Pp. xv + 436, with 100 full-page illustrations. 23 x 16 cm. Price 18$. uet. "^ 

If Mr. Kidd could congratulate himself on nothiug else he could justly say that he 
has given us a book which, for its illustrations alone, should And a place in the book- 
case of every anthropologist and every student of human nature. No one can look 

[ 91 ] 

No. 68.] MAN. [1904. 

through the really splendid series of pictures, so admirably reproduced, without feeling 
that he has been brought as near to our black fellow subjects as, without a journey to 
South Africa, he can ever expect to be. We have, however, far more than a series of 
pictures. Mr. Kidd has spent a dozen years or more in travelling about South Africa, 
and has on his journeys recorded in his note- books what he has seen of the natives and 
learnt from them and those who lived among them and knew them best. The result 
is a work which will interest the general reader, and with reservations be a useful 
handbook for the anthropologist. 

Mr. Kidd's use of the term Kafir is peculiar. He tells us in his preface that it 
includes all the black races and is "equivalent to the word Bantu" He actually 
extends it to cover the San and Khoi-khoin. Mr. Kidd does not, however, profess to 
give us an anthropological work, and a slip of this sort may be excused. 

Our author has not confined himself to collection of information. He has studied 
the literature of his subject, at any rate, so far as it is in French and English, but 
curiously enough gives few or no references. The works of Fritsch and the German 
missionaries are, of course, indispensable to a complete study of the subject, and it is 
unfortunate that they were not consulted. 

When Mr. Kidd approaches the domain of the anthropologist he is, as might be 
expected, sometimes at fault. He has not much of value to say on the origin of 
avoidance nor on communal marriage. In discussing burial rites he questions the 
statement that articles are broken when they are deposited in the grave, in order that 
they may be available for use in the spirit life, holding that the theory is too fine-spun 
for the Kafir's brain. Now, it is indisputable that in many cases the dead man's 
possessions are expressly stated to be destroyed for this purpose. In the second place, 
if the view held by Mr. Kidd, that the objects are broken to prevent their use in witch- 
craft, were correct there would be no object in laying them in the grave. 

In the Golden Bough (III., 410) Dr. Frazer has called attention to a conflict of 
testimony on the subject of the idhlozi, or snake form of the ancestral spirits. Mr. Kidd 
coufirms the account given by most authors and says that the spirit, of a dead man after 
death enters into his cattle, and from them passes into the snake in which the Amadhlozi 
(sic) is supposed to live (p. 251). On au earlier page of the book (p. 85) Mr. Kidd 
mentions an interesting belief, which seems to be in couflict with the usual native 
view and to be hardly reconcilable with their custom of sparing those snakes only which 
are found near the kraal. A native to whom a snake was pointed out was asked, 
fc * What would happeu to your ancestor if I were to kill it inadvertently ? " The man 
replied that the ancestors do not live in individual snakes but in the genus. If this is 
the genuine native belief, it briugs the idhlozi animal nearer the totem than has been 
hitherto recognised. Like the Betsiieos, the Kafir believes that the kind of snake varies 
according to the status of the dead person. Chaka inhabits a boa constrictor (p. 85, 
but on this point testimony varies ; MS. notes penes me make him enter a small snake), 
other chiefs, mambas ; lesser fry, small snakes ; and women, sleepy fat old lizards. We 
cannot, therefore, connect the belief in its present form with totemism. It may, on the 
other hand, be a development from it, like the analogous belief of the Betsiieos. 

Mr. Kidd is very sceptical as to the powers of witch-doctors, and will not admit the 
existence of abuormal psychical phenomena as an explanation of them. Iu the case of 
Leslie's eight huuters, whose fate and fortunes were correctly described by a diviner, he 
inclines to the view that the information was pieced together and eked out by clever 
guessing. If no well-observed cases nearer home were available, Mr. Kidd's theory 
might be accounted not improbable. Other cases are, however, recorded (Brintou, 
Myths*, 311), where guessing will hardly explain the facts without doing violence to 
all probability. Mr. Andrew Lang, too, and other acute observers have given a sufficient 
number of cases of crystal gazing to make the coincidence theory virtually impossible. 

[ 92 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 58-60. 

At the same time it is not necessary to go so far as Mr. Douglas Blackburn and 
Mr. H:igh Clifford (Spectator, September 1902) in the attribution of occult powers to 
lower races. N. W. T. 

Melos. Atkinson: Bosanquet. 

Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos. Conducted by the British School at r ft 
Athens under the direction of T. D. Atkinson, R. C. Bosanquet, and others. %)lj 
With 41 plates and 193 illustrations in the text. London : Macmillan and Co., 1904. 
29 x 20 cm. Price 30*. net. 

This work, the fourth supplementary paper issued by the Society for Promotion of 
Hellenic Studies, describes the results of important excavations, carried on from 1896 
to 1899 by members of the British School at Athens, at Phylakopi on the N.E. 
coast of Melos. Three settlements can be traced. The uppermost or latest town has 
the remains of a Mycenaean palace of the usual type, and imported Mycenaean pottery 
here abounds ; the middle settlement shows native pre-Mycensean civilisation at its 
highest point. The lowest stratum yielded quantities of early pottery, ranging from 
primitive hand-made to painted geometric ware. 

Two or three finds are of exceptional interest. On Plate III. a fragmentary wall- 
painting is reproduced in colours. It represents part of an extremely beautiful frieze of 
flying fish, and is one of the finest specimens of Mycenaean art 60 far discovered. 
Another striking object is a vase with a design representing a procession of fishermen. 
It is a characteristic example of Mycena3an style and is to some extent paralleled by an 
engraved gem in the British Museum. A bronze statuette, probably imported into 
Melos from Crete, is also of considerable interest. 

The most important part of the finds, taken as a whole, was the pottery, which was 
obtained in enormous quantities. Mr. Edgar has devoted much labour to its classifica- 
tion, and his conclusion is that the bulk of it is of Melian manufacture. 

Melos must have owed much of its importance in prehistoric times to its wealth in 
obsidian. Probably it had a practical monopoly of the obsidian trade in the JEge&u. 
Mr. Bosanquet discusses this subject in an interesting chapter. 

Iu the final chapter of the book Mr. Duncan Mackenzie deals with the relation 
borne by the Phylakopi settlements to the early civilisation of the iEgeau islands and 
more particularly to that of Crete. He believes that the evidence points to the existence 
of an ^Egean League, in which Melos must have played a prominent part, though the 
headship would have belonged to Crete. The decline and fall of this league was 
probably due to overwhelming pressure from the mainland of Greece, which, in its turn, 
was caused by invasion from the uorth. 

It is impossible iu a short uotice of this kind to do justice to the many features of 
interest contained in this work. Suffice it to say that it is a most valuable addition to 
our knowledge of pre-Mycenaeau civilisation. F. H. M. 

Technology. • Bourdeau. 

Histoire de V Habillement et de ia Parure. By Louis Bourdeau. Paris : nft 
Felix Alcan, 1904. Pp. 302. 22 x 14 cm. Price 6 francs. OU 

The most recent volume of the Bibliothhque Scientific ue Internationale is a 
pleasantly- written history of clothiug and ornament by M. Louis Bourdeau. A book 
covering this ground is needed, as the subjects dealt with are of considerable importance 
in the history of mau, but to do them justice far more space is necessary than is here 
allotted to them, and also, it must be confessed, far more knowledge of ethnology than 
the author appears to possess. Ethnologists will not fiud much that is of use to them 
in the book, and from its necessary sketchy character and the absence of illustrations 
aud index it is not quite evident for whom it would be of use. The author begins with 

[ 93 ] 

Nob. 60-62.] MAN. [1904. 

Genesis, quotes Greek and Roman authors, and, glancing at intermediate periods, finishes 
with modern industrialism, making allusions by the way to non-European peoples of 
varied culture. The author is apparently unaware of the practice of tatooing among 
the Roman Catholic women of Bosuia and Herzegovina ; he confuses Polynesians 
and Melanesians, and does not allude to the magical aspect of personal decoration. 

A. C. H. 

Evolution. " Semi-Darwinian." 

Doubts about Dancinism. By a " Semi-Darwinian." London : Longmans, A4 
1903. Pp. vi + 115. 22 x 15 cm. 01 

The " semi-Darwinian " author of this little book writes in a broad and tolerant 
spirit often wanting in works with a similar aim. His acquaintance with natural 
selection is not very intimate, and he is oppressed with the weight of difficulties, many 
of which are capable of a reasonable solution. 

In the general introduction it is explained that the Darwinian theory as a whole is 
not attacked but that reasons will be adduced for doubting its adequacy. It is here 
erroneously stated that Darwin never expressed any private opinion upon the origin of 
the lowest and simplest organisms. More than one deeply-iuteresting criticism of 
" abiogenesis " is to be found in his letters. 

The first part of the book is completed in the three following chapters, entitled 
respectively, " Spontaneous Generation," " On the Dawn of Consciousness," and on the 
" Peopling of the Earth by an Aerolite." These titles are probably sufficient to indicate 
the point of view from which the subject is approached, as well as the kind of reasons 
which induce the author to describe himself as a " Semi-Darwinian." 

Just as the first part relies upon difficulties — admitted difficulties and gaps in our 
knowledge — concerning the origin of life, so the second part is founded, upou the 
44 Mystery of Reproduction," the " Care for Offspring," the " Formation of New Organs 
and Structures," " Instinct," " Electric Fishes," &c. But here the author fails to do 
justice to natural selection, not from any lack of fairness, but because he has not realised 
the explanation which it affords. The maternal instinct offers to him a difficulty, 
because he has uever grasped the fact that natural selection regards the species rather 
than the individual. So, too, in discussing the origin of new structures no reference is 
made to the potent principle of " change of function," which we owe to Auton Dohrn. 
It may be at once admitted that several problems, such as those presented by electric 
fishes, are full of difficulty, but our insufficient knowledge cannot be erected as a barrier 
to limit the scope of natural selection. It has been already pointed out that other 
supposed difficulties are even now capable of a perfectly reasonable interpretation. 

E. B. P. 

Anthropometry. Boas. 

Statistical Study of Anthropometry. By Franz Boas in American Physical £f* 
Education Review (pp. 174-180). OZ 

In this paper Dr. Boas makes some suggestions as to the utilisation of the large 
number of measurements which have been taken in American gymnasia. He points out 
that from the nature of the case they must in general represent a somewhat pathological 
type, whereas the ideal type would only be obtained in individuals with a perfect health 
record. Consequently the subjects ought to be classified according to the health records. 
Also they should be divided into groups according to age and development, and further 
differentiated by their original European race-stocks. In the present state of knowledge 
this is hardly possible, but as the correlation of measurements even in a miscellaneous 
series may lead to the detection of divergent types, such an analysis of correlations is 
recommended. Also as " the anthropometrical problem is not a statical one ^but [a 

[ w J 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 62-64. 

dynamical one," the changes in individuals deserve to be recorded, and the author 
advises repeated measurements of the same subjects at different periods. Finally, he 
raises a question of great importance in regard to the correlation of features, when he 
states that " the most frequent types, and for this reason the types which we must 
" consider as inside the limits of physiological variations, are not by any means those 
" which in all respects are enlarged or reduced replicas of the average type, but such 
" that deviate more or less from this type in regard to a few measurements only." 


Craniology. Boas. 

Heredity in Head Form. By Franz Boas in American Anthropologist, Vol. 5, aa 
No. 3 (pp. 530-538). Lancaster, Pa., 1903. DO 

This paper is a valuable investigation upon the applicability of Mendel's law of 
alternative inheritance to the head form in mankind. The material was furnished by 
the measurements of Dr. Maurice Fishberg on forty-eight families of East European 
Jews, which enabled Dr. Boas to study the relation between the variability of children 
and the differences between the parental couples in series which, though small, were yet 
sufficient to yield suggestive results. The analysis is expressed through the medium of 
such algebraic symbols as are ordinarily employed in work of this kind, and the 
conclusion is that heredity of the cephalic index in individuals of the same race does not 
depend on the mid-parental value of the iudex, but that one half of the children resemble 
in regard to this trait the father and the other half the mother. Or more exactly, " one 
" half of the children of a couple belonging to a certain race have a type the average of 
" which is equal to the average of twice the father's type and once the racial type, 
" while the other half have an average equal to twice the mother's type and once the 
" racial type." 

The concluding paragraph of the paper shows a scientific sanity foreign to some 
biometricians on this side of the Atlantic, and deserves quotation : " The data here 
u given do not show what the laws of heredity of the cephalic index may be where 
" father and mother belong to different races. It must also be remembered that other 
" measurements may follow different laws." D. RANDALL-MACIVER. 

England: Neolithic. Johnson: Wright. 

Neolithic Man in North-East Surrey. By Walter Johnson and William *\m 
Wright. London : E. Stock, 1903. Pp. viii + 200. 24 X 16cm. Price 6*. Ot 1 
The title chosen for this little book seems -precise and definite enough, but the 
matter is of a most miscellaneous character, including notices of Shrove Tuesday ball- 
play iu Surrey, and a vast number of other matters equally irrelevant. The book, in 
short, is a medley of ill-digested, ill-arranged, and some more or less misleading state- 
ments, although it is impossible to read its pages without feeling that the authors might 
have done much better work if they had exercised greater care both in the treatment of 
the subject and in the selection of the material. We confess to a feeling of disappoint- 
ment after reading the authors' account of the interesting discovery of underground 
chambers at Waddon, a discovery which one would be inclined to regard as of first rate 
importance for the purpose of such a book as this. Another branch of the subject has 
been much neglected. We refer to the marks of wear arising from use, and the 
characteristics of fractures in stoue implements. Much has already been made out 
by a careful study of these features, and doubtless much remains to be discovered. 
The book is readable, but poorly illustrated, aud of small scientific value. 


[ 95 ] 

Nob. 65-66.] MAN. [1904. 

Man : Prehistoric. Zaborowski. 

V Homme prehistorique : Bibliothhque utile* cxxv., par S. Zaborowski. Sep- ap 
tieme edition enlinement refondue. Paris : A lean. N.D. 15 x 10 cm. Pp.187, DO 
with figures in the text. Price 60 centimes. 

The name of the author of this little book is a sufficient guarantee of its excellence, 
and it may be cordially recommended as an introduction to the study of prehistoric 
anthropology, summarising as it does the results of investigation in the questions of the 
physical character and culture of prehistoric man. The statements of fact are clear and 
concise, while in dealing with controversial matters, M. Zaborowski has placed before 
his readers the chief points at issue and the principal arguments with commendable 
brevity and impartiality. Since the first edition was published some twenty-four years 
ago an enormous mass of evidence, entailing a vast amount of discussion, has accu- 
mulated. M. Zaborowski has incorporated the chief points in his seventh edition in 
such a manner as to give due prominence to matters of importance without over- 
burdening his narrative with a mass of confusing detail, although perhaps it might 
appear to some that it would have been profitable tp deal with particular points a little 
more fully than has been done. E. N. F. 

London. Anthropological Institute. 

Ordinary Meeting, Tuesday, March 8th. Mr. C. H. Read, F.S.A., Vice- aa 
President, in the chair. DQ 

Mr. Charles H. Hawes, M.A., delivered a lecture on " The Gilyaks and other 
Natives of Sakhalin," and illustrated his remarks with numerous lantern slides. The 
paper was discussed by Professor Gowland. 

Ordinary Meeting, Tuesday, April 26th. Colonel Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.M.G. 
K.C.I.E., &c, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Professor W. Ridgeway, M.A., delivered a lecture on " The Origin of Jewellery," 
which he illustrated with an interesting exhibition of specimens. The paper was 
discussed by Messrs. G. L. Gomrae, O. M. Daltou, N. W. Thomas, M. L. Dames, and 
Sir Thomas Holdich. 

Ordinary Meeting, Tuesday, May 10th. Mr. H. Balfour, M.A., President, in the 

The election of Messrs. Taylor-Hancock, W. S. Barclay, A. S. Quick, and W. S. 
Routledge as Ordinary Fellows of the Institute was announced. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton delivered a lecture on " Some Little-Known Tribes 
of Northern Uganda," which he illustrated with a large and interesting collection of 
specimens and with many lantern slides. 

The paper was discussed by Mr. Routledge. Dr. Garsou, Dr. Shrubsall, and the 

Ordinary Meeting, Tuesday, May 21th. Professor W. Gowlaud, F.S.A., in the 

The election of Mr. W. T. Greenstreet, M.A., as an Ordinary Fellow of the 
Institute was announced. 

Mr. E. F. Martin exhibited a large collection of native objects from Northern 

The Rev. C. T. Collyer, F.R.G.S., delivered a lecture on "Korea and its People," 
illustrated by lantern slides. The paper was discussed by Dr. Garson, Mr. Tabor, and 
the Chairman. 

Printed 1 by Eyre axd Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, East Harding Street, E.C. 






[No. 67. 

Egypt, Beni-Hasan. With Plate Q. Garstangr. 

Excavations at Beni-Hasan in Upper Egypt (Second Season), tyj 
By John Qarstangf B.A.< BJAU* % F*8mA* 9 Reader fa Egyptian Arch n Of 

tin 1 ■</ 

»f Man for July and September of last vest contained ptelimjni 
notices of the ofa the 1 tmmittec <i in 

hand in i When work: renamed early [n December lust, it was found that 

the character of the necropolis .is it had appeared the former well maintained. 

It whs a burying place for the officials and upper classes of that pur of Egypt 'hiring 

but more generally n 
of Flie XL and X II. Dynasties. Its central date is somewhat before 2000 B.C. and 
its range "(covers a period of several centuries. It seems to bridge over any gap 
between the VI. and XI. I §; and disputes the existence, for the Oryx Nome 

m any rate, of any indepi VII., \ 'III., IX., aud X. Dynasties as tradition has 

brought these down. From archaeological end rations it nnisf ep] 

probi these tour dynasties represent four independent centres of feudal poi 

BOOS, or nearly so, with one another and with portions of the VI. 
XL Dyi of Memphis sod Thebes The whole 

range of Egj "deration much less than tradition 


Locally it was found the custom that interment in rock-hewn tombs is at least 
as early be archaic period and the rise of the Pyramid age, aboot the 

IIL Dynasty. A whole range of small tombs was examined in the cliffs far back in the 
desert above the cluster of bottsefl known as Nuerat, some three or four miles north of 
Bent-Heeeifc These were uniform in general design. A very email squared chamber 

.1 ej rover for a shallow pit which desponded within to a depth of ubout two DM I 
This widened at the bottom to a small chamber, usually at the northern end. In tlm 

the coffin, which in two cases observed was of pottery, similar to that pictured 
ii. No. 925, and in another case was of wood, with pauelled east face, In each 

the coffin was so small thnt the burial was perforce contracted in the archaic 
fashion, SJ the picture shows. The body does not seem to have beeu preserved in any 
way, hut it was covered by, or wrapped in, a linen cloth. 

The next epoch, the Pyramid age, or Old Empire, or Memphite period, as it is 
variously call nted by a row of tombs similarly hewn in the rock, but in this 

case about two miles to the south of the better known necropolis, and just to the south 
die fipeos Arteuiido*. Here, similarly placed Wt*U up the cliff, the chambers were- 
hirger, and one at least is inscribed. The shafts are also longer though not usually any 
deeper. A preference now shows itself for making the burial recess partly under the 
side of the shaft — an observation confirmed in widely separated burying places of 
the period. In one tomb, which had escaped re bricked Up, and 

withitt, on tie [do, was a plain thick wood coffin. the north end of the 

sarcophagus and the rock facing the east was a small wood, two feet high, of a 

man in the well-known OOftnOM Slid attitude of the Miekh-el-Beled. At the foot, OS 
the east side, were some pottery vase-, and within the coffin the Ixnly lay in remark 
preservation, head north, face partly east. 

The Feudal period sees the necropolis beginning to 
cliff of Beni-Hasan, two miles north of the modem Village. It! Igly, 

in the VL Dynsf I row of small rock tombs similar In form ami arrangement 

iu those last described, at the foot of the steeper slope of the cliff, about one-third up 

i. Some eight or ten of these were constructed, aud two of them were inscribed. 
The one showed a name compounded of Pepy, and the other the name of APA, aa 

[ 97 ] 

No. 67.] MAN. [1904. 

Erpa-ha. Within the latter was found an undisturbed deposit of the pointed alabaster 
vases characteristic of the period. The great Feudal chieftains of this and neighbouring 
provinces next began to build their massive tombs in the rock higher up the slope, while 
their courtiers and officials dug their tomb-shafts on the slope of the cliff before them. 
The character of these great tombs was an elaboration of the earlier ones. Architectural 
features, particularly the column and portico, were now introduced in the rock tombs. 
The conventional agricultural or religious incident which had formed the subject for mural 
decoration led on to the representation of scenes full of detail and incident of daily life, 
which are, indeed, a chief source of knowledge of the life and culture of the age. The 
tomb-shaft now has deepened, for security of the burial ; and in all probability the 
funereal customs of the time were those which the general necropolis has so fully 
illustrated, as described in the numbers of Max already quoted. 

The conspicuous feature of these Middle Empire burials was the deposit of wooden 
models within the funeral chamber. A further series of undisturbed tombs has confirmed 
the first impression that the customary objects were a rowing boat, a sailing boat, a 
granary, a baking and a brewing scene, and sometimes a sacrifice. These types were 
varied either by some detail, as the addition of a soldier with a battle-axe and shield in 
tomb 585 (Plate G), or by some different or additional object, such as the wooden 
portrait statue numbered 720. This exquisite object is only some 7 or 8 in. high, but 
the skill of the sculptor has created a work as impressive for the sense of fidelity in the 
portrait as it is remarkable for minuteness of detail. It was, unfortunately, in several 
pieces when taken from a disturbed tomb. 

Sometimes the models were replaced by real objects, as in the battle-axe (No. 511), 
the arrows (723), and the metal bowls (845), illustrated in the Plate aud in Fig. 1. 

In the first of these objects the blade is inserted at 
three points into metal rings around the staff, to 
which it is then tied. The end of the handle was 
bound also with a cap of metal. The arrows lay 
with a long bow and complete deposit of models 
upon the coffin of a mer per named APA. The 
Fig. 1. arrows are tipped in some cases with small sharp 

metal bowl of vi. dvnasty. pieces of fliut, and are each provided with three 

feathers. The notch is deep, and the string of 
the bow was seemingly twisted skin or gut. 

Another object of interest, not figured in the Plate, is a reed used for separating the 
warp in weaving. It works in the sley behind the healds. Two such were found, 
similar in every respect, except the exact length, to one which was seen in use in the 
modern village of Abu-kirkas across the river and secured for purposes of comparison. 
The general principle of these reeds is in every respect the same as that in use in the 
weaving sheds of Lancashire to-day. [These and a selection of all the objects excavated 
will be exhibited during July in the rooms of the Society of Antiquaries, by courteous 
permission of the Council.] 

The history of Beni-Hasan from the end of the Feudal period is almost a blank till 
the close of the Theban rule. The Hyksos period and the great Imperial period are 
hardly represented. The Speos Artemidos is almost aloue for an interval of nearly 
1,000 years ; aud it is significant that it is not until the general decentralisation of 
power about the XXII. Dynasty that a sign of local activity reshows itself. This age 
of Ethiopian, Libyan, and Assyrian, is represented by a considerable necropolis near to 
the Speos Artemidos, from which some characteristic fuuereal objects were recovered. 

The concluding item of the season's work was the re-excavation of the royal tomb 
of Negadeh of the I. Dynasty. Its chief result was the discovery of the missing 
portion of the ivory tablet of Mena, a duplicate of the same, and three other small 

[ 98 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 67-68. 

tablets of Baui, Narraer (? Bezau) and Neithhetep respectively, as well as carved objects 
in crystal, obsidian, diorite, ivory, aud other materials, with numerous seal-impressions. 


Totemism. Thomas. 

Arunta Totemism : a Note on Mr. Lang's Theory. By N. W. aq 
Thomas, M.A. DO 

On the subject of the connection of the churinga with Arunta totemism I have no 
counter theory to propose, and, perhaps, Mr. Lang's suggestion that rites of burial had 
some influence is not improbable. I can hardly, however, accept the view that the 
chance discovery of churinga associated with ancient burying places was in itself enough 
to subvert previously existing ideas as to the descent of the totem. The marks on the 
churinga arc variously interpreted by different kins, and it is difficult to see how the 
discovery of churinga would under these circumstances cause a change in the rule of 
descent, whether we assume it to have taken place under matri- or patrilineal conditions. 
The spirits waiting to be re-born must have been recognised as having, independently of 
the churinga, which could give no clue as to their kin-provenience, a local habitation 
and a name, before the belief that conception had taken place in a particular locality 
could produce the results attributed to it. 

The steps by which the Arunta reached their theory of totemism, and dissociated 
the totem from any share in the regulation of marriage, are, I conceive, as follows. The 
Adelaide tribe held that the spirits of the dead went to Pindi, the western land, by some 
authorities translated — with less probability — " the deep." At some period they returned 
from Pindi to be re-born, aud in the interval took up their abode in trees (Tasm. Journal, 
I., 64), We have, so far as I know, no information as to the rules of descent in this tribe, 
and their nature can therefore be no more than a conjecture. Whether any particular 
tree was selected by the soul is also a matter of uncertainty. There are, however, a 
few facts which favour the supposition that it was a tree near the place of death. 
When the body was lifted upon the bier, the ground (wingkongga) on which the man 
had died was dug up by his wives, or by women related to him, with their long sticks. 
A little heap of earth was thus formed, supposed to contain the wingko or breath that 
had left the body, which their digging is intended to set free. After various ceremonies 
of a kind commonly found in Australia, intended to discover by divination the sorcerer 
who caused the death of the deceased, the bearers, if there happened to be large trees in 
the neighbourhood, walked up quickly to one and then another, resting the bier against 
them on each occasion. By degrees they worked away from the place of death and at last 
walked off to a distant locality (Woods, Native Tribes, p. 164). The interpretation of this 
ceremony must, of course, be very uncertain, but it seems possible that the future ngirra 
tree was thus selected. 

The divinatory ceremonies mentioned above consisted in the rotation of the bier, 
composed of ten or twelve branches arranged like the spokes of a wheel ; these were 
carried each by one man. and one man supported the " hub " of the structure on his head ; 
the men, who faced in different directions, revolved rapidly with the centre man as a 
pivot, and the latter after each act of rotation asked the deceased who had killed him, &c. 
It seems just possible that one object of these ceremonies was to allow the deceased to 
select the future resting-place of his soul. 

A stage beyond this, at any rate from the point of view of the definiteness of our in- 
formation, we find the Arunta of Finke River living between the Luritcha and the Arunta 
Ilpma. They have churinga but do not seem to associate them with any idea of re-birth. 
They make a grave with a lateral chamber (like the Semang of the Malay peninsula) with 
the idea of preventing the spirit of the dead man from being incommoded by the weight 
of earth and thus being compelled to leave prematurely for his tmara altjira, by which 

[ 99 ] 

No. 68.] MAN. [1904. 

they understand the place where his mother was born. The souls of infauts are supposed 
to dwell in trees, whither they are carried by the good mountain spirits, tuanjiraka, and 
their wives, melbata. The tree nearest to a woman when she feels the first pains of 
parturition she calls ngirra % and believes that the soul euters her child from that tree 
{Trans. R. S. S. A., XIV., 237). It will hardly be rash to argue from the foregoing 
account by the Rev. L. Schulze that (1) the souls thus re-born are those of the dead who 
have previously come from their grave to the spot in question ; (2) that the belief arose 
when the tribe was matrilineal. 

Now, if the woman were in the neighbourhood of the ngirra tree by chance only 
and a particular soul had a particular tree for its habitat, a little reflection would convince 
the black that the doctrine of hereditary totems could not be upheld unless the individual 
could in a new incarnation change his totem. Once it was decided that the totem was an 
inseparable soul element, the obvious conclusion was that, if re-birth was a fact, 
the child could not follow the kin of either mother or father except by chance. If the 
prospective mother were guided to the correct tree, or if the souls were allowed a certain 
amount of choice and, by playing a sort of spiritual " puss in the corner," could get into 
the right mother, this conclusion might be avoided for the time. But here, too, unless the 
intending mother took precaution to make enquiries in the districts they proposed to visit, 
an Emu woman might find herself in the locality where there had been a run on Emu 
souls. If Emu souls were " off," she would perforce, if time pressed, take the first soul 
handy, and the doctrine of descent would be upset. 

It seems, therefore, probable that the belief in re-birth, associated with a 
localised habitat of the disembodied soul, would be sufficient to bring about a change in 
the belief as to the hereditary character of the totem. 

The question of how the totem ceased to play a part in the regulation of marriage 
does not seem to present any great difficulty. In the large number of tribes the totemic 
code is veiled, so to speak, by the phratriac or the class code ; occasionally, even among 
tribes with class organisation, the totemic code plays its part, either in conjunction with 
or independently of the class system ; but as a rule the prohibition to marry one of the 
same totem is only prominent where the class system does not exist. The totemic 
prohibition plays no part in the ordinary tribe, divided into two phratries, with or 
without classes, because the kins are arranged in one or other phratry, and virtually 
never appear in both (there are exceptions but hardly sufficiently well authenticated). 
If, however, the descent of the totem no longer follows the same rule as that of the class 
or phratry, it is clear that, so long as the class system is in full vigour, and especially 
where the totem has hitherto been a negligeable factor in marriage rules, marriage will 
probably continue to be regulated by the class. If there is a clear consciousness of the 
totemic prohibition as implicitly contained in the phratry or class prohibition, there might 
be a subsidiary set of rules, but where the ordinary rule of descent of the totem has been 
abrogated, we should hardly expect that a totemic prohibition would form part of 
marriage regulations. 

The origin of totemic exogamy is a matter of dispute ; but it can hardly be denied that 
it is in many cases of very subsidiary importance. That this is the case may be inferred 
from the rules of avoidance. Most, if not all, theories of avoidance have overlooked the 
fact that although the actual mother-iu-law must be avoided, it is, in some cases at least, 
only as one of an inter-marrying class. The bearing of this fact on the origin of 
avoidance is complicated by the theory of group marriage ; but for our present purpose 
the important point is that there does not seem to be any trace of preferential treatment 
on totemic lines of members of the forbidden classes among the Australian tribes, whose 
totemic abnormalities require explanation. The younger sister or brother must avoid 
one another, but the brother and elder sister, though of the same totem, may converse 
freely {Horn Exped., IV., 166), and this though women of the same class as the husband 

[ 100 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 68-69. 

may not visit a married man's camp except in the absence of the husband. If totem 
tabus are of this subordinate nature we may, perhaps, not unfairly regard the possibility 
of intra-kin marriage among the Arunta as a simple corollary of the change in the rule 
of descent. 

The change in the rules of descent seems to have been initiated and probably, 
completed during the matrilineal stage. The aggregation of a tribe into local totem 
groups is commonly regarded as a result of patrilineal descent, and it might be argued 
that the Arunta must therefore have emerged from the matrilineal stage before the totem 
ceased to be hereditary. But in the first place, the process by which patrilineal descent 
brings about local totem groups is hardly clear in all its steps ; and in the second place, 
the Intichiuma ceremonies of the Arunta and neighbouring tribes would tend to bring about 
the same result, and may well have done so after the totem ceased to be hereditary. 

The question of how the totem causes to be derived from the father instead of the 
mother has hardly been examined from the savage point of view, so far as I know. 
The process by which the change is brought about and the explanation given by the 
people themselves might, if studied in detail, throw some light on savage theories of 

The subject of the connection of the churinga with Arunta totemism is one that 
lends itself rather to ingenious speculation, stimulated by the knowledge that refutation 
of one's guesses is probably impossible, than to demonstration of any order of exactness. 
If Mr. Lang's graveyard theory is correct we might explain the churinga, like the 
penitah of the Sakai, as a sort of celestial passport. We know little about Australian 
ideas of a future life, but the facts do not seem to exclude the suggested explanation. 
In this case we need hardly suppose that a vanished race had anything to do with the 
matter ; the Arunta themselves may have held this belief. Another possibility is that 
this churinga was, like the wingkongga, the resting place of the soul, and was for this 
reason buried with the body and discarded when the reincarnation took place. While 
this explains the supposed finding of the disused churinga, we have at present no 
evidence that churinga proper are or were 'ever buried. Unless this was so the 
suggested explanation could hardly hold good. N. W. THOMAS. 

England : Archaeology. Ashby. 

Excavations at Oaerwent In Monmouthshire. By Thomas Ashby, aq 

Jun., M.A. y F.S.A. OvJ 

The name of Venta Silurum is not prominent in the written history of Britain in 
Roman times. It is only mentioned twice in ancient authorities. In the 14th iter of 
the Antonine Itinerary it figures as the first station from Isca Silurum (Caerleon), 
which lies 9 miles further west, on the road to Silchester by way of Bath ; that is, as a 
station on the route from London to South Wales — the route which, until July of last 
year, was still the most direct by rail. And it also occurs in the catalogue of cities and 
camps of Britain given by the geographer of Bavenna. But the indication given by 
the Itinerary, and the persistence of the modern name Caer Went are sufficient to 
warrant the identification. The name Land of Gwent, in fact, is still applied to the 
surrounding district, but its meaning is much disputed. 

An inscription recently discovered in the centre of the Roman town, though not in 
its original position, has thrown a great deal of light on the condition of Caerwent in the 
Roman period. The text runs as follows (the first line being lost and the reading in 
the second being uncertain) : — ... LEG(ato) LEG(ionis) I[i] AVG(usta3) 

[ 101 ] 

No. 69.] MAN. [1»04. 

The monument* was thus erected to an unknown ex-commander of the second 
legion, which was stationed at Caerleon, who afterwards governed the provinces of 
Gallia Narbonensis and Lugudunensis, and this was done, by decree of the "county 
council, 1 ' by the community of the Silures. The inscription shows that Caerwent was 
the chief town of the canton of the Silures, the old tribal organisation being retained, 
but under the Roman nomenclature. This was the case in Gaul, too, where, as is 
well known, almost all the modern town names (except in the Rhone Valley), which 
have lasted on from Roman times, are the names of the tribes who made those towns 
their centres. (See an article in the Athenaeum, September 26th, 1903, p. 420, by 
Mr. F. Haverfield.) 

The knowledge that Caerwent was a Roman site has never been lost. The walls 
of the city are not only clearly traceable, but actually preserved above ground to a 
considerable height, especially on the south side. Three towers have been added to 
the wall on this side, near the south-west angle. The fact that their masonry is not 
bonded in to that of the wall shows that they are later additions, and excavations have 
revealed the fact that the upper portion at least was hollow, i.e., that they were not 
merely solid buttresses to strengthen the wall. Of the gates, the south is the only one 
of which some part is not actually preserved, while the north is in a very fine state of 
preservation.! It has been cleared out in the course of the present excavations. 

The roadway was found at some period to have been raised about 3 feet, and at a 
still later period (but probably still during the Roman occupation) it was closed, and an 
aperture formed which perhaps served as an outlet for drainage, less probably as a 
postern for foot passengers. The iuner side of the gate is interesting, with the passage- 
way (whether for water or for human beings) leading down to it, and the stones which 
have been used to block it partially, one of which is the capital of a column, while 
others seem to have belonged to the piers of the gate itself. 

The wall was not, however, the earliest defence of Caerwent. It has been discovered 
that before the wall was built the city was protected by a mound of hard red clay, the 
clay of the district, taken no doubt from the fosse, which fosse may or may not have 
served later for the wall (for though the wall had a fosse of its own, we do not yet know 
whether they are identical or not, whether the wall stands in the fosse of the mound, or 
a certain way above it, so that the same ditch might have been used for both, though 
the latter seems by far the most probable). And this fact, together with the rectangular 
shape of the place and the size of it has led to the conjecture that Caerwent may have 
had a military origin — may, in fact, have been the camp occupied by the second legion 
before it moved to Caerleon, where there is no direct evidence of their presence before 
the second century. The subject is, however, debateable and cannot be dealt with now. 
What we are dealing with in our present excavations is Caerwent after it had ceased to 
be (if it ever was) a military station and had become a country town. 

It is traversed from east to west by the modern high roadf which follows the ancient 
line almost exuctly, and two other roads ran at an equal distance north aud south of the 
main road and parallel to it. Three roads can be traced running north aud south, 
intersecting these, and if we are entitled to suppose that the town was laid out on a 
regular plan, we may assume a fourth, further east, which would give twenty rectangular 
iusulae. But excavation alone can bring certainty on this point : conjecture in such 
matters is merely beating the air, and preconceived notions, especially of symmetry, are 
apt to be rudely upset in dealing with Romano-British cities. Such was the sad 

* The inscription is cut upon one face of a pedestal which very likely once bore a statue of the 
man whom the community desired to honour. 

t A full report upon it will shortly be published in Archaolcgia. 

I See the plan of the town (Fig. 5) reproduced from Arehaologia, LVIII., 2, p. 406, Fig. 4 y 
by kind permission of the Society of Antiquaries. 

[ 102 ] 





I a Royal Engineer corporal wlio drew some of our plans* and who at B 
fontJ u d that our walls were straight ami our rooms rectangular. As a fact, a 

right angle iB a real rarity in Cuerwnir. Before dealing with our own fl» avatious, 1 
ma J te briefly that lei have been continually occurring and are mentioned 

by various writers from Leland onward*. I Mild seem, been Inhabited 

unin ml i* still ro some extent occupied bj the bviHiitgi end gardens oi tlis 

modern village. But the only regular excavations of whirh 

Morgan In 1855, who 

v in- 

Bel of private 

baths 1 — so typical thai 

the plan has been re- 
produeed is lIomtDseii- 
Marqttardt'f Handbuck 

*hr Kottnsvftt n Attvr 

thmm vii. i/v- 

vatleben der B&mer) 3 p. 

ai an example of 

Bitch a building — and by 
Mr, Mitverton Drake, a 
Bristol architect, in 1893 (/V Antiquarian Ctu^ vol. III., 

pp. 1 pl#iv). InBpired by the example of Sileheeter, the commltt I to 

lie B systematic excnvatiou of the lite, 1 1 is not often that 
an opportunity otters (and still sken) of explo 

site of a Roman country town, and if we an- able to examine all those parts of it wbicb 
are not occupied by buildings or which will not manifest unfruitful, we shall be 

able to supply the only English parallel to the work at ;. And, BO far as we 

have gone, the differences ate of sufficient tmportanOS n> add irnatlv to 6 

the work. The plan^ of BOOe of 
our booses are quite dissimilar. 
I [oust - 2 and 
boofre with rooms round ai; 

-v. The wfal 

wing bae t h to trvu built, 

but ii does '"«»• seem that the 

ial plan was abandoned. 
corridor on the north Bids 
apparent}) Bop and the 

lened by about i 

,\ po- 
oose. Ho 

- no signs of re< <>n at all. It has ■ large oblong p >2' X 42') in 

the ceuirr though the boose itself is aim 

The fact that there is but little inter-eomniuuicar reOO the room- exoejM 

throogfa the peristyle is noteworthy, and this fact, coupled with their small size and 

• Arch*ologia t XXXVI.. 2, p. 432, pt XXXVI. 

t JhuL LVIl., i\ pp. $01 9fq* pL XL. j U'tlb, 1, pp. 119 #??., pi. VIII. 

[ 103 1 

No. 69.) 



. size of the Lata ted to t^* doI impossible •■ 

that the place nay n inn. The pent rod all round Mn? afnbulal 

if ien stone columns, parts of which hsr I ; they do 

I tu have ha c»? with 

Uppermost part, of t J » simple Kotnauo-Dortc mould i 
of good It; 

third example rare type of bouse plan hiring rooms round all fow sides 

of a oourtyard ii bouse 7.* The numbering, it may be noted, b that ol the 

cavation ami cannot be Slid ' • 'H if-n r . HoUSCti 1-6 

thus dug our after 7- 

• uld not be pursued till 1902. B(o waver, it would be riaky i<> assums 
of the plan f I hare until we have gone a groat deal furtbej 

wiiii Bpadevrork, Th mple is pot, however, a "pure** case of a boute of 

the irtyard type with rooms round all four sides, though th condition. 

Origii ds on the Booth Bide o\ iti oo only, many of the wall 

h ive been th the later huildin 

en suppressed <m- bo The wresl wall of this earlier house was arranged 

with ti» rhe road which run beta* th slope el the mound of w) 

we liiivc ipoken, its outst wall bordering upon it. 1 wide 

and gravelled j if appears in many placet I ad later west walls of 

the 1 BO, having I 

ered up when the 

bom construct 


of the boilA 

ally interesting, as we 
Ikui' in the two princi- 
|!il rooms (6 and 7f 
(Fig. 8) been able to 
study the degeneration 
(rather tlmu the pro- 


bouse '!' ■ Three, 

it' not four, separate coals 

of painted plaster could 

ieen upon the wal 

and were duly traced in 
full size and coloured, 

while at; removal of the pavements of the upper layer II was found that in 

room 7 an earlier pavement remained in an almost perfect of preservation, with 

•newhat, uncommon geometrical design. Of those of the upper layer and later 
period, th purely geometrical, < very largely of chequers and 

triangles executed in black and white only, lint that of room 6 Ea of interest as 
being of considerable intricacy of (though the execution is unskilful) aud as 

having \ Bgurea — in the four corners the four seasons, of which Winter maj 

rly be recognised ; In the four circles four Cupids of unj appearand 

and in four rectangles, animals (two lions and two other beasts, of which one 

be a hare), while the other (occurring in one ease alone and in the other with ibe ham) 

has been variously named, hut i* in truth quite enigmatic. 

NO. 7 : ii<< 

* 1' LVIII. !, t pp. lit) »qq, % pL VIU., where a full report with Illustrations of the 

mosaic pavementa and wal iven, 

[ 104 ] 



[No. 69. 

A little to the east, in room SO of I MB dieooYeiJ was 

Slide— 4 d* what for w;mr of • better nann- Ifi kllfl ■*•* 

l r neriati m deity, probably not purely Soman. Ii \> >n mnd- 

He anil nv nerk » ami ^ 

khL Th. eyeballs an ~' ntl * tne 

irjii^rhr, liie no -mall, ti iudented, the hair is entirely 

B, It If | hack, and tttt DOt mi.-:mt i<> be H I n ErOfD tb« 6 I BO 

the attachment of the seek to the shoulder*, and it todepun- 

dent head. I' I platform Hot 

-;,,. Boor Jj u, which may be tbe foundation of A shrine, the 

ston< tractor© of which has been time bona entfa 

century. In front are Wool > r >e 

apparently intended t<» BUpp ooden 

rail i i 

1 *a work again took us 

forth the bouses, as will 

be seen,t are of more normal type, and 
did not present I h -a in re- Of 

inter (f Tor tii i of hvpo- 

te which we have called house 5, 
j were probably a set of baths. 

bui Ming is remarkable for the 
solidity of it- construction, wWl lt $ walls 

footing and 4 feet 
v ; the pila> of the hjrpoei 

it 10 inches high, which is rare, but 

be paralleled in the bathe ai WVn 
The stokehole tree at the north end, and 
the hotter room* were natu 
If we are to name the rooms we may 
suggest the following : 2, hoi bail 

mum ; j, tepidarinra ; 5% bol betb 
attached re QaJidarimn ; 7. 10, epodyteria 
(or 7, cold bath) mi, 

The floor whieb mi p ports the pilte 

stem of drains under it. The 

solidity of the masonry is accounted for 

i»e ease of getting limestone and 

, and the comparative scarcity 

of brick : -tone roof tiles predominate ; 

often we find hypocausts entirely supported ij el .brick being need only u 

the heat was more intense. This is Been well in a [erg en*1 in the north 

diggings, where brick pi hi are only found near the Btokebole, ti 

Early in the obtained leave from the pariah council to dig on the village 

green. It occupies the point of h w of the high road and Hie road goiug south 

from the north gate, and here we found a base of squared stones, the lower course* of 
which are probably Roman work (perhaps the podium of a temple or shrine >, th 
modified in later times, liuilt against this (not in its original position) we found the 
inearthed base, of which the text has been already given. 


* Sn Wig, 4, reproduced by kind permission of the Society of Antiquaries, f rem A 
LVI1I., I.: : . 7. 

f ArdUnkfiOt LV1IL, 2, pi. XXVI 

[ 105 ] 

Wo. 69.] 



The work of 1903 was mainly concent rated on a field to the east of the -ate. 

the property of Lord Tredegar, who, as president of the corn mil tee, has tak> 
infer**! U the work from the first, and I materially forwarded it^ f An 

elliptical enclosure, measuring about 120 by 150 feet, mm to have been an am 
theatre ; the seats, of which no trace remain, must have been entirely of wood. It 
appears to ha | very late erection, o* it La built over earlier structures and even, 

it would seem, over a street, rod was jiossibly never completed. Its position within the 
walls i* remarkable in a town of so small a size as Caerweut. 

Tbfl church has ji lid to occupy the site of a temple, and tie supposition 

reasonable A huge building of some kind certainly stood there, to judge from 

ri'.. . -l'UN or GABBWBVT, 

the architectural fragments which had been used in its const motion and were brought to 
li^rht in a recent restoration. 

Phs small objects found upon ihc site are of kite usual character. Tlis coins 
include a board of about 7,000, altnost all minimi of the fourth and tilth centime* a.i>., 
which was found in a room in house 6. A great deal of the potter] QSUil on Komano- 
Britieh sitsi lias been found, and A good deal of " Sauiian H ware among it. B 
the bron/e fibufa with their eoloured enamel are fine specimens of this kind of work. 
They are at present preserved in a museum OD the spot, but their ultimate declination is 
uncertain ; they will in all probability, however, he housed at Newport (Mon.). 

[ 106 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 69-71. 

It is hoped that the excavations may be continued until all the land within the 
walls which is not occupied by modern buildings has been thoroughly explored. 
Whether this will be possible depends chiefly on the measure of support received from 
those who are interested in the work. THOMAS ASHBY, Jun. 

Africa, South. Petrie. 

Jtoads from Bulawayo. By Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., ^#% 
F.R.S. IU 

By the kiudness of Mrs. Tufnell I have seen some beads belonging to Mrs. Chester 
Master, which were found by a prospector " in an ancient working at Bulawayo, along 
" with a round stoue used by the ancients to crush the gold." The beads of glass are 
oval with flat ends, *30 in. long, *34 in. diameter. The interior is a white translucent 
(so-called opal) glass core about half of the diameter, covered with a dark pink trans- 
parent glass. This coat is certainly wound around the core, and not drawn out in one 
mass with the core. The colour is known in late Roman beads (or Coptic) in Egypt, 
but nowhere earlier so far as I have seen. At that time, however, beads were drawn 
and not wound ; and when the modern Venetian style of winding beads from glass 
threads was revived is not yet known. When the history of mediaeval glass beads is 
ascertained these might be closely dated ; but it seems that they cannot be before the 
fourth century a.d., aud may well be of the early Arab period, eighth and ninth century, 
when gold flowed so largely into Egypt. With them was a small corroded base-gold 
bead, hammered round with a gap at the side, °22 in. diameter, '13 high. It is much to 
be wished that the glass beads often found with the gold in South Africa were preserved 
and sent for examination, as they alone were imported, while the gold was local and has 
no value for comparison with known forms. W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE. 

America : Basketry. Mason. 

Aboriginal American Basketry : Studies in a Textile Art without Machinery. ^* 
By Otis Tufton Mason. From the Report of the United States National I I 
Museum for 1902. Washington, 1904. Pp. 171-.548, with 248 plates. 24 x 15 cm. 

It is not without reason that Otis T. Mason has invented a new word for a new 
disease in his paper on Aboriginal American basketry in the annual report of the 
Smithsoniau Institution for 1902, and few readers of the volume will escape without a 
touch of "canastromania," i.e., an excessive desire for collecting baskets. 

Much of the substance of the memoir under review and many of its illustrations are 
already familiar from the earlier publications of the Smithsonian Institution, but the 
whole has been amplified, added to, and enriched until it has become a valuable record 
of the past and a guide iu the future for the growing class of workers who are interested 
in this branch of technology. 

Although basket is probably the oldest word in the English language, and the 
introduction quotes references from Terence, Martial, the Arabian Nights, and the 
Bible, basket-study is still in its infancy, iu that period of vague indefiniteness in which a 
rigid classification, fortified by a vocabulary, is especially valuable. Classification is 
the keynote of this paper. The whole subject of basketry is divided into nine sections, 
dealing separately with materials, construction, ornamentation, symbolism, uses, &c. 
The longest section is that devoted to ethnic varieties of basketry, an attempt to 
associate certain general effects with definite peoples, showing how the characteristic 

[ 107 ] 

Nob. 71-72.] MAN. [1904. 

technic and ornament bewrays the basket-maker's thumb audi the intimate relationship 
between the tribe and the art. In the first section, treating of the general classification of 
technic, basketry is divided primarily into two groups, hand-woven aud sewed or coiled 
and these primary groups have five and ten subdivisions respectively, determined by the 
methods of construction and the stitch employed. The names for the subdivisions are 
unusually descriptive, and, in all but one of the fifteen, names derived from the place of 
origin have been avoided. 

The vocabulary will be useful, but it fails to supply the word for the essential 
central feature of all basketry, a word general enough to describe any strip or strand or 
group of strips or strands used in weaving a basket. In many examples the warp and 
the weft are of equal size and pliability, and being worked in checkerwork or twilled 
patterns diagonally across the basket neither series has a better claim than the other to 
be called warp or to be called weft, while they may not fall within the technical 
meanings of strand, strip, splint, fibre, &c. In such cases, which occur frequently in 
describing the softer bags and wallets, the choice lies between the term, " weaving 
element," which is clumsy, and the term, "weaver," used by Miss Mary White {How to 
make Baskets), which is sometimes ambiguous. 

The fifth section traces the symbolism of the basketry designs before idealism was 
buried in commercialism, for Indian baskets were and still are made " for no other end 
than to record a legend." These records are especially valuable since they have to be 
collected from the reticent and suspicious basket-maker herself, and no academic 
generalisation is possible. 

The sixth section on the uses of basketry is necessarily long, and the alphabetical 
list of uses at the end nearly fills two double-columned pages, beginning with " Armor M 
and ending in " Zootechny," with many unexpected inclusions, such as hedges, houses, 
leggings, love baskets, medicine, money, skirts, bizors, and wedding blankets. 

The paper is enriched with 212 text illustrations, with valuable details of stitches, 
followed by 248 plates, coloured and uncoloured, and full of interest and of beauty, 
showing the baskets and their makers. The latter, as a rule, contribute more of interest 
than of beauty, but an exceptiou is seen in PI. 171, which may be referred to on accouut 
of its completeness. It is the reproduction of a photograph representing a woman of 
the Hupa Reservation, N. California, weaving a basket, with the materials before her, 
and finished and unfinished baskets at her side. She wears a hat made of basket-work, 
and is wrapped in a deer skin, decorated with a basket-work fringe of straw, while 
her baby, tucked into a basket frame, with the handle over its head, sits somewhat 
discontentedly at her side. A. HINGSTON. 

Stone Age. Rutot. 

Coup d'ceil sur Vetat des Connaissances relatives aux Industries de la pierre. «jq 
Par A. Rutot. (Extrait du Compte rendu du Congres d'Arch^ologie et d'Histoire, f L 
Dinant, 1903.) Namur, 1904. 25 x 17 cm. Pp. 270, with 172 figures in the text. 

The latest views of M. Rutot on the handiwork of eolithic and palaeolithic man, as 
laid before the Archaeological and Historical Congress at Dinant last year, should meet 
with a cordial welcome in this country. They are now published separately, and take 
the form of a general criticism of present knowledge as to prehistoric remains in central 
and north-western Europe. A large number of illustrations and diagrams from the 
author's hand add considerable interest to a study that must necessarily deal with 
technicalities, and the volume is divided under two main headings, neolithic times being 
disregarded. The first part deals with primitive flint industry — both pre-qua ternary 
and quaternary — and the second with what is more generally understood by the term 

[ 108 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 72-73. 

" palaeolithic/' while some short chapters at the end, together with a tentative 
classification, should not be overlooked. 

Whatever view is taken of eoliths as implements, or of the geological period to 
which the eolithic gravels are to be assigned, all must recognise the zeal and ability 
which the learned curator of the Brussels Natural History Museum brings to his task. 
The Thenay flints that the Abbe Bourgeois brought forward in 1867 as evidence of 
tertiary man are still mysterious, and are associated with the Aceratherium in 
M. Rutot's table of classification. Those of Puy-Courny, with percussion bulbs and 
signs of re-chipping, are recognised by the author without hesitation as man's handiwork, 
and assigned to the same horizon as the Dinotherium in the upper miocene. After a 
considerable interval come the eoliths from the chalk plateau of Kent (middle pliocene), 
which are shown to belong to drift deposited before the present river valleys were 

Something is said with regard to the working and wear of these flints to account 
for their very blunt edges, and attention drawn to the scarcity of flint at that period 
necessitating the constant re-working of the same pieces. Justice is then done to 
Mr. Lewis Abbott's discovery of implements in the Cromer forest bed, published in 
Natural Science (1897), and this is bracketed with St. Prest, both sites being charac- 
terised by the Elephas meridionalis, and belonging to the upper pliocene. The fauna 
of the three palaeolithic periods is represented by the Elephas antiquus, the mammoth 
and the reindeer, respectively ; but the middle period is now subdivided into two, the first 
including the ordinary drift and Moustier types, the second certain stages marked by the 
use of bone and ivory. M. Rutot suggests an ivory period in place of the Solutreen of 
G. de Mortillet. As to the relative date of Solutre there has always been some doubt, 
due in part to the neolithic appearance of flints from that site, but we are now assured 
that its occupation coincided with the opening of the Madelaine period, and its remains . 
can no longer be regarded as typical of an entire period. 

It appears that throughout the Eolithic period no progress was made in the art of 
flint working, the same rude types occurring till a fresh start is made at the Mesvinien 
stage. On the other hand, scrapers from Puy-Courny are practically identical with 
numberless neolithic specimens. Some lucid observations on patina, as affected by matrix 
and exposure, form a fitting conclusion to a work that will do much to realise the author's* 
ambition, as expressed in the introduction, to stimulate the study of primitive man. 

R. A. S. 

Psychology. Ward: Rivers. 

The British Journal of Psychology, Edited by James Ward and W. H. R. «* 
Rivers. Cambridge, 1904. Vol. I., Parts land 2. Pp. 190. Price, Part 1, 5*. : ftf 
Part 2, 3*. 6V/. 

Anthropologists, no less than psychologists, will welcome the appearance of an 
English psychological periodical. Hitherto Mind and Brain have stood practically 
alone as representatives of England, while their continental and American confreres 
have multiplied exceedingly. No one will say that the new venture does not fill a gap,, 
and in some respects The British Journal of Psychology promises to occupy a unique 
place, in that one of its editors and two of the collaborators named on the title-page 
have included savage and barbarous races in their studies and taken part in anthropo- 
logical expeditions. Anthropology, therefore, may expect to profit, even more than 
psychology perhaps, from the new periodical which, as far as regards the psychophysical 
investigation of uncultured peoples, has practically a clear field before it. 

[ W9 ] 

No. 73.] MAN. (1904. 

In the second part of the Journal Dr. Myers gives the results of an enquiry, 
conducted by himself personally in Torres Strait, and since continued in other 
part 8 of the "world by means of a questionnaire , into the taste-names of primitive 
peoples. At the outset he justly points out that imperfections of vocabulary by no 
means imply imperfections of perceptions relating to the more civilised nations. This 
is sufficiently obvious, as anyone can convince himself who tries to name a selection of 
coloured wools. The names are not, indeed, in English non-existent ; probably an 
artist or anyone whose business is with colours, whether in manufactured goods or 
pigments, would be able to name most, if not all, of such an assortment of wools and 
describe them to a fellow -ex pert. I have 350 odd names of colours on a rough list, 
which is probably far from exhaustive, even if we exclude names derived from the 
objects with which the colour^ are associated, perhaps the commonest and certainly 
the simplest method of extending the colour-vocabulary ; but, just as I cannot name 
with certainty more than a small proportion of a wool scale otherwise thau by distinc- 
tions of shade and tone, so I am uuable to apply with certainty more than a small 
proportion of the colour-names on the list for want of experience. This does not, of 
course, mean that a deficiency in the colour- vocabulary is never associated with, and in 
part due to, a deficiency in sensitivity. It merely indicates that vocabularies apart from 
experiments are unsatisfactory as evidence of such deficiency. 

The analysis of the taste-vocabulanes collected by Dr. Myers gives the following 
results : (1) " Good" and "sweet " are frequently syuonymous. (2) The same term is 
applied to saltness, but the specific name for salt is usually derived from sea water. 
(3) " Salt " and «• sour " tend to be confused, or " salt " and ** bitter." 

The majority of printed vocabularies are merely lists of words, as to the meaning 
of which in most cases there may be little misconception. But when we come to adjec- 
tives, especially of taste, there are several possibilities, even if the data are based on 
experiments. Savages are, it is true, as a rule iudifferent to smells, and we may perhaps 
leave out of account the olfactory sense of the word. But even if we are certain tLat 
the word is used of taste we may well be in some doubt whether it is a specific or merely 
a general term. A child will often describe a taste as " nice," when it recognises it as 
sweet. But to conclude from such cases that the term " sweet " is absent from the 
child's vocabulary, and still more to argue from its use of terms to its sensations is 
clearly unjustifiable. 

This is a source of confusion which is absent when we deal with the colour- 
sensation and names of savages. Whatever may be the case wheu it is a question of 
clothing or ornament, the savage has hardly developed an aesthetic appreciation of the 
beauty of colour per se. Tastes, on the other hand, although these may differ strangely 
in the matter of the satisfaction to be derived from the consumption of rancid blubber 
and other delicacies (largely a matter of education, as our appreciation of high game 
shows), are commonly thought of as pleasant or unpleasant by the savage as by civilised 
man. We can therefore never be sure that when the savage describes a taste as good 
he intends to describe by that word what we call sweet. 

We are accustomed to increase the sweetness of dishes and liquids at will, and have 
consequently formed the habit of treating the sweetness of a preparation as a separable 
element. It must not be overlooked that with savages the case is far different. If we 
consider the Australians or the races of any country where the fruits of the earth do 
not grow abundantly, it is clear that their idea of sweetness is closely connected with 
some individual food, usually honey, just as our ideas of saltness were connected origi- 
nally with the sea. If, therefore, a tribe little in contact with Europeans is tested with a 
solutiou of sugar they are brought face to face with a new experience. The taste of 
honey depends a good deal on the flower from which it is got, and is further modified by 

[ no ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 73-74. 

the wax. Are we entitled to assume that the savage would recognise the simple 
sensation of sweetness as identical with the sweetness which for bim is always associated 
with other gustatory sensations ? 

These points are, of course, not overlooked by Dr. Myers, whose main purpose was 
to point out certain correspondences of the features of taste and colour nomenclature. 
As regards the identity of names for u good " and " sweet," it may be interesting to note 
that of the 200 odd vocabularies in Curr's Australian Race about 20 per cent, have the 
same word for both ; in a few cases there seems to be some confusion, and in one or two 
oases two words are given for sweet without any indication of a difference of use. In 
four cases (Vocabs. 11, 94, 150, and 177*) the word for sweet is derived from the word 
for honey or identical with it. In one case (Vocab. 147) there is stated to be no word 
for sweet. Salt and bitter are expressed by the same word once (Vocab. 6), and hachish 
and bitter once (Vol. II., 93). These latter terms are, however, only given in a few 

It is not difficult to see why the word for salt is usually derived from the word for 
sea, and is in some cases a foreign word. Dr. Frazer has given in his Pausanias a list of 
peoples who do not kuow and do not use salt, and a similar list is given by an Austrian 
authority. Probably the use of salt is frequently derived from other nations ; it must 
have long remained unknown to inland peoples, and would naturally be known by a 
foreign word in many cases, or in the case of people acquainted with the sea by a word 
derived from the source of the commodity. As Dr. Myers justly remarks at the outset, 
the cause of the peculiarities in vocabulary may turn out to be psychological rather 
than physiological. We know that savage vocabularies are often singularly lacking in 
general terms. There may, for example, be words for all the species of trees known to 
them and no word for tree as a generalised idea. Conversely a want of differentiation 
frequently appears ; some Australian tribes have no separate words for " to eat " and 
" to drink." We can therefore hardly be surprised if they fail to develop a vocabulary 
of terms corresponding to the sensations of sight and taste. 

The other articles are rather of psychological than specifically anthropological 
interest, but more than one of them will appeal to the general reader. Particularly 
interesting is the case of a man whose first visual sensations were subsequent to an 
operation for cataract performed in his 30th year. N. W. T. 

Hausa. Brooks: Nott. 

Bdtu na Abubuan Hausa : with Translation, Vocabulary, and Notes. By W. H. *m m 
Brooks, B,A.,and Lewis H. Nott. London : Frowde, 1903. Pp. 56. 19 x 12 cm. |T 
Price 3*. 6d. 

This little book, Bdtu na Abubuan Hausa, is worthy of its object as indicated in 
the introduction. What we certainly want today is a collection of original Hausa texts 
brought within reach of the student, and as a specimen of what I mean this little book 
can be taken as an excellent example. 

As regards the method of dealing with the pronunciation I cannot, however, but 
think that that adopted here, and very often elsewhere, is not the simplest obtainable. 
This multiplication of dots, signs, and accents must inevitably tend to confuse the 
student, especially one who has no knowledge of any other language but English. Why 
not, for instance, spell che thus instead of le ? It is far simpler and grasped at once. 
Take the word that the Hausa has for farm given in the book as gqra. I should 
certainly myself spell this gwora. 

The translations are good and the vocabulary excellent. E. F. MARTIN. 

* Op. cit., III., p. 28*. 
[ 111 ] 

Nob. 75-76.] MAN. [1904. 

Baloch. Race. Dames. 

The Baloch Race : A Historical and Ethnological Sketch. By M. Longworth Tft 
Dames. Asiatic Society Monographs, Vol. IV. London : Royal Asiatic Society, ■ ** 
1904. Pp. 90. 23 X 15 cm. Price 5*. 

This account of the Baloch race is one of an interesting series of monographs on 
scientific questions connected with the East, now in course of publication under the 
auspices of the Royal Asiatic Society. Mr. Dames, in addition to the experience 
gained in a long service on the western frontier of India, is deeply read in the 
special literature of his subject, and he has brought together a large mass of valuable 
information about a people which presents many features of interest, and is little known 
to ethnologists. 

As to the derivation of the name, Mr. Dames dismisses the suggestion of Von 
Bohlen, subsequently adopted by Max Mtiller, that it represents the Sanscrit mlechha, 
the equivalent of the Greek fidpfiapoc. He is inclined to believe that the word is 
Persian, meaning " a cockscomb " or " crest," and may have been an uncomplimentary 
nickname applied to the tribe. 

Many suggestions have been made regarding the origin of the race. The fact that 
they have long, aquiline noses has led some writers to connect them with the Arabs, 
but Mr. Dames points out that this is not really the Arab type. He believes them to 
be an Iranian race, and classes them with the Tajiks and other original races of the 
Iranian table-land. They first appear in history to the north of Persia, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Caspian, in the time of the later Sassanians. Later on, they appear in 
Kerman, some time after the Mubammadan conquest, and they pushed on to Sistan 
about the tenth century. Their final move into the dus valley took place in the 
period of disturbance which followed Tiraur's invasiou, 1 the subsequent inroads of 
Babar and the early Mughals. 

Their language is an Iraniau idiom, closely related to modern Persian, and showing 
many points of resemblance to Zend. But the vocabulary is largely borrowed from that 
of the neighbouring races — Arabic, Sindhi, Jatki, and Brahoi. 

Mr. Dames gives a full description of the tribal organisation of this people. By 
preference they adopt a nomadic life ; their villages are merely temporary halting places. 
But under our rule the population tends to become more and more fixed as cultivation 
extends. Like many other nomad races, the arts of carpet-making and embroidery 
flourish among them. But the title of Rahzan or highwayman is held in the highest 
estimation. W. CROOKE. 

London. Anthropological Institute. 

Ordinary Meeting, Tuesday, June 14th, 1904. Mr. E. W. Brabrook, C.B., ^q 
F.S.A., Vice-President, in the chair. f D 

The election of the following as Ordinary Fellows of the Institute was 
announced : — Miss Balfour, Messrs. W. H. Baxter, E. Crawley, A. T. C. Cree, and 
R. N. Hall. 

Mr. J. Gray, treasurer, exhibited, by kind permission of Mr. Oldfield Thomas, 
F.R.S., a collection of skulls from the Philippine Islands collected and presented to the 
British Museum by Mr. A. H. Savage Landor. 

Mr. J. Beddoe, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., ex-president, read a paper on "A Method of 
Estimating Skull Capacity." The paper was discussed by Mr. Gray, Mr. Atkinson, 
Dr. Gladstone, and the Chairman. 

Printed by Rtrb ksj> 8pottiswoode, His Majesty's Printer?, East Harding Street, E.C. 



(7<» »c 


1904.] MAN. [No. 77. 

Egypt: Excavations. With Plate H. Petrie. 

Excavations at Ehnasya. By W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., F.R.S. 7-* 

The site of the Arabic town, Ehnasya or Ahnas, is the Roman Herakleopolis f I 
Magna, the Egyptian Henensuten, a place well-known from the I dynasty onward, and 
even of mythological importance. It is now a great mass of mounds, of Roman and Arab 
age, about seventy miles south of Cairo, and ten miles from the Nile ; the strip of four 
miles of cultivation between it and the desert is probably due to the rise of Nile soil 
covering low desert between, so that the town may have been on the edge of the desert 

It was the home of the IX and X dynasties, of whom hardly anything is 
known, and there have been hopes that some trace of that period might be found 
there. Twelve years ago Dr. Naville found the site of a temple ; he uncovered the 
upper stones of the central hall, and the colonnade before that, and removed six columns 
of red granite, but no plan was made, or any systematic historical research. This year — 
in default of better ground — I went to work the history of the site, and we found in 
course of work the two finest objects that have come to light in Egypt for some time 
past, the gold statuette here illustrated (Plate H), and a colossal group of figures in grauite. 
We uncovered not only the central hall to its lowest foundations, but also as large a space 
of the chambers behiud it, and a still larger space of a great court with colossi in front 
of it. We have thus the history of another great Egyptian temple worked out as 
far as possible. 

The oldest temple on this ground was probably of the XII dynasty. But below 
this were ruins of older houses cut down and levelled for the building of the temple. 
And against the foundations of these houses were burials, which must be older than the 
temple. These comprised scarabs of Antef V (Nub-kbeper-ra), a " king of the Aamu 
(Syrians)," and other types which have been supposed of recent years to be much later, 
and to belong to the XVI and XVII dynasty. Here, however, we have a clear 
succession of periods : — 

I. The burials. 
II. A great temple. 
III. A great temple of Tahutmes III, XVIII dynasty. 

As II cannot on any reasonable supposition be of the XVIII dynasty, aud ruined 
before Tahutmes III, we must conclude that II was the temple of the XII dynasty, 
of which much sculpture remaiued on the site. Hence the period I must be of the 
XI dynasty, agreeiug with the date first credited for Antef V. This is one of the 
most important points yet in doubt in Egyptian history, and the evidence here is very 
strong, and must hold the field unless auything more decisive may come to light. 

The first temple was smaller than that of the XVIII dynasty and later times, 
according with the results at Abydos, where the early temples were of much less area 
than the later. It seems to have consisted of a small sanctuary, perhaps, 14 feet square 
inside, with chambers for treasuries on each side of it, and a great open court before it. 
In the foundations of this temple lay a block with the figure of a kiug brought from 
some earlier site, probably of the VI dynasty by the style. Many pieces of the 
sculptures of the XII dynasty were found in the ruins, showing that Senusert 
(Usertesen) II and III aud Amenemhat III all built here (about 2600 B.C.). The 
great architrave of the temple entrance can be restored from the size of the piece of 
jamb remaiuiug ; it must have been just the length of the later architrave of the 
Rainesside temple, and the same as a great architrave reworked, now in the ruins of 
a Coptic church. Probably the same beam of stone has served every builder of temple 
or church for over 3,000 years. Two fine statues of quartzite saudstone were found in 
the ruins, also of the XII dynasty, but reworked by Ramessu II. 

[ 113 ] 

No. 77.] MAN. [1904. 

After this early temple was destroyed a much larger one was built by Tahutmes III 
(1500 B.C.) of the XVIII dynasty, as is shown by a plan stretching much further back. 
The old sanctuary gave way to a much larger hypostyle hall of twenty-four columns, 
with a lesser hall of four columns behind it, and several treasuries by the sanctuary. At 
this period the lines of the building faces were all traced out by clear grooves upon 
the foundation blocks. It is dated by a scarab of the king, and other things of his 
age, found between the stones. 

This temple was more or less removed, and rebuilt by Ramessu II (1300 B.C.), at 
least as regards the facade. There still remains a line of large blocks of brown quartz ite 
sandstone bearing an inscription of Ramessu II, which formed the lower course of the 
whole front of the temple. This king also carved new architraves out of blocks of 
granite of the XII dyuasty, and placed his figures and names upon the beautiful 
monolith columns of granite, also belouging to the first temple. In the fore-court he 
placed, up each side of the court, a row of colossi of limestone, 25 feet high, and two 
colossal groups of figures of himself between Ptah and Hershefi, the local god. One of 
these triads was seated, it is now broken ; the other group was standing, 11 feet high, 
8 feet wide, weighing about 20 tons. This is the finest such group known, and it is to 
be placed iu the Cairo museum. 

The building level was again raised for a later temple, and the plan slightly altered. 
This may have been in the XXII dyuasty (900 B.C.), as there was certainly a secure 
shrine here iu the XXIII dynasty when the gold statuette was dedicated. This 
figure is shown iu Plate H. It is of the finest work in the anatomy of the muscular 
treatment and proportions, and is probably the largest gold figure, aud perhaps the 
most artistic, that has been found in Egypt. The excellence of it is more surprising at 
so late a date as 700 b.c. ; and it shows that the artist was by uo means extinct in 
even a low period of general taste and ability. On the base is an inscription which the 
engraver has bungled, in copying it, probably, from some statue. It records the name 
and titles of the king under whom it was dedicated, Nefer-ka-ra Pef-du-bast-mer-bast. 
He was a vassal king of Piaukhy the Ethiopian, and has hitherto ouly been known in 
an inscription of his suzerain, so that an original monument is very welcome, especially 
as it gives his throne name. 

At a later date the floor of the temple was agaiu raised to a higher level, covering 
nearly all the inscriptiou of the lower course. Rather than lift the great blocks of 
granite which formed the basements of the colonnade, the builders inserted drums of 
quartzite sandstone beneath the columns, so as to raise them to the new level. This 
strange device has not been seen elsewhere. In this later temple stood a monolith box- 
shrine of red granite carved by Nekht-hor-heb. The latest activity here seems to have 
been some rebuilding by Antoninus, of which several blocks were found reused in a later 
Roman house. 

From the section of the earth over the temple it could be seen that after it had been 
removed for stone, several feet of earth had accumulated over the foundations, and then 
later digging had been made through this to extract the lower stones. This later 
digging was in the fourth century a.d. by the pottery in the hole ; so the first ruin of 
the temple was probably as early as the third century. Yet paganism flourished in Isis 
and Horus worship for two centuries louger, as we see by the figures in the houses. 
Thus it seems the first effect of Christianity was to place animal worship in disfavour, 
and thereby to iucrease the Isis and Horus worship ; and the latter was never overcome, 
but became incorporated iu Christianity as the Madonna aud Child. This view of the 
different status of parts of the earlier religion has not appeared so evident before. 

The gain in method this year has been in following the history of building by tracing 
the several sand-beds between the stone3. No builder ever put some inches of sand 
between his courses of masonry. Hence when layers of sand are found between stones 

[ "4 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 77-78. 

it proves that a complete refoundation was made ; the stones below the sand-bed having 
been left sunk in the ground and ignored, while a layer of sand was laid over them for 
founding a new temple. Thus the view, which we exposed in the digging, of many 
courses of stones separated by three or four beds of sand can be read off as recording the 
founding of so many separate temples. 

Though no whole dynasty of kings has been brought to light, as in our work at 
Abydos, yet the fresh and strong evidence about the early date of some rulers and styles, 
and the recovery of two of the finest monuments known, and the plans of the series of 
temples on a great site, make this year another landmark in the clearing of Egyptian 

Beside the temple site we worked also in the town, entirely on burnt houses of 
Roman age. Thus we have been able to date a long series of terra-cotta figures, which 
are of much finer work than was expected in the third and fourth centuries a.d. And a 
tolerably complete corpus of Romano-Egyptian lamps was made, and the degradation of 
types traced throughout more than 1,000 varieties. This may, perhaps, be more fully 
described here in future. W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE. 

Easter Island. Dalton. 

Easter Island: Script. By 0. M. Dalton, M.A., F.S.A. ^q 

The short article on an inscribed tablet published in Man for the present year f 
(1904. 1), though it contained a certain number of references, made no pretence of providing 
a bibliography for the script of Easter Island. Mr. N. W. Thomas has suggested that it 
might be worth while to add a supplementary series of references, and this I am now 
enabled to do, thanks to his co-operation. The following list, arranged chronologically, 
has been selected from a larger one, a number of references having been omitted as 
containing information at second or third hand, or mere allusions to the script without 
scientific value. The literature relating to Rapa Nui and its antiquities is, of course, 
very extensive, but many writers ignore the tablets altogether or just note their existence, 
so that the books and papers with which a student of the " hieroglyphs " has to deal are 
not so numerous as might have been expected. I must express my regret for the 
omission of all mention in the previous article of the two tablets at Vienna described in 
Dr. Max Haberlandt's communication in the Vienna Mittheilungen noted below. The 
papers in which the script is treated at any length, or which contain suggestive matter, 
are marked in the list with an asterisk. It is not to be hoped that this is an exhaustive 
bibliography, but it may prove of some little use to students of the ethnography of the 
Pacific : — 

1866. Globus (published at Brunswick), Vol. XIII., p. 313. (Short account of 
Eyraud's nine months' stay in the island ; contains the statement that there were tablets 
in almost every house.) 

1870. Ibid., Vol. XVII., p. 248. (Palmer's account of visit of H.M.S. Topaze.) 

1870. Zeitschri/t der Gese Use haft fiir Erdkunde, Berlin, p. 469. (Letter of 
Dr. Philippi to Professor Bastian mentioning the tablets, and the report of Captain 
Gana, commander of the CHiggins, the Chilian vessel which visited the island in 1870.) 

1871.* Ibid., pp. 548-551. (Meinicke, Die Holztafeln von Rapa nui. The writer 
protests against any theory of American influence, and rejects the view that the 
script was due to a now extinct race. He believes the inscriptions to represent 

1872.* Ibid., Vol. VII., pp. 78-81. (Miklucho Maclay, Ober die Rohaurogo, 
oder die Holztafeln von Rapanui. Draws attention to the similarity of characters on the 
tablets to designs carved on stone statues, &c. The article is followed by remarks by 
Professor Bastian (pp. 81-9), who suggests that the subjects of the inscriptions are not 
merely genealogies, and may be ceremonial recitations for use at particular feasts.) 

[ US 3 

No. 78.] MAN. [1904. 

1872. Revue Maritime, Vol. 35, pp. 105 ff., Vile de Pdques. (Short official report 
by 'Admiral de Lapelin to the Minister of Marine, mentioning visit of the Flore of the 
French Pacific squadron to Easter Island in 1872. This is followed by a translation of 
the report of Captain Gana of the Chilian vessel O'Higgins. The translator's notes on 
p. 121 relate to the tablets and give facts in support of their comparatively recent origin.) 

1873. Iswestia (proceedings of the Russian Geographical Society, Vol. VIII.,. 
p. 42). (Article by Miklucho Maclay.) 

1873. Compte-rendu de VAcademie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres, pp. 151-155. 
(A. de LongpeYier discusses casts of inscriptions in the collection of the Bishop of Axieri.) 

1876. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Vol. VIII., p. 37 ff. (Philippi, Vber die Hiero- 
glyphen der Osterinsel, #c. : mentions the receipt at the Santiago Museum of a third 
example of the script, in addition to the original two tablets, casts of which had beer* 
sent to Europe.) 

1878. Le Tour du Monde. (Article by Pinart, who reproduces one of the Santiago- 
casts ; the same writer in Bulletin de la Societe de Geographic, Vol. XVI. (1878), 
p. 203, notices figures carved in relief upon stone buildings.) 

1881. A. B. Meyer, Die Bilderschriften des Ostindischen Archipels und der 
Sudsee (publication of the Royal Ethnographical Museum at Dresden, printed at 
Leipzig), p. 7, plate vi. (The inscription of a tablet is reproduced, and the plates giving 
examples of picture-writing from Pelew, Celebes, &c, are interesting for purposes of 
contrast and comparison.) 

1881. Globus, Vol. XL., p. 375. (Notice by Andree of the prccediug work by 

1883. A. Bastian, Zur Naturwissenschaftlichen Behandlungsiceise der Psychologies 
Berlin, pp. 212 ff., with plate reproducing the example in the Museum fur Volkerkunde, 

1883.* Ymer (Stockholm), Vol. III., pp. 182 ff. (H. Stolpe, part of his article on 
Pask-bn, or Easter Island. This interesting paper is unfortunately written in Swedish, 
and is therefore accessible to a comparatively small number of students. It may be 
mentioned that the same author has treated the tattooing of the Easter Islanders in the 
Abhandlungen of the Dresden Zoological and Anthropological Museum, Festschrift, 
1899, No. 6.) 

1886.* Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, pp. 97ff., 
plate x. (M. Haberlandt, ber Schrifttafcln von der Osterinscl. Discusses the 
relation of the tablets to genealogy. They are probably not of high antiquity, and are 
more important from the point of view of psychology than history.) 

1889. The American Naturalist, Vol. XXIIL, p. 882. (\V. Hough mentions the 
tablets iu an article on the visit of the Mohican.) 

1893. Bulletin de Geographic historique et descriptive (Cornite des travaux, 
historiques et scientifiques, Aunee 1892), Paris, 1893, pp. 240-270. (Bishop Jausseu's 
posthumous memoii*, Vile de Paques, edited by the R.-P. Ildefonse Alazard, and 
containing the vocabularies. See Man, 1904, p. 2.) 

1895.* Le Musion, Bevue Internationale, published at Louvaiu, Vol. XIV., 
p. 415 ft*., and Vol. XV., pp. 68-73. (C. de Harlez, reproduction of inscription from a 
tablet with the translation given by Metoro to Bishop Jaussen. De Harlez declares it to 
be une suite damages independantes Fttne de Vautre, and not a continuous narrative at 
all. Cf. Max, 1904, p. 4.) 

1899. Comptcs-rendus de la Societi de Geographic, Paris, pp. 169-176. (Captain H. 
Vere Barclay's, R.N., account of visit of II.M.S. Topaze. On p. 175 Captaiu Barclay says 
that the characters on the tablets are not the same as those on the statues, &c. He believes 
in a connection with S. America and suspects Maya influence.) O. M. DALTON. 

[ H6 1 



[Nob. 79-80, 


A 8tone Rice-sheiler from Nu 


By R. Parkinson. 



FIG. 1. 

It happens very often that ethnographical specimens are found in places that I U 
are far away from their original homes. Occasionally their origin can be traced and the 
way they have travelled ; in many cases it is impossible to place them or to make oat 
their original use. 

A few months ago I visited the small island of Nusa on the north-west end of the 
island of New Ireland (Neu Mecklinburg). Until lately it had a dense population, but 
when a German firm bought the island most of the inhabitants left and settled in 
different villages on the large island. The gentleman in charge of the island has lately 
cleared away the undergrowth and forest with the intention of planting cocoanuts. 
Walking through the clearing, I found a 
piece of stone showing signs of being 
worked, and searching carefully I found 
some more pieces which fitted into each 
other and showed the original form of the 
interesting find. The remnants undoubtedly 
formed a hemi-spherical bowl of ll£ inches 
diameter and 7 inches height ; below has 
been a conical continuation, now broken off, 
apparently to fasten the bowl in the ground 
or in a piece of wood. The upper hollow is 2\ inches deep in the centre. The outer 
sides as well as the inner hollow have been carefully smoothed down, and the outer edge 
shows signs of a shallow groove, undoubtedly ornamented. None of the inhabitants 
were able to give any information and unanimously declared that the specimen did not 
belong to Nusa, or to New Ireland or New Hanover. There can be no doubt that it 
was brought to the islands many years ago as it shows signs of great age. I am 
inclined to believe that this implement is a rice-sheller. Similar shellers of stone are at 
present in use in Indonesia, although not so shallow. In this case it would prove that 
emigrations from the west towards the east have taken place, and that the emigrants 
have taken their original household things with them. 

This find is still more interesting in connection with another made some years ago 
opposite the island of Nusa, when the site of the present Kavieng Station was cleared. 
The proprietor when clearing the premises found a round stone ball about 
4 inches in diameter ; a handle of about oue inch in diameter had been broken 
off. It is not unlikely that the two finds originally belonged together and 
that one part was taken to Nusa, the other to Kavieng. 

The illustrations show the bowl (Fig. 1) as well as the stone ball (Fig. 2) 
which I consider to have been a pestle of some sort. 
Can any reader of Man give me any information about the original home of these 
two interesting implements ? R. PARKINSON. 

fig. 2. 

Africa. Torday. 

8ongs of the Baiuba of Lake Moero. By Emile Torday. Commu- aa 
nicated by T. A. Joyce. Q|J 

It becomes ever more difficult to collect the songs of the different tribes ; soldiers, 
who are never garrisoned in their own country, bring their songs and teach them to the 
natives. The most striking example of this is the song " Lupembe," which, certainly 
originating in the Stanley Falls region where was residing Major Lothaire (in whose 
honour it has been composed), is sung through all the Congo Free State territory. 
Another, and by t far the most unfavourable, circumstance, is that a European has 
scarcely any opportunity of hearing natives sing, except when travelling, so that from 

[ 117 ] 

Wo. 80.] 



all their songs he can collect only marches, if he takes that trouble, and he very seldom 

These songs are invariably composed of a recitative followed by a chorus, which, 
though nearly always the same, is slightly modified and adapted to the recitative. The 
improvisation is generally made by the man who possesses the strongest voice, by no 
means the best ; but I have known certain men famous for their wit, who, whenever they 
were in a " safari " (caravan), had the right to lead the other singers. 

The subject of these songs is very often the European who travels with the caravan, 
and all honours are bestowed on him by the negro bard. Though he be (he most peace- 
loving of mortals he will be 
mentioned as a famous warrior 
who has killed hundreds of 
enemies ; though he be as thin 
as a lath, his embonpoint will 
be highly praised. Whoever he 
be, he must, in the song, slay 
people, lions, elephants, eat for 
two driuk for three, have scores 
of wives ; in fact, do and have 
anything that makes him appear 
wealthy and powerful in the eyes of natives. The improvisatore must not forget to mention 
the numerous countries the great man has traversed, and will with the greatest naivete make 
terrible geographical confusions. 
It is surprising how well the 
barmonisation of the choruses is 
done, and if a man sings out 
of tune he may be sure of being 
forcibly corrected by his neigh- 
bour, provided the said neighbour 
is stronger than he. 

They generally sing in thirds, but sometimes fifths complete the accord. On one 

song no. 1. 




" ^m^m^^L 

SONG NO. 2. 

single occasion I heard a more complicated form 




SONG NO. 3. 

was sung with great correctness by about twenty men (No. 1). 

of the chorus, sung by Balu- 
bas, who came from the Uppei 
Luapula, near Johnston Falls. 
I append some bars (all 
I remember) of this song, which 
I consider very greatly in ad- 
vance of any negro song I ever 
heard at Moero. I must at 
the same time mention that it 

One might suppose that the measure of these marches would always be - or - 

as in the following song, No. 2 ; 
but this is not consistent with 
the facts, for the example of 

No. 3 proves not only that -> 

is equally used, but that even 

in the same song the tempo 

may change. This song is among the most popular, and any European having 

travelled on the Moero cannot fail to remember it. Every bar is marked by a 


[ 118 ] 

SONG NO. 4. 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 80-81. 

Even triolas are used in the song No. 4, which is very popular among women, who 
sing it when grinding corn for flour, or groundnuts for oil. 

You find hardly any save tenor voices among the men, and the compass of these 
is very small. Baritones are scarce, and I never came across a real basso. The voice 
generally breaks at nine or ten years, and is, I think, seriously affected by the frequent 
use of the head -voice. 

I never knew a woman to have a really good singing voice ; they have a child-like 
soprano, and use only the throat- and head-voice, never the chest-voice. This is 
probably due to the belief that it is more distinguS for a lady to speak in a falsetto 
voice. It should be pointed out that there is a well-marked distinction between ladies 
(bibi) and women (malamuke), and that all women crave to rank with the former. 

But the days of the native songs are, I fear, limited ; civilisation will soon sweep 
them away. I remember with horror my cook, who had grown up among missionaries, 
singing all the day Gounod's " Ave Maria," and Haydn's " Tantum ergo," and I am 
sure that the time is not far distant when the widely-spread military bands contributing 
European comic songs will drive away the dear old native tunes. E. TORDAY. 

Greece : Animal Folklore, Thomas. 

Animal Folklore from Greece, Collected from various sources and Q4 

communicated by N. W. Thomas. I 

The following sets of answers amongst others have been sent in answer to the 
questionnaire I issued broadcast some years ago and republished in Journ. Anthr. 
Inst.y XXX., 114, in an enlarged form. By the kindness of the British School at 
Athens the questions were translated into modern Greek and issued to people likely to 
be able to send replies. I take this opportunity of thanking the authorities of the 
British School and my correspondents for their aid. My hearty thanks are also due to 
Mr. J. C. Lawson who kindly translated the notes sent by the last-named. 


1. It is believed when anyone is going to his work or on a journey and meets on 
the way a snake, his work and his plans in general will succeed, but when he meets a 
hare the opposite will be the case, and many people prefer to return home or to put off 
their work. 

2. It is believed that a snake living in a house is a cause of prosperity. Two 
curious points are : — First, that this snake passes once a. year over those who are 
sleeping in the house, and it should be noted that in the villages of Epirus the inhabi- 
tants do not sleep on beds, but in a row upon a rush mat. The second point is that if 
this snake sleeps under the bed of a small child the latter will prove very prosperous. 

3. It is believed that death is portended (1) by the owl ; that is to say, if it 
hoots upon the roof of a house, especially at night, it is thought that someone in the 
house will die. Hence the common curse used by women, " May evil owls chatter." 
(2) l*he horned owl. (3) The dog, when it howls, especially if it is looking east. 
(4) The hen, when it crows like a cock and begins clucking at night. With reference 
to all these four, they say in such cases, " May he eat his head," and they commonly 
kill them. (5) Crows ; when, for example, one or more of them pass over a village or 
town it is thought that a plague will visit that place. 

4. It is thought that when wild geese alight upon sown land there will be large 
crops, &c. 

6. It is thought that when anyone finds a tortoise's eggs he must not bring them 
home, and the same is the case with partridges in some places. Pigeons that are kept 
in the house are a cause of good fortune, but some think of bad. 

[ "S ] 

No. 81.] MAN, [1904. 

7. Spotted or piebald aoimals are thought ill- omened ; white ones are lucky ; this 
applies chiefly to horses. When they have two star-like marks on their foreheads they 
are productive of evil ; those who are skilled in horses judge their qualities by their hair. 

8. Swallows are considered sacred, and are not killed or eaten, and their young ones 
are not takeu from the nests. The same is the case with the nightingale and the stork. 
It is thought unlucky for anyoue while fasting to hear the cuckoo for the 6rst time in 
the spring, i.e., he must have food in order " that the cuckoo may not lead him astray," 
as they say. With regard to the swallow they say as follows : — " Whoever is the first 
" to see swallows on their arrival in the spring will wear new clothes at Easter" ; and 
the swallow when it comes to warm climates in the autumn sings as follows : — a I have 
" left shoot, and grape, and cross, and corn-rick." 

9. Animals not used for food are numerous : the swallow, the nightingale, the 
stork, cuckoo, raven, common and homed owls, jackdaw, the little horned owl, the 
eagle, vulture, tortoise, horse, donkey, mule, dog, snake, wolf, jackal, fox, hedgehog, 
and some others. 

10. Sportsmen take the first auimal which they kill, throw it in the air, and watch 
how it falls : if it falls on its back with its legs in the air, plenty of game may be 
expected : if the other way up, the opposite. 

11. Whenever a wolf or other harmful beast is killed or caught iu a net, its skin 
is filled with chuff in such a way as to resemble the live animal, and is taken round the 
villages to collect money. Also during carnival they take round the well-known camel. 

12. It is thought that the flesh of the jay and of the hedgehog taken as food serves 
to heal rheumatism ; the gall of the night-jar and of fish is good for lunacy. It is 
thought that if anyoue touches or holds in his hands a salamander, he is able to heal 
by his touch children up to two or three years of age. With regard to the bat, it is 
believed that its bones, if they are put upon the altar and a priest recites his office over 
them for forty days, obtain magic power, by means of which the possessor of them can 
draw to himself by a mere touch any girl whom he will. With regard to the eagle, it is 
thought that when anyone boils its eggs at the time of incubation and puts them back 
again iu the nest, the eagle goes to the River Jordan, from which it takes a small 
pebble and carries it to its nest, in order that by means of it the incubation may 
succeed. This small pebble is taken by the man who boiled the eggs, aud serves for 
healing many diseases, such as the evil eye, and it is commonly called the stone of 
loosing. Frequently this pebble is gilded. If anyone who is suffering from tumour 
eats a flayed dog, it is thought that he will be healed. Anyone who has been stung by 
a scorpion they bury in a manure heap up to the throat, and nine womeu, all named 
Mary, weep around him ; in this way it is thought that the man who has been stuug is 
relieved of the worst pain. 

13. It is thought that if anyone puts upon the part of the body which is sufferiug, 
and especially in a case of a boil, a dumb cockerel, cut into two parts, a cure results. 
A cat (or weasel ?) less than six months old serves to heal a disease which is called 
carbuncle ; also the toad, the frog, the puppy, and the liver of the tortoise. 

14. Confectioners make models of animals, especially fish and cocks. Goldsmiths 
make models of donkeys in token that Christ sat upon the foal of an ass, also of a hand of 
the Virgin Mary aud other things, especially of any parts of the body which are suffering, 
to the order of the hick persons, who dedicate them before the ikons of the Saints with a 
view to recovering. These (the patients) are commonly called " silvered." 

16. It is believed by the common people that witches strip themselves naked, take 
some implemeut from the hearth (a kind of rake), and riding upon it go to collect evil 

lo. It is believed that the dead can assume the shape of dog, weasel (or cat ?), 
pig aud other things. This is commonly called vrykolakismos. 

[ 120 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 81. 

17. Dogs and birds are believed to understand human speech. 

19. Birds are said to bring the babies. 

20. It is believed that the owl was sent by her mother-in-law, with whom she had 
a quarrel, to the river, in order to wash black wool and turn it into white. The owl went 
and could not effect the change, so she prayed to God to change her into a bird, and this 
came to pass. It is believed that once there were two brothers, of whom one was 
looking after the sheep, the other having come to see the sheep and his brother, killed 
him, owing to some unimportant dispute about a dung-heap. After this be repented and 
prayed to God to change him into a bird in order that he might fly about and mourn for 
his brother, and God, having heard his request, changed him into an eagle-owl. The 
same story is told also about the bear (femiuine) with only this difference, that her 
mother-in-law sent her to fetch water in a fine sieve. 

22. It is thought that to keep skulls of animals in a field, especially in a garden, 
protects the crops from the evil eye. 

23. The name of the bee is used for hotel signs. 

24. There are games to which they give the names of the wolf, the sheep, and the 
pig. In Calarrhytae and in other places it is the custom for the shepherds to take 
observations on the loth August from the tail of a dog concerning the state of weather 
in the ensuing year. For example, if the dog sits with his tail turned towards the 
north or west wind, by such a position is foreshown the state of the weather corre- 
sponding with the strength of the wind in each direction (?) (district ?). Likewise when 
the cat with its face towards the east, washes it with its forefeet, an improvement in 
the weather will come, but if it looks westward it will rain. Likewise, when cocks 
crow before the usual hour, it means a change of weather. 

All these superstitions are held in Epirus, and especially, as I know most certainly, 
in the free Greek portion. Nicholas K. Papacostas. 


1. The ox, the sheep, and the weasel (or cat) are considered productive of good 
fortune to anyone who meets them, but the reverse is the case with the hare, the crab, 
the wolf and the snake. 

2. Sheep, oxen, dogs, fowls and weasels (or cats) are considered productive of 
good fortune for the house in which they live. The opposite is the case with goats, 
rabbits and pigeons. 

3. A dog which howls, a hen that crows like a cock, and a crow forbode the 
death of someone in the house in which they live. 

4. Crested larks are considered to portend a rich harvest. 

5. The bending of the crops before the wind is put down to " hares passing through 
the field." 

6. By means of keeping oxen, sheep, poultry and geese at one's house, prosperity 
is assured. Anyone who meets a snake in the spring must try to kill it (or any bird 
with its beak turned inwards). 

7. Black animals are considered as a good omen, white as the opposite. 

8. Storks, bats, weasels (or cats) and swallows are considered sacred. 

11. Wolves or foxes which are killed are carried round by the men who kill them 
with a view to collecting contributions, and the same is the case with any freak that 
is born. 

12. The flesh of the hedgehog has a healing property, and that of the bat magic 

13. The bat is used as a means of winning love. 

1 4. Cakes are made in the likeness of doves or of two-headed eagles. 

15. The dead appear in the shape of a dog, a weasel, a white he-goat or a pig. 

[ 121 ] 

Nos. 81-82.] MAN. [1904. 

16. Witches appear in the same shapes as in the last question. 

21. Lambs and fish. 

22. Upon the tops of buildings, of water-mills and wind-mills are placed wooden 
heads representing lions, and this in order that the buildings may be durable. In the 
fields are set up skulls of animals in order to protect them. 

The above answers are from an unspecified locality, and sent by a correspondent 
who did not add his name. 


The following answers were kindly sent me by the British School at Athens, and 
were obtained from a squad of soldiers recruited in the Cyclades : — 

1. Ox, sheep, cat, portend good luck if you meet them. Hare, crab, wolf, snake, 
portend bad luck if you meet them. 

2. Sheep, ox, dog, poultry, cats, bring good luck to the house they are in. Goats, 
rabbits, pigeons, bring bad luck to the house they are in. 

3. A dog howling, a hen crowing like a cock and a crow are death omens. 

4. Larks are ominous of the price of corn and other crops. 

5. Hares are believed to run through the crops when they wave before the wind. 

6. If one meets a snake in spring time one should try to kill it ; likewise any bird of 
prey (lit., with beak turned inwards). 

7. Black animals are lucky, white unlucky. 

8. Stork, bat, cat, swallow, are held sacred. 

11. Wolves or foxes that have been killed are carried round by the killer for the 
purpose of collecting subscriptions, and so are any prodigies that are born. 

12. The flesh of the hedgehog has healing virtue, that of the bat magical virtue. 

13. Use is made of the bat to win love. 

14. Cakes are made in the form of pigeons and two-headed eagles. 

15. The dead appear in the form of dog, hare, white goat or pig. 

16. Witches take the same forms. 

21. Lamb or fish. 

22. On the top of wind-mills or water-mills they put wooden heads of pigeons or 
lions to preserve the buildings. Heads (skulls) of animals are put in the fields to guard 
them. N. W. THOMAS. 


Bibliography. International Catalogue. 

The International Catalogue of Scientific Literature : P. Physical Anthro- 
pology. Second Annual Issue. London, 1904. 8vo. Pp. viii + 299. 22x14 cm. 
Price 15*. 

The secoud annual issue dealing with the year 1902, save in so far as it was already 
included in the previous issue, contains 1,861 entries in the authors' catalogue, an increase 
of 20 per cent. To damp the joy of the subscriber, however, the price is advanced 
40 per cent. 

The volume is issued without preface, and one would not have been needed if the 
slips from the various countries had been prepared on a uniform system, that is to say, 
if the regional bureaus or their delegates had been agreed (1) on what was to be inserted 
and what omitted, (2) that what teas inserted was to be classified topically and topo- 
graphically. As a matter of fact, the Americans confine themselves solely to physical 
anthropology, excluding sociology, religion, and linguistics. The Germans, French, and 
Australians, and possibly others, give us for the non-physical papers authors' and topo- 
graphical entries only, leaving us to guess at the contents from the titles. They do not 
include more than a small proportion of works on religion and sociology. The Revue 

[ 1*2 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 82. 

deVHist. des Religions, the Archive fur Religionswissenschaft, and Vgl. Rechtswissen- 
schaft are not indexed. The English collaborator, in the third place, excludes nothing 
published on these subjects ; the entries are systematically classified topically and 
topographically. Now it is quite obvious that no useful purpose is served by classifying 
a part only of the entries on a given subject ; the German entries must be done (either 
in Germany, which will probably involve grave errors of classification, unless the con- 
tributor is a specialist ; or in England, where the classifier will not have the book or 
article to guide him), otherwise the classification of the English entries might just as 
well be omitted altogether, for in order to cover the subject one must read through the 
authors 1 catalogue. The omission of non-physical articles altogether, although regrettable 
in a way, is, perhaps, of little importance at present, provided we are told what the 
policy of each country is. In the sections from 9,000 to 9,500 much cannot be expected 
from twenty-nine different contributors, many of whom are certainly non-specialists, 
endeavouring to classify by far the most complicated part of anthropology on a uniform 
system. Until provision is made for the work to be done by specialists, or at any 
rate revised by specialists, probably the loss is not very great. 

If other sections are incomplete it might have been expected that in somatology at 
least there would be no cause for complaint. This is, however, not the case. In 1902 
there appeared in the American Anthropologist thirty-two articles in all ; of these, five 
or six are strictly somatological and there is also an obituary notice that should appear 
in the catalogue. As a matter of fact, only four of the articles are included. In 1901, 
it may be noted, the omissions were glaring : under 0050, Russell, " Laboratory 
Outlines of a Course in Somatology " ; under 0200, Hrdlicka, " A Painted Skeleton from 
N. Mexico " ; and under 0750, Hrdlieka, " An Eskimo Brain " (46 pp. with four plates), 
and minor items. An annual bibliography that is not complete caunot save the 
investigator who wants all the facts from the labour of preparing his own bibliography. 
He can never tell where the omission will occur. It is to be hoped that these and other 
omissions will appear in the next issue of the catalogue. 

Turning from faults of omission, we may examine how far the individual papers are 
accurately and adequately indexed. More especially in the foreign entries there is a 
tendency to omit the topical index number. Thus, to take a few cases, a paper on 
Magyar Physiognomy and Character does not appear under 0130; Batchelor's "Sea- 
girt Yezo " has no topical index number ; Groos's " Play of Man " seems worthy of a 
place in 94.00 under Amusements (why are not these sub-headings given in the schedule, 
or, at any rate, indexed on pp. 5-6 ?) ; Jorgenson's " Anthropological Researches in the 
Faroes " has no topical index number, and Miiller, " Die Aeussere Erschcinung des 
Munyamwezi, " should certainly have come under 0110. Duckworth, "Note on . . . 
Hylobates mulleri," does not appear under 2520, nor does Welcker, " Gewichtswerthe 
des Korperorgane bei . . . den Thieren " ; nor Parsons, " Blood-vessels of Mammals." 
Grunbaum, "Note on Blood Relationship," should be classified under blood (? Varia, as 
no number is provided for it ; jaw, too, should have a separate number). Kollmann, 
" Die Fingerspitzen," should appear under 1030. Pontiatin, " Contribution a Tetude du 
tatouage," has, in the authors' catalogue, the reference number 1000 but does not appear 

The classification is occasionally wrong, though in this respect there is an advance 
over the first issue. Spitzka, " Encephalic Anatomy," should surely come under 0750 
instead of 0100 ; different papers on the weights of bodily organs or parts appear respec- 
tively under 0100, 0140, and 0150 ; which is right? A paper on the relation between 
the size of the skull and the development of speech is, strangely, placed under 0170 
(appearances related to age) instead of 0160 (growth), and possibly 2000 ; measurements 
of conscripts appear under 0160, though they are probably ordinary anthropometric 
tables ; and hypertrichosis appears under 1060 and 109Q. 

[ 123 ] 

No. 82.] MAN. [1904, 

Iq all these cases the catalogue itself supplies, or can be made to supply, the 
necessary correction, but in other cases this is not so. Let us take as an example a paper 
by Sir W. Turner, Contributions to the Craniology of the People of the Empire of India, 
Part 2 : Aborigines of Chota Nagpur . . . , the Veddahs and Negritos* This has 
received the index numbers 0220 (skull) and 5400 (India). Less distinguished authors 
of less important papers get five or six index numbers on occasion, not to speak of the 
papers on back scratchers, ghosts, and other small fry, which are really not wanted at 
all, any more than many of the half-page notes from Folklore. Sir W. Turner's paper, 
if completely indexed topically would require the following additional numbers (the 
important ones being distinguished by an *) 0130, 0140*, 0350, 0400*, 0550*, 0570*, 
1050, 1100, 1600. If the topical index is to be of the slightest value it is no use for 
the indexer to take the title as bis guide ; but in this case he has clearly not taken the 
trouble to look at the paper. On the geographical side the index er's error is in part 
corrected by the title ; from the word " negrito " it will be apparent to the anthropologist 
that other countries are dealt with, for the presence of negritos in India is very far 
from being generally acknowledged. As a matter of fact, thirteen of the fifty-two pages 
of the paper and one of the plates relate to the Audamans (index letter ? ma.) and the 
Sakai (index number, 5900 e.g.). 

It is clear that inaccuracy of this sort is an even more dangerous fault than omission, 
which may be, in the cases noted above, due to temporary causes. If the catalogue 
cannot even be trusted for important papers like Sir W. Turner's, one's confidence in it 
will be small. It is to be hoped that the case is exceptional. 

The number of misprints is fairly large. One paper has the word " JEgean " in its 
title ; probably to see which looks nicest this appears in the other two sections as JEgsean 
and JEgaean ; perhaps the catalogue will now decide for the ordinary form of the word- 
Semeliki Forest, which appears six times, may be due to some abstruse linguistic research. 
It is spelt Semliki in the article indexed. Both are harmless eccentricities, but the 
same cannot be said of errors in authors' names. One writer appears as Quiltar and 
Guiltar ; which is right ? Here we are given our choice, but the case of Mr. Adam 
Sedgwick, F.R.S., is hard indeed. His name appears twice, and each time as Sidgwick. 
Surely the Fellows of the Royal Society may look to bave their names spelt right. 

On the whole the impression created by the catalogue is that a great deal of space 
is wasted by want of judgment — shown in including worthless papers, some of which 
contain no facts, and still more by repeating in full each entry, some of which are ten or 
twelve lines in length, each time it appears, and this is frequently four and sometimes five 
or six. On this point 1 am expressing myself in a forthcoming number of Globus, and I 
will not repeat myself here. 1 merely point out that no advantage is gained to counter- 
balance the extra cost. The index numbers will, if the entry is, in all but one case, cut 
down to one line, tell us what the subject is. The reduction in cost thus effected would 
remove the necessity for limiting the index numbers to an average of three, and thus 
make the catalogue vastly more useful. Possibly the scheme of a card catalogue, now 
apparently dropped, had something to do with the repetition of titles in full ; but in a 
properly equipped bibliographical institute such clumsy expedients are avoided. Both 
this point and the different ideas held ou the inclusion and indexing of papers are 
subjects that should without delay engage the attention of those responsible for the 
catalogue. On one point a little trouble would add considerably to the value of the 
catalogue. There is more than one tribe which in the topographical section falls into 
more than one division ; the Ainos, for example, both in Siberia (which includes 
Saghalien) and in Japan. A list of these tribes might easily be prepared, and this 
would facilitate the work of reference in the case of those unfamiliar with the exact 
lines of geographical demarcation. N. W. THOMAS. 

[ 124 J 

1904.] MAN. [No. 83. 

India. Risley: Gait. 

Census of India, 1901, Vol. I. India. By H. H. Risley and E. A. Gait, qq 
Calcutta, 1903. 34 X 22 cms. OO 

The issue of Vol. I. of the Census of India, 1901, which contains the general 
report on the result of the census, will be welcomed by all anthropologists. This census 
has been carried out with a fulness and elaboration which were found impossible on 
former occasions, and several areas were dealt with for the first time. These were 
Balochistan (with the exception of Mekran and some other disturbed districts), the Shan 
States, the Chin Hills, and other wild tracts in Burma, the Bhil country in Rajputana, 
and the aboriginal villages of the Andamans and Nicobars. The total population 
dealt with is 294,361,056, which in spite of famines and epidemics is an increase of over 
seven millions on the figures of 1891. The enormous increase of over 33,000,000 shown 
in the previous decade has not been maintained, but it is almost certain that the enume- 
ration in 1881 was very defective, and this cannot be regarded as representing a normal 
rate of increase. Broadly speaking, there has been an increase everywhere in the great 
alluvial plains of Northern India and also in the extreme south, while a compact block 
of provinces and states in Central India shows a decrease. The priucipal of these are 
Bombay, the Central Provinces (with the states under these two administrations, 
Haidarabad, the Central India Agency and the Rajputana Agency) all of which have 
suffered from plague and famine. 

The report was commenced by Mr. Risley, who wrote himself the important 
chapter on Caste, and parts of some others. Mr. Gait took up the work when 
Mr. Risley was obliged to leave it to take up another appointment, and he is responsible 
for the greater part of the report (including the chapter on religions). The chapter on 
languages by Dr. Grierson is an admirable survey of the whole enormous field of Indian 
linguistics, and will serve as an introduction to the Survey of Indian Languages on 
which he is engaged, and of which the Bengal volume has already appeared. The total 
number of vernacular languages, not including dialects, is no less than 147. Of these, 
however, seventy-niue belong to one group (the Thibeto-Burman sub-family of the 
Indo-Chinese family) and are spoken by a population of only 9,560,454. The Thibeto- 
Himalayan branch alono shows twenty languages spoken by tribes on the southern face 
of the Himalayas, aggregating only 425,814 persons. Opposed to this minute sub- 
division we have the great Indo-Aryan and Dravidian groups spoken by populations of 
219,780,650 and 56,693,799 respectively. The Indo- Aryan languages are given as 
twenty-two in number, and of these nine languages (Bengali, Uriya, Bihari, Western 
Hindi, Eastern Hindi, Panjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, and Rajasthani) account for a popu- 
lation of 207,697,377, or two-thirds of the whole population of India. If the four 
principal Dravidian languages are added (Tamil, Telugu, Cararese, and Malagalam), 
which are spoken by 53,616,723, we have the result that about eight-ninths of the 
population of India speak thirteen languages, while the remaining ninth speaks 134. 

The most interesting point in Dr. Grierson's survey of the Aryan languages is the 
classification into two groups which be calls the inuer and outer. The inner group 
comprises Hindi in its various forms, Panjabi, Pahari (Western, Central, and Eastern), 
Rajasthani, and Gujarati. It is surrounded by a circle of outer languages comprising 
Kashmiri, Lahnda (hitherto known as Western Panjabi or Jatki), and Sindhi on the 
west, Marathi on the south, and Bengali, Bihari, Oriya, and Assamese on the east. 
These languages are all related in certain points not found in the inner group, and 
surround it almost completely. The inner languages have broken through the circle 
to the sea in one poiut only where Gujarati impiuges on the Arabian Sea. Dr. Griersou's 
explanation of this fact is that the inner group represents the influence of a later aud 
the outer friuge of an earlier Aryan invasion, and that the later invaders, penetrating 
India from the north and north-west, drove back the earlier settlers to the west, east,. 

[ 125 ] 

No. 83.] MAN. [1904. 

and south, and established themselves in a compact block in a central position in the 
Upper Ganges valley. The theory is an interesting one and deserves careful exami- 
nation. Dr. Grierson also finds traces in the western languages of the outer group of 
an Aryan but non-Sanskritic influence, and certain of the still existing languages in the 
tangle of mountains in the extreme north-west are also found to be, although undoubtedly 
Aryan, not traceable to the old Sanskrit. 

This theory, although originally (as first started by Dr. Hoernle) based on philo- 
logical arguments, derives some support from the physical characteristics of the popula- 
tion, as Mr. Risley shows in the chapter on caste, tribe, and race. The Panjab remains 
to the present day practically a purely Indo-Aryan area, while the Upper Ganges 
country now comprised in the United Provinces is an Aryo-Dravidian tract where the 
later Aryan invaders were greatly modified by the aboriginal Dra vidians. Further 
east, in Lower Bengal, there is little Aryan blood, the Dra vidians showing here a 
Mougolian admixture, while through Central and Southern India the Dravidian prevails 
almost unmixed with the exception of a strip running along the western coast of the 
peninsula from Sindh to Coorg. Here the Dravidian population has been modified by 
the admixture of a broad-headed race, which Mr. Risley denominates Scythian, and 
identifies with the Scythian invaders of 2,000 years ago. This theory will probably not 
meet with general acceptance, for it is not easy to understand how a conquering race 
entering India from the north-west should leave the already established Aryan popula- 
tion unaffected, and yet influence strongly the Marat has far to the south. Nor is the 
historical evidence in favour of a Scythian invasion of South-west India ; as far as it 
goes it only proves the establishment of a kingdom or kiugdoms in the extreme north- 
west. These conquerors so quickly adopted the language and religion of India that we 
may suppose them to have been not very numerous, and to have been entirely absorbed 
in a few centuries. This leaves the broad-headed element in South-west India still 
unexplained, but it is not necessary to exclude the idea of prehistoric migration of a 
broad-headed race from Central Asia who may have already coalesced with Dravidian tribes 
and been pushed southwards jointly with them by the successive Aryan invasions. 

With this exception Mr. Risley's complete and well-considered arrangement of the 
races of India deserves general assent. The map which accompanies chapter XI. shows 
the result in a graphic form. 

The population lying to the west of the Indus, and extending throughout 
Afghanistan and Balochistan, is classed by Mr. Risley as Turko-Iranian, a term which is 
fairly descriptive of its characteristics. The tentative inclusion of the Hazaras in this 
family, however, can hardly bo maintained. It would not be possible within the limits 
of Southern Asia to find two races more opposed to each other in facial form than the 
aquiline-nosed Baloch and the flat-faced Hazara. The latter should undoubtedly be 
classed as Mongoloid. 

It is impossible to go in any detail into Mr. Risley's most interesting disquisition 
on the development of caste, which should be carefully studied. He divides castes into 
seven classes, viz. : (1) tribal, (2) functional, (3) sectarian, (4) castes formed by crossing, 
(5) national castes, (6) castes formed by migration, (7) castes formed by changes of 
custom. Totemism also receives attention, and the information collected during the 
census shows that it is more widely spread in India than was till recently supposed. 
On the strength of the Indian evidence Mr. Risley disputes the conclusions deduced by 
Mr. Frazer from purely Australian data. He divides totemistic usages into two classes, 
effective and ineffective, viz., those which influence evolution and those which do not. 
Purely magical ritual is classed as ineffective, the effective practices being those which 
bear ou exogamy. In India totemism is practically a form of exogamy, and as this 
contributes to the evolutiou of the tribe, Mr. Risley considers that it may furnish the 
clue to the real origin of the usage. 

[ 126 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No«. 83-84. 

It is impossible to do more here than allude to the important chapters ou Religion, 
and Marriage, due partly to Mr. Risley and partly to Mr. Gait. The interesting essay 
on Auimism with which the chapter on Religions opens may be specially alluded to. 
With these and a few other exceptions Mr. Gait is responsible for the bulk of the report, 
which, on the whole, must be highly commended. It is to be regretted that a work of 
this kind cannot be presented to the public in a more attractive form than that of a blue 
book. The greater part of this report, if published as a well-printed octavo, in the form 
in which a modern publisher would issue it, would certainly command a large circula- 
tion. Perhaps the Government of India will consider the possibility of issuing it in 
some such form. M LONGWORTH DAMES. 

Africa, East. Van der Burgt. 

Dictionnaire Francais-Kirundi. Par le R. P. J. M. M. Van der Burgt des r%m 
Mission naires d'Afrique (Peres-Blancs). Bois-le-duc (Hollaude), 1904. 25 x Ot" 
16 cm. Price 30 francs. 

We should recommend the student, in using Pere Van der Burgt's book, not to 
begin with the Introduction, but to consult the articles, u A re hitecture," " Char me " 
" Guerir" " Ligende" " i?i/e," or any one of a dozen others which we might mention. 
He will find, along with various theories which may be disregarded, a perfect mine 
of valuable information. But a perusal of the Introduction — though not without 
interest and profit if one has the patience to follow over 100 large pages with the 
necessary attention — is likely to prejudice the reader against the whole book, as a mere 
monument of wasted learning and ingenuity. The author's standpoint is sufficiently 
indicated by his vindication of the Noachian deluge as universal (p. xliii), and his 
assumption that Phoenician is a Hamitic language (p. cxix) : " Les langues chamites et 
" Semites montrent une certaine sympathie, Tune pour l'autre. Elle sont euchevetrees 
" en maint endroit. Qu'on pense a l'hebreu et au chananeen." Whether this position 
is absolutely required by Roman orthodoxy we are unable to say ; the late Father 
Stoppani seems to have been allowed a considerable latitude in interpreting the Mosaic 
cosmogony. The origin of the name Africa occupies two pages and a half, which are 
strongly suggestive of Mr. Casaubon's Key to all the Mythologies. We cannot 
forbear quoting a specimen. 

It is argued that though the Arabic word kafir means " unbeliever," this significa- 
tion is only post-Islamic, and the original meaning was " black." " Chez les plus anciens 
** etymologistes arabes, il veut dire : I'obscurite, la noirceur, la nuit, le couvreur. De 
" vieux poetes nomment la nuit kq/ir, puisqu'elle couvre avec des tenebres noires." 
(We suppose couv-rir, cov-er, &c, are to be deduced from the same root !) "Les Cafres 
" done sont les Noirs. . . . L'egyptien ka (k) signifie : noir. ... En 6gyptien 
" kaf est le singe noir. En bambara akafi e'est l'homme noir, com me kabilo en 
" bidsogo, ogabu en kamuka. (The Kamuka dialect of Nupe ?) En namaqua ckhip 
" e'est le rhinoceros noir. Gbei en dewoi, gberi en gbe, gbalwi en salum, kupirira en 
" muntu (Yao ?) signifie : noir, et guafili en boko ; la nuit (noire). Les Phula, selon 
" le Dr. Koelle, nomment les nymphes silvestres des Kaffiri. Les mots ham et ka, kaf, 
" af, ap, au (= noir) sont identiques. Les Bambara, pour lesques akafi est le negre, 
" ont le mot kafulo signifier : le commencement. De leur cote les Zulu du Natal ont le 
" mot kafula pour exprimer l'idee de magie, de charme, d'encbantment,.et chez les Xosa 
" isikafulo signifie egalement : goe'tie." 

The black rhinoceros, according to Mr. Selous, is not black, and the Yao verb 
pilila (or pirira : ku being the sign of the infinitive) scarcely proves anything in this 
connection ; while we should require some further authority than Koelle's Polyglotta 
Africana for the Fula wood-nymphs called " Kaffiri." It is interesting to learn that 
Solomon's qof were not apes, but the okapi of Uganda, and that Seth, " the Hamite 

[ 127 ] 

Nob. 84-85.] MAN. [1904. 

antagonist of the Semite god Osiris,* is represented with the head of an animal 
previously unknown, which tarns out to be the okapi. It would be waste of time to 
analyse all this so-called evidence any further. It is only fair to add that P. Van der 
Burgt prints a (?) after the word " Semite" in this connection. 

Fortunately, the body of the work deals, in the first instance, with observed facts, 
carefully reported. The Kirundi language is spoken over an area much wider than 
that of Urundi proper, which occupies the western shore of the north end of Tanganika, 
beginning some 30 miles north of Ujiji, and extending as far as the bend of the Kagera 
Nile in the north-west. But the laoguage is spoken throughout Uhha in the south and 
Ruanda in the north— as far north, in fact, as the Kirunga volcano. Urundi is inhabited 
by three races : the conquering Watutsi, who are Hamites (and therefore a derivation 
from ku tuka, " to insult," is suggested !), the subject Warundi,and the Watwa pygmies. 
The royal family are of a different race from the Watutsi, known as Wahinda, to which 
also the chiefs of Ruanda and some other countries belong (cf the striking portrait of 
King Lwabugiri on p. 172 of Count Gotzen's Durck Afrika von Ost nach West). The 
Watwa are " chasseurs, forgerons, portiers " ; they have no language of their own, but speak 
an archaic dialect of Kirundi. (This is interesting in view of the fact that the Batwa 
vocabulary given by Dr. Ludwig Wolf is evidently Bantu and very similar to the language 
of the Baluha, among whom these pygmies live. It is possible that such distinctions as 
we find may arise from their using an older dialect of Luba.) Some interesting texts of 
native myths and traditions, with interlinear translation, are given, s.r., Legende and 
Literature. The Warundi trace the genealogy of their chiefs from a certain Ruhinda, 
who is said to have come from the south, apparently about a.d. 1500. The royal 
houses of Ruanda, Karagwe, Uuyoro, Xkore, and some others also have an ancestor 
Ruhinda, but he came from the north — from the aucient kingdom of Kitara. The Arab 
traders who reached Ujiji in 1845 were the first outsiders to come in contact with the 
Warundi ; those living on. the lake shore were visited by Livingstone and Stanley 
in 1871. 

It is useless to attempt to condense within the limits of a short uotice one tithe 
of the information to be fouud in this (in spite of its peculiarities) most valuable work ; 
it will be enough to refer — in addition to those already mentioned — to the articles 
" Dynastie" " Devin" " Esprit" " Goetie" " Maries" and the Supplement, though 
that, too, contains a certaiu amount of mythology run mad. How much warrant 
P. Van der Burgt has for establishing a relationship between Bagawrfa and Wahiwrfa 
on the strength of the nd common to both words, or for calling tig the root of words in 
which it occurs (ng^ombe, Mulungu, &c), and, finding it in names of various animals, 
deducing thence (by way of the " Persian word, XKtioda ") m suggestion of " Zoolatrie 
t'gyptienne," I had rather not attempt to decide. A. WERNER. 

Algeria. Tripp. 

Beautiful Biskra," The Queen of the Desert." By C. Howard Tripp. London : qp 
Bemrose and Sons, 190.3. 93 pp., with illustrations. 20 x 15 em. Price 1*. DO 
This small book is the record of a five weeks' trip to Biskra in the African desert. 
As the author went by sea via Marseilles and returned overland through Italy and 
France, it is obvious that he had not much time at Biskra. In fact, two-thirds of the 
book are taken u\1 with an account of the outward and homeward journeys. However, 
Mr. Tripp seems to have spent the little time he had to good purpose, and his book will 
be found of considerable use by any casual tourist who may intend to visit this neigh- 
bourhood, for not only does it give an account of Biskra and its people — though this is 
somewhat sketchy — but it also advises as to the best hotel, and gives valuable information 
as to the times of the different trains. The photographs which illustrate the book are 
excellent, a great number of them illustrating native types and customs. H. S. K. 

Printed by Ktre \xd Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, East Harding Street, E.C. 

Plate I— J. 

Man. 1904. 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 



[No. 86. 


With Plate I-J. 

Solomon Islands. Edge-Partington : Joyce. 

Note on Funerary Ornaments from Rublana and a Coffin qq 
from Sta. Anna, Solomon Islands. By J. Edge- Par ting ton and QD 
T. A. Joyce y M.A. 

The specimens figured on the accompanying plate, numbered 1, 2, 3, and 5, were 
obtained from graves of Rubiana, Solomon Islands, by Rear-Admiral (then Captain) 
Davis during the punitive expedition in 1901. They are, it is believed, the first speci- 
mens of this character to reach this country. In 1894 Admiral Davis presented to the 
Christy Collection a miniature basketwork hut containing a skull, probably that of a 
chief (Fig. 7, reproduced, by permission, from the Ethnographical Album of the Pacific, 
by J. Elge-Partiugton, Second Series, Plate 98). It was found entombed beneath a cairn 
of stones, into which were placed sticks bearing ornaments of tridacua shell secured by 
rattan lashings. In the plate these slicks and ornaments appear as Figs. 1, 2, and 3. 
They are probably of some age and display considerable weathering. Inside the skull 
house were found certain massive rings, also of tridacna shell, similar in every respect 
to Fig. 4. When these 
rings are compared with 
similar objects still in use, 
it seems highly probable 
that some at least were 
rough copies, made for 
funerary purposes, of rings 
worn by the deceased as 
breast-ornaments (bakhea). 
One of the latter, as worn 
at the present day, appears 
as Fig. 6 of the plate ; it 
was obtained by Admiral 
Davis from Ingova, the 
great chief of Rubiana, and 
is composed of tridacua FI °- 7.— mortuary hut containing the skull of a chief 
shell from coral upheaval. 0F mbiana, wlomon islands. 

One side is marked with a faint yellow tinge, a characteristic which rendered it of con- 
siderable value in the eyes of the owuer. At the back is a thin plate of turtle shell, 
fastened by meaus of a lashing of red braid, from which depends* an ornamental fringe of 
European bead-work, edged with rows of bats' teeth. These rings, it appears, occur 
among the shell ornaments fastened to the sticks (Figs. 1 and 3). 

Dr. Codrington mentions the fact that at the funeral of a chief, his ornaments were 
buried with him, and that they were frequently dug up again, probably at the same 
time as the exhumatiou of the skull. Of these funerary objects the most striking by 
far is the large tridacna slab carved in a fretwork design, aud measuring 27 cm. in 
height (Fig. 5). From information received it would appear that this was originally 
the "door" of a mortuary hut similar to that shown in Fig. 7. 

The design of this slab is particularly interesting, especially when viewed in 
connection with the smaller plaque shown in Fig. 2. In the former the design 
consists of a double row of small anthropomorphic figures, dancing with arms ukimbo 
and knees bent outward, and weariug large ear ornaments. The design is represented iu 
the solid, the portions unessential I hereto being cut away. Now it is quite a com- 
prehensible phase in the history of artistic evolution that the artist copying a design in 

[ 129 ] 

No. 86.] 



pierced work s!io;ild at some period be ]m\ to pay m^e attention to the spaces which he 
was eng'i;.rod i i forming thau to the portions left in the solid. Hence, in the centre of 
the upper row of figures we find the symmetry of the pattern interrupted by the 

development of unmeaning curls and flourishes. Supposing, 
then, that the design was fated to become conventionalised 
on these lines, and paying attention solely to the vacant 
spaces in the pattern, the design on the extreme top edge 
cf the large slab (Fig. 8b) would seem to be derived naturally 
from the bent arms of the little figures (big. 8a). The 
smaller plaque in Fig. 2 shows two bands of this same pattern 
a trifle more conventionalised by the disappearance of their 
bodies (Fig. 8c). Returning to Fig. 5 of the plate, Jind 
considering the spaces between the legs of the two figures 
on the extreme right of the secou 1 row, we find an anchor- 
like pattern (Fig. 87), which also has its counterpart in the 
smaller ornament (Fig. 8v). Again, the " nail "-like pattern 
displayed by the latter (Fig. 8g) may reasonably be conceived 
as evolved from the spaces betweeu the legs of the dancers 
(Fig. 8/*), though in this case the design is more conven- 
tionalised and has Wen turned on its side. Going a step 
further and comparing Fig. 2 with the shell plaques on Fig. 3, 
it would appear that the desigu of the latter is derived in its 
turn from the former (Fig. 8h). From the above, therefore, 
it may be concluded that Fig. 5 is the older of the two, and 
preserves the original pattern, of whioh Fig. 2 shows the 
degraded form. It is possible that the reduction in size of 
these ornaments contributed to that degradation. There is 
in the British Museum a fragment of what must have been a 
£ ^^^*^ r ^ ^ ^^ somewhat smaller carving of this class,* of which the exact 
* ^^^^^^I^T'I nature and use have only recently been explained by the 
i 1 *J» ■ + discovery of the comparatively perfect specimen. The design 
on this fragment would seem similar to that on Fig. 2, but 
it has been further conventionalised ; Fig. 8e passing to 8i, 
and the symmetrical " nail " pattern, of which 8g represents 
half, to 8k. 

One other point of interest in connection with these grave- 
ornaments is the occasional occurrence of vertebral bones 
attached to the wooden supports. Possibly this points to 
the fact that the inhabitants of Rubiana lagoon, who were 
notorious head hunters, were iu the habit of decorating the 
graves of the chiefs with heads of the prisoners whose bodies 
had contributed to the menu of the funeral feast. 

The wooden figure of a fish containing a male human 
skull (Fig. 9) was obtained about the same period on the* 
island of Sta. Anna. Admiral Davis believes the form of 
burial exemplified iu this specimen to be that in common use 
on the island, and further, that in the case of a chief the 
whole skeleton was so enclosed, since there were certainly 
a number of very large wooden sharks («c) suspended in the 
Tambu houses. 




a- inijn 


FIG. 8. 



* Set*. KVhjiographical Album of the Pacific, by J. Erlge-Partington, second series, pi. 119. 

r 130 ] 



[No. 86. 

Dr. Codrington (Melanesia jis, p. 261) states that on the death of a chief or of a 
man mix'li beloved by his son the body is suspended in his son's house, enclosed either 
in a canoe or in the figure of a sword-fish (Hi). Favourite oildren are treated in the 
same wav. The figure of the fish is cemented after the same method as that employed in 
canoe-building, and then painted, ami no smell whatever proceeds from it. (These, no 
doubt, were the larger fish seen by Admiral Davis.) 

Sometimes the corpse is kept in this way for years, either in the house or in the 
oha, or private canoe house waiting for a great fuueral feast. When a year of good 
crops arrives a man will say, * 4 Now we will take out father." The corpse is then taken, 
if that of a comparatively inferior person, to the common burial ground, if that of a chief, 
to the family burying place. The skull and jaw bone are taken out and these are called 
MangitCi which are saka, i.e., hot with spiritual power. The Munyite is enclosed in the 
hollow wooden figure of a bonito fish and set up in the house or in the oka. The figure 
of the fish here shown is evidently connected with this last burial rite. 

The inhabitants of the Rubiaua lagoon and neighbourhood had made themselves 
notorious on account of the number of murders perpetrated both on white men and 
native* during their head-hunting expeditions, and severe measures had to be adopted. 
In dealing with natives 
inhabiting islands covered 
with dense bush coercion 
is difficult, as the destruc- 
tion of their houses can 
soon be remedied, the 
natives themselves dis- 
appearing into the bush 
until the white man's 
man-of-war has departed. 
The Solomon Islanders 
were ancestor worship- 
pers, and therefore the 

severest punishment which could be inflicted upon them would be the destruction of 
their burying places, for, as Dr. Codrington (Melanesians, p. 125) points out, "a mau 
" in danger may call upon his father's, grandfather's, or uncle's ghost, or the disembodied 
" spirit of the deceased, for on the death of a distinguished man his ghost retains the 
" powers that belonged to him in life in greater activity and with stronger force ; his 
" ghost is therefore powerful and worshipful, and so long as he is remembered the aid 
" of his power is sought and worship is offered to him " (id., p. 254). On the same 
page Dr. Codrington refers to the practice of taking the head of a chief, constructing a 
basket and a house for it, and calling it a tindalo, for " they believe that every tiudalo 
was once a man." It is evident, therefore, that in destroying these cairns or tindalos 
Admiral Davis was inflicting upon the natives the severest punishment possible, and 
one which robbed them of their " natural calls for help in danger and distress." In 
fact, this method of castigation alone would seem adequate to bring home to the native 
mind the enormity of offences locally regarded as venial. In earlier days murder was 
punished by a simple fiue of so many pigs, and consequently the ralueof a white man was 
assessed in pigs, aud victims were purchased accordingly when opportunity offered. Of 
the specimens figured Nos. 1, 2, 7, and 9 are in the British Museum ; Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 
6 are in the possession of Mr. Edge-Partington. J. EDGK-PARTIJS'GTON. 




[ 131 ] 

Nos. 87-88.] 




India. Anderson. 

A Method of Inducing Artificial Sleep in Children in India* By 

■it (taken by myself iu 1900) illustrates a era 
method of Inducing ar tinea) sleep in children, by mean* of water* largely practised in 
- imla d!sl i le Htmali 

Abi \j levelling a pie© mod ha the Immediate vicinity of a 

spring of water. The bed fa generally tren lid 10 carry off the water after 

and thick layer of drt "g. 

placed on this bed, on its ildi downward!, ami carefully and 

entirely covered with la of a blanket, with the exception of the an 

part of it8 1 1 

hollow bai ipout, 

about 18 incln 
arranged to sfiow 
moufl low of •' 
with a toll of ftbon 
to two painsi bui 

not on the eh] 

It takes aliout a qi 

of an hour before the 

Child fallfl info a heavy 

slumber, which lata for 

OUt three I 

This en led on all the year round— usually from 7 to II a.m. and from 

2 to 8 p.m. ; iic shade of a large tree, bctl i out iu the open. 

The children of the bi ^es have a small hut, of matting <>r tlnteh-work. made for 

hem over the bed- 

The custom, ii- fjir us I could ascertain, is oonlned to Hindoos ami bee been carried 
out forages — from time Immemorial I wai informed, 

The natlvei state, that if their children are not subjected to this treatment, from 
infancy to the age of uboni ten or eleven years, tb lubjeel to a i hloh 

- theni tO turn yellow — pine away mid die. 

This custom is. I believe, confined solely to the Simla district. I refrain from 
giving any opinion of it from i medical point of view. J. II. ANDEBSON. 

BjelBkosltohe : Thomas. 
I by /.. C, /;,■ 

Herzegovina : Animal Folklore. 

Animal Folklore from the Herzegovina, i oUtvteit by l. <*. &jet§ 

nmunicated hy A 1 ! W* Thomas, 00 

I be following repHea to my questionnaire appeared in Karadjttch for March 1901, 
re difficult to understand and a conjectural translation is mai 
by a ?« 

1. Ueetinfl • wolf, if he pi the road, means good luck. Iteeting a bare 
or a snake, it either road, means had hick. Meeting B bedgehog, if 
he paset - by on the road, means good look. Hooting a frog, to. word m 

" |, if be peas tna bad lo 

In spring, for ■ young man to osslble a Inmb or a foal] menus pood 

hick > calf or I kid, had look. A.S many swal you see for the first time 

ring, so roanj all you pat on dm ear* 

2. The snake called u hlaxna " (bouse leek) brings luck. This sort of snake you 
must not kill, bill to prevent the Eainily being frightened by it, von must catch it on a 

[ *&* ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 88. 

split stick and take it far away from the house and let it escape with the words, " Blazna, 
my blazna, thou wilt guard me, and hence (? forward) the bouse." If the blazna is 
killed the master of the house dies. Th6y say in Mostar that a certain Glavasa killed 
a blazna, and that in the same year he died, and that in the course of a few years all his 
house became extinct. 

If spiders spin many webs in the house it means that the house will be 
" depopulated " : the family will either die out or emigrate. If a weasel makes itself 
at home in the house it is good, because it will kill all the mice. Nowhere should a 
weasel be touched, much less in the house, because it can scatter poisoned food and 
poison the whole family in order. He who sees a weasel outside a house should say, 
• 4 Weasel, if thou comest to us, our mice should bite off thine ears." Then they believe 
that the weasel will come of itself into the house. 

[In his Lexicon, Karadjic gives the formula, " O weasel, our mice greet thee, 
" and say they will bite off thine ears." He explains this as the formula for a 
man who sees a weasel, as from that time it kills and drives away all mice. The 
word " lasa " is only used with laceza and has the same meauiug, " O weasely 

If you bring ants into the house, it means wealth, and if you take them out of the 
house, poverty. 

A swallow brings luck to the house and so must not be touched. 

If a chicken, having sung from time to time, ceases to sing, it foretells a death in 
the household. Such a chicken must be caught and measured in this way : The 
chicken's head is leaned against the fireplace of the house, and the chicken falls head 
over tail going towards the doorstep of the house. If the head of the chicken comes to 
the doorstep you must cut off its head with an axe on the doorstep, and throw away the 
chicken. If it is the tail which comes to the doorstep, you must cut a little off its tail 
and let the chicken go. Then it is believed that the evil is averted. If a chicken 
in feeding or in drinking water stands on the edge of the bowl and stoops below it, 
that, too, foretells death. Such a chicken must be measured in the above mauner. And 
if an owl rests on the roof of the house, and swells up, that means death of one of the 
family. If on the roof of the house crows collect and pick at the gable end, it means 
that some one of the house shall die. 

If frogs croak early in springtime the spring will be fine and the harvest 

7. Of a cock (" singer, song-bird, cock "), they say that it is most lucky for the 
house if it is white without spots, therefore they like to keep a white cock in the house. 
No one, at Christmas or Easter festivals, devotes a black sheep or ram as a victim. 
They say that the devil prefers to change himself into a black ram. 

8. The pigeon, die Lachtaube, columba risoria, is regarded by our Mahommedans 
as sacred ; no one would kill one, even to save bis head. They say that she brought 
Mahomed water for bathing, hence that black ring round her neck has remained from 
the kettle in which she brought the water. 

It is a shame to kill a swau, crane, or swallow. 

9. When a man is suffering from asthma, it is necessary to kill a squirrel. The 
entire body, at a good heat, under a very hot pot, and good coal, must be covered with 
ashes, so that in the little furnace and ash all be turned to ashes. This cinder and 
ashes of the squirrel is pounded into a powder and mixed up either with fresh butter 
or honey, and, after fourteen days, is taken every morning, a small spoonful. 

12. When a man suffers from fever (typhus) (? typhoid — M.B.), several crayfish are 
taken. These crayfish are ground (?) and then, mixed with water, are given to the sick 
man to drink up, but the crayfish are dressed on the sole of the foot aud remain twenty - 
four hours. 

[ 133 ] 

No. 88.] MAN. [1904. 

Hedgehog's fat is smeared on a fresh (lit. " living ") wound. Those who suffer 
from falling-sickness have a little dog on their chest when they sleep. Those who 
suffer from falling-sickness carry a donkey's hoof on their persons. 

They put the skin of a white weasel without spots (? ermine) on the neck, for 

When a child for the first time goes to school or business a swallow is caught, and 
the child gives it water from his mouth and puts it in his bosom and lets it oat 
through the right sleeve of his shirt that it may fly away. Then they believe that 
the child will learn quickly, just as the water flows quickly, and the swallow flies away 

Hunters believe that if they let a snake crawl into their gun and shoot it out 
they will be lucky in their huntiug. 

14. At Christmas " pastor's cakes " are made. On the cake they make from dough 
and attach to the cake, one picture of each animal that there is in the house in question. 
This cake the shepherd breaks on the horns of the bell-ram. On this he watches which 
crumb will fall off'. If some crumb falls off they say that someone of the household 
will die during that year. This cake the shepherd himself eats, and gives something to 
the sheep on whose horns he broke it. In some houses they give one of these pictures 
from the cakes to each animal which is represented. 

15. They believe that a man can Income a vampire, and as a vampire can change 
himself into different forms of animals, but preferably he goes from the grave in the 
form of a man or form of an inflated leather-bottle. The vampire preferably goes to his 
own wife and lies down near her. A great sinner can become a vampire, especially a 
usurer or swindler. A man can also become a vampire across whom before his death 
lay four-footed animals. 

16. A witch changes preferably into a butterfly when they see in the evening near 
the house an unusual butterfly, they look out to catch it. When they catch it they burn 
it a little in the caudle or the fire and let it go, with the words, " Come to-morrow, that I 
give thee salt." If to-morrow some old woman from the village comes to ask for salt, 
whether to borrow or otherwise, and if her clothes are burnt somewhere, no one washes(?) 
any more, because she is not a true witch. A witch may be only a woman or a married 
man, hence a woman who will be a witch as long as she is a spouse, she is "Mora" 

[iVora, given by Karadjic* as " der Alpdriicken, die Trixte, asthma nocturnum, 
ephialtes, incubus, and K. gives a whole column to the word, with numerous quotations, 
in connection with witches. — M.B.] 

Mora preferably takes the form of a cock. It is said that no nightmare ever killed 
a young man (i.e., unmarried), but he could never catch it. [In " Eugene Oniegin," by 
Pushkin, Tatiana had a nightmare about, among the monsters, creatures with cock's 
heads and goat's beards. — M.B.] In one case, he lights the candle, covers it with 
a pot, and lays down to sleep. Then the nightmare comes and begins to stifle him. 
Ho then as quickly as possible moves the pot and by the candle light sees the cock, 
which he catches and shuts up in a box. When in the morning he opens the box, when 
there is something to see, in the box lies a girl, just her whom he would love to kiss. 

19. Of bears they believe that ihey steal not childreu but young women and girls to 
their lairs. There they rub away her feet that she cannot escape, bring her food, and 
have sexual intercourse with her, as a man with a woman. Of an unusually strong man 
they sa,y "a boar begat him." 

At (iacko there was thirty years ago a certain Mijitsa Tauoric, an exceptionally big 
man, and he could eat a vast amount. In speaking he grunted a little, and there is no 
one at (Jatsko this day who does not believe that he was no ordinary man, but that his 
mother bore him to a hear. 

r 1^4 i 

1904.] MAN. [No. 88. 

22. The skull of a bear they like to put on the fence round a beehive. If there is 
none of a bear, then the fodder of horses or cattle together with horns. Round some 
beehives there can be found twenty or more of such bone colleciions. This (they do) to 
prevent the bees (escaping ? flying away ?) 

There are plenty of such games at which both adults and children play. I will 
here quote only a few. They play (or " a game of ") at animals and beasts, mice and cats, 
chickens, sheep, and eagles. Animals, or " zivoera," as the game is called, is played 
thus. This game is only played by boys, youths (lit., " by males and those half grown- 
up "). All players sit round in a circle, the leader twkes a bundle— a twisted handker- 
chief — and, twisting it, cries " Zhiver ! zhiver ! zhiver ! " The rest twist the finger and cry 
the same as the leader. When the cries are at the loudest the leader hits one gently on 
the shoulder with the bundle and asks him, " What art thou ? " This one says the name 
of some animal, of whatever animal he can best imitate the voice. After that the " zhiver " 
begins again, and a second and a third asks till all have had their turn. When each player 
has takeu the name of some animal, then the leader again begins with *' zhiver," and again 
strikes one with the question, "What dost thou eat, whose voice hast thou?" He 
replies as quick as possible what he eats and then imitates the voice of that animal, 
whose name he has taken, and as quickly as possible ; the leader then begins to cross 
himself, crying " What is this devil, devil ? " This, too, cry all the rest gladly. " Deder, 
one more," then he imitates as well as he can the voice of the animal in question. 
The leader then says, " Does he know who is best?" If one appears then he tries 
who can do it best. The leader then, with a couple of players, judges, and he who 
can do it best strikes the other on the back with the bundle as often as the leader 

"Mice and cats" are played by children. The players, boys and girls, arrange 
themselves in a circle. One stands in the circle, that is the mouse, aud another runs 
round the circle, that is the cat. The cat seeks to get into the circle and catch the 
mouse, but the mouse protects itself and is cunning, and those who form the circle try 
to prevent the cat from getting in. If the cat gets into the circle the mouse escapes out 
of it. Then the cat " mious " and the mouse squeaks ; if the cat catches the mouse 
then they change. Those two children who were the mouse and cat go into the circle, 
but those two between whom the cat broke into the circle will be, the one cat and the 
other mouse. 

" Chickens " is played by. childreu. One child is mistress of the house, one is 
a sitting-hen, and the rest are chickens. After the sitting-hen one chicken is caught, 
and after that another, and so on in order until all the children are captured and 
go behind the hen. The hen goes clucking aud lea^s her chicks, and the chicks follow 
her clucking. When the hen finds the mistress of the house she asks, " What art thou 
doing here ? " 

I am lighting the fire. Because I am kneading dough. 

But wherefore thy fire ? Wherefore thy dough ? 

That I may arrange the tripod. That I may feed my chicks. 

But why wilt thou a tripod ? But where are thy chicks ? 

That I may arrange ray pan. Lo, we bring them to you. . . . 

But why wilt thou a pan ? 

At these words the mistress advances to take some chicks from the hen but she 
defeuds them, aud in spite of all this she catches one some how or other. So it continues 
until the mistress catches all the chicks. When she catches all the chicks then she 
becomes hen and the ben becomes mistress. 

tfc Sheep" is played by grown-up lads and people in the villages. One makes 
himself the ram and another his master, the merchant. The merchant brings the sheep 
to market so that he like a sheep goes on all fours and they cover him with some white 

[ 135 1 

Nos. 88-89.] MAN. [1904. 

stuff. The merchant goes in front and the sheep follows him bleating, when they come 
among the crowd one rises up and buys the sheep. When the merchant has sold his 
sheep (at a gain) he goes out of that room, but he who has bought the sheep calls him 
just as sheep are called with " tpre." On that, the sheep stands up, and he says to him, 
" Tpre ! " Aud now the purchaser begins to cross himself, saying, " What is this, 
what is this, devil, devil," and runs from one to another. The sheep does the 
same and goes after him, and when they are making a din, the merchant comes in. 
And he cries out at once in the doorway, " Hi ! what is this, what is this ? " The 
sheep on this at once falls on all fours and begins to bleat. Now the purchaser asks 
the merchant what he has sold him, and he says that he has sold him a sheep, calls him, 
and he bleats back an answer. The purchaser does the same and the sheep again bleats 
back, and so the purchaser is pacified and the merchaut agaiu goes away. As soon as 
the merchant goes out, the same scene is repeated, and again the merchant runs 
in, and the same game takes place as before. At last the purchaser begs the merchant 
to help him to kill the sheep, to which he consents. Then they stretch out the 
sheep as though for slaughter, and skin him. Now they cover him with a sheet- 
and the merchant takes hold of some part of his body and asks who will buy it. 
Someone of the company cries out that he will buy it and so on in order until 
everyone of the party has bought something. Now the merchant and he that bought 
the sheep from him bring scales to weigh the meat. The scales are a stout stick. 
Then everyone in order, one after another, cries out that they measure out to him the 
meat that he has bought. The one whom they call upon comes out into the middle, 
lies down and crosses his legs over the stick, which the merchant and purchaser are 
holding, each by one end. Then these skilfully twist the stick and turn him head over 
heel*, saying at the same time a few words about meat. In this manner they all play 
out in turn and the game is over. 

" Eagles " is played on some broad open place, and played by grown-up lads. One 
of the lads stands stooping, leaning his arms on his knees. A second runs up and jumps 
over him and at ten paces stands in the same way as the first and so on, one after 
another, until all have placed themselves like the first. This first one jumps over his 
own neighbour and at once the second goes after him, and wheu all leap over again it 
comes to his turn to jump. 

Here is a game of " eggs." They fight with eggs, and whoso has the hardest eggs 

With a kreuzer-piece "at" eggs. One child puts some eggs on the turf or holds 
them in his hand. A second child aims at it with a kreuzer. If the kreuzer remains 
in the egg, then the one who aimed wins it, and takes the egg for himself, but if 
the kreuzer does not stick into the egg. then the kreuzer belougs to the owner of 
the egg. 

Aiming at eggs with stones. " Grown-ups " play at this game. Eggs are set up, 
and the players walk away to a distance of forty to fifty paces, each player takes five 
stones and aims at the eggs. If he hits an egg, it is his, but if he does not hit, he gives 
eggs to him who puts them up. N. W. THOMAS. 

Malay. Annandale : Robinson. 

Fasciculi Mahiyenses. By N. Annandale and H. C. Robinson. Anthropology, q** 
Part II. (a) ; published for the University Press of Liverpool by Williams and 00 
Norgate, Loudon, 1904. Pp.116. 27 x 20 cm. Price 10s. Supplement, map, and 
itinerary ; published for the University Press of Liverpool by Longmans, Green, & Co.. 
London, 1903. Pp. xlii. 27 x 20 cm. Price os. 

[ 130 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 89. 

Part II. («) of the section of Fasciculi Malayenses dealing with anthropology, 
of which the first part was noticed in Man, 1903. 89, starts with a detailed descrip- 
tion, by Mr. H. Balfour, of the various types of musical instruments collected by 
Messrs. Annandale and Robinson during their expedition. 

The instruments are divided into three classes — percussion, wind, and stringed — 
those belonging to the wild tribes and those of the Malays and Siamese receiving 
separate treatment. The specimens of greatest ethnographical interest are found in the 
*■ percussion " class. The Malay fishermen use a rattle of cocoauut shells for driviug 
fish into their nets, and Mr. Balfour calls attention to the wide use of instruments of 
identical character in the Melanesian region, which are " shaken either above or below 
water to attract sharks." A note by Mr. Annandale to the effect that " the coast of 
Patau i probably had at one time a large Bugis population " may be taken to emphasise 
the " oceanic " affinities of this instrument. 

Another interesting Malay instrument is the following : — " A light rod of bamboo 
" split into two slender springy arms which are united below. On the arm of each is 
" fixed a large shell (genus Ampullaria) ; a light stick or plectrum is passed rapidly 
" to and fro between the shells, causing them to strike together very rapidly. This 
" instrument is used by Malay children to imitate the souud of the rice-swamp frogs." 
The peculiar interest of this instrument, besides the extraordinary accuracy of the 
im'tation, lies in the fact that the only parallel Mr. Balfour is able to cite is found iu 
Bosnia, where the peasants hold " two wooden spoons together with their bowls back to 
'* back, rapidly passing the handle of a third backwards and forwards between the 
'* bowls." A description of various drums and Jews harps completes this section. 

Malay wind instruments are represented by trumpets, whistles, flageolets, an oboe, 
bull roarers, and a musical windmill ; stringed instruments by various forms of the 
fiddle. Chief in iu teres t among the instruments of the wild tribes is a percussion 
instrument attributed by the Malays to the Semangs. This " somewhat resembles a 
" tuning fork in principle, but is peculiar from the fact of its being furnished with stops, 
" a very unusual feature, in percussion instruments. An identical instrument is described 
44 by Dr. A. Schandenburg from the Philippine Islands under the name buncacan" 
Flutes both for the mouth and nose, a monochord, and several zithers complete the 

The name of the author is sufficient guarantee for the complete and scholarly 
nature of the paper. 

A chapter on the " Religion and Magic among the Malays of the Patani States " by 
Mr. Annandale may be taken to be an amplification and continuation of a similarly 
entitled paper in Part I. Further illustration is given of the power for good and evil — 
mostly the latter— exercised by the spirits of the dead ; and there is also an interesting 
discussion of the word kramat, which meaus generally " sacred," " lucky," or " accursed," 
and which is applied to persons, animals, trees, places and inanimate objects. In this 
conuection is discussed the kramat hid up, " a person who is so intimate with the 
** spiritual world that the spirits have become part of himself ; he is able to materialise 
" them when others can only ensure their presence iu an incorporate condition, and 
" when he offers them a sacrifice they devour it bodily, not merely consuming its savour 
" (bahu) or soul (se man gat) as they do when an ordinary medicine man makes them an 
u offering." In illustration certain of the legends surrounding the name of the great 
'Toh Ni, Rajah of Rhaman, are related. 

"Independent spirits " {hantu) are next discussed. Those are regarded as non- 
moral and inferior to man — more akin to a wild beast. The following section is 
devoted to " Familiars," of which the more interesting and terrible class are actually 
made by magicians and sent out to prey on the souls or livers of the euemies of the 

[ 137 ] 

Nos 89-90.] MAN. [1904. 

Connected wi'h the above is the section dealing with medicine, u the theory and 
" practice of doctoring material bodies whether by means of material drugs or through 
" spiritualistic agencies " Spirits are influenced by coercion and deception : the first 
is applied by means of colours and objects which the spirits like or dislike, and in this 
connection we find again the widespread belief that spirits are afraid of iron. Deception 
is accomplished by means of sham offerings, traps, and similar devices. Sympathetic 
magic also plays an important part in inducing or curing sickuess. 

Mr. Annandale next discusses the customs of the Malayo-Siamese relative to birth, 
circumcision, marrige, death, and social life, giving at the same time many interesting 
superstitious in connection with these subjects. The people dealt with is the mixed 
Malay (i.e., Mahometan) and Siamese (i>., Buddhist) population of the Patani States 
and Senggora. Connected with birth we find various prohibitions which must be 
observed by the woman before confinement, and also by her husband, for fear of injuring 
the unborn child. The section concerned with funeral customs is particularly interesting 
owing to the various methods of disposing of the dead employed in the various 
communities. Among the Malays interment is universal ; among the Siamese of the 
Patani States, Senggora, and Patalung, are found interment, cremation, and tree-burial 
(temporary or permauent). 

The rest of the volume is occupied by a description of the Malayo Siamese skulls, 
pelves, and long bones brought back by the expedition, and by a discussion of the 
measurements. The specimens* are somewhat few in number it is true, but the treat- 
ment is thorough, and the publication of all data of this description, however meagre, 
is a thing greatly to be desired. On the whole, the volume is well up to the high 
standard of the first part. The results bear witness to a most careful and systematic 
method of collecting anthropological data ; the facts are well and concisely stated, with 
much illuminating detail as to their source and probable value. In fact, few points 
have been omitted which would be likely to prove of value to the student in working 
over the information set forth in the book. A good illustration of this really most 
important point in the consideration of the anthropological value of the work is found 
in a sentence at the beginning of the discussion of the Malay o-Siamese population of 
the Patani States : "It is natural, seeing that we spoke Malay and not Siamese, that 
" we should regard these customs and ideas from the Malay (i.e., the Mohammedan) 
" rather than the Siamese (i.e., the Buddhist) point of view." This is only one of many 
instances in which the authors have displayed a commendable frankness and consideration 
for the anthropological student. The illustrations are uumerous and leave nothing to 
be desired. 

In a " supplement " to the Fasciculi has been published an itinerary of the 
expedition, with short descriptions of the chief features and population of the localities 
visited. Each author deals with that part of the country over which he worked alone ; 
in cases where a locality was visited by both, the description is the result of collabora- 
tion. It is illustrated with photographs showing characteristic scenery, and contains an 
excellent and most useful folding map of the country between Patalung and Selangor. 

T. A. J. 

German Race. Wilser. 

Die Gcrmanvn : Beitragc zitr Vblkerkunde* By Dr. Ludwig Wilser. Eisenach f\f\ 
and Leipzig, 1904. Pp. 448. 24 x 16 cm. Price 5 marks. uU 

For well nigh three decades Dr. Wilser has been recognised as a leading advocate 
of the most extravagant views held by German ethnologists on Aryan origins and allied 
subjects. The countless papers, essays, and monographs which he has published ou these 
matters in quite a score of the continental scientific and literary periodicals Iiq has now 

[ 138 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 90. 

collected in the volume uutler notice, which he somewhat characteristically dedicates to 
his " Volk nnd Vaterland." It is right, however, to state that the book is not a mere 
reprint of these materials, which, in fact, have been largely re-written and mostly brought 
up to date while on the whole " preserving their original stamp." Moreover, the papers 
themselves, which cover an immense field, ranging literally from " The Beginning of 
Life " to u Teutonic Style and German Art," have been conveniently arranged, not in 
chronological order, but in strict logical sequence. Thus a long introduction dealing 
with the cradle and dispersion of mankind, the human races and other somewhat 
irrelevant matters, is followed by a " Prehistoric Section," devoted to u Races aud 
Peoples," the " Indo-Germanic Linguistic Family," the " Branches of the Germanic 
Stock," and the u Neighbours aud Precursors of the Germans " (Kelts, Slavs, Etruscans 
and Rhetians, Scythians and Persians, Iberians and Semites). Theu comes the 
"Historic Section," which is occupied exclusively with the Germaus of history — 
Cumbrians and Teutons, Franks, Swabians, Goths, Burgundians, Lombards, Vandals, 
and Saxons- and is distinctly the most valuable aud only trustworthy part of the work. 
A concluding section treats of the metals, the " Riddle of the Runes and German Art," 
and there is a copious subject index, with lists of writers quoted aud of the author's 
essays, this last comprising as many as seventy titles. 

But with all this impetuous torrent of archaeological, linguistic, and historic lore, 
Dr. Wilser has made but few conquests ; indeed, he frankly admits that he has failed to 
gain general acceptance for his peculiar theories, and complains that his teachings and 
warnings have mainly passed unheeded, while his " word has been as a w*x clamantis in 
ere/no " (p. 423.) The wonder is that a writer of such undoubted intelligence aud 
erudition could have possibly expected any other result. For what does he ask us to 
believe ? Not merely that the Germanic branch of the Aryan family and the Aryan 
family itself, but the whole human species originated in pre-glacia) times, not in West or 
Central Europe, or in Asia or iu Africa, or anywhere between the tropics, but in the 
extreme north, in the present Arctic regions now under ice or water. " All progress has 
" come from the north, thence have migrated all new aud higher-developed species and 
u races. No one knows the primeval home of any one of the large mammalian stocks, 
" whose descendants have rauged the globe with man. Hence the only assumption is 
" that their cradle, and consequently also that of man, is to be sought where it can no 
" longer be found, in the now inaccessible high north-land of Arctogaea covered with 
" eternal ice or marine waters " (p. 21). Theu driven thence southwards by the ever 
increasing cold iu late pliocene times, primitive man found refuge in Central and West 
Europe, whence with the retreat of the ice-cap he again advanced northwards and 
re-occupied Scandinavia towards the close of the Paleolithic or beginning of the 
Neolithic age. Meanwhile the men of the Stone ages had greatly advanced both in 
physical and mental respects, so that the first occupants of Norseland belonged to the 
high type, which is represented by the Cro-Magnon race, and is here re-named Homo 
prisons. Iu the uow cong3uial climate of Scandinavia, and especially of South Sweden, 
the conditions are assumed to have been most favourable for further progress, aud thus it 
came about that both the noblest physical and liuguistic types, the meu of Aryan speech, 
together with the germs of all the higher cultures, were first developed in Sweden, the 
true ojficini gentium, the prospective if not the actual mother of all the arts, and 
certainly the first home iu the post-glacial era of all the foremost peoples of historic 

This glowing picture, as will presently be seen, in no way exaggerates, but is rather 
a feeble reflection of the fundamental ideas that lie at the root of Dr. \V User's speculation^ 
He, indeed, protests against this charge of speculation, of " the baseless fancies of au 
uncritical dilettantism," aud ventures to assert with Newton that " hypotheses non 
Jingo" But, apart from the historical section {see above), in the rest of the volume I 

[ 139 ] 

Wo. 90.] MAN. [1904. 

can find little but pure hypothesis, a series of paradoxical assumptions unsupported by 
auy evidence beyond wild conjecture and wilder etymologies. A period of about 
12,003 years is allowed for the re-occupation of Sweden by Homo priscus after the final 
retreat of the ice from northern Europe, and in that relatively short interval innumerable 
cultured tribes and peoples, not only of Aryan but also of Iberian (Basque), Semitic, 
aud Hamitic speech, are supposed to have been first evolved in a narrow corner of South 
Scandinavia and to have thence streamed forth in successive waves of peaceful or hostile 
migration, peopling a great part of the then known world and directly or indirectly 
giving rise to most of the civilisations that sprang up, flourished, and decayed in the 
JEgean lands, in the Nile Valley, in Mesopotamia, Persia, India, Scythia, aud elsewhere. 
Of course all the Aryan groups — and these here include Illyrians, Thraciaus, Phrygians, 
Scythian?, Mycenseans, proto-Hellenes, Rhetians, and Etruscans — were specialised, not 
severally in their later homes, but all nearly simultaneously, or, at least, very rapidly one 
after the other in their primeval Swedish cradle-laud. To the obvious objection that 
the Aryan mother-tongue is and long has been more disintegrated in its assumed 
Scandinavian home than, for instance, in Italy, Greece, Persia, or India, the curious 
reply is made that, according to a natural law applicable also to language, the process 
of disintegration (development) must proceed farthest where it began ; but Aryan speech 
began in Sweden, ergo : — " So batten wir demnach auf rein sprachlichem Wege den 
" Bildungsherd, den Verbreitungamittelpunkt der arischen Sprachen gefunden, der sich 
" bemerkenswerterweise mit dom auf naturwissenschaftlichen Wege ermittelten der 
" lichthaarigen Rasse deckt," &c. But English is in this respect the most analytical, 
that is, the most developed of all Aryan tougues ; therefore on this showing the Aryan 
cradle should be shifted from Scandinavia to Britain. 

To the still more formidable objection that the Semitic and Basque languages are 
not Aryan at all no reply is vouched. Nevertheless the Basques are still claimed to be 
Swedes on the strength of their national name, " Euscaldunac," where Eusc (whence 
bascones, Basques) is from the old German waskan = "to wash " ! The term erria, 
" earth," as in Euscal erria, Basque earth (land), is also " arisch, sogar germanisch," 
from ero = Gothic, airtha = " earth." Then the Hindus are Wends, that is, Slavs, 
therefore Swedes, because here H stands for W (Wend = Hind), the fact being that H 
here stands not for Whwt for S (Hind'= Sindh), as it normally does in Persian, Greek, 
and some other Aryan tougues. The objection raised (p. 160) against this established 
derivation is futile, aud, indeed, only makes matters worse. Gentu is not a " Neben- 
form " of Hindu, but is the Portuguese gentio (gentile) applied generally to the Hindus 
and more particularly to the Telugus of the east coast. Why these impossible 
etymologies should still find vogue in the classic land of sound and profound philological 
studies is puzzling ; still more puzzling why any sane scholar should make them the 
basis of otherwise incredible assumptions. 

These assumptions, and especially the view that Sweden was "the origiual seat of 
" that vast progress which we have to regard as the foundation of all later European 
" civilisations" (p. 48), are at once put aside by the vast antiquity of the Babylonian, 
Egyptian, Mintean, Sabsean, and pre-Mycenaean cultures, the begiuuing of which are now 
traced back to times wheu Scandinavia must have presented physical conditions 
analogous to those still prevalent iu Greeuland. They are also irrecoucileable with 
Professor SergPs now fairly well established views regarding the North African origin 
of the Iberians, Ligurians, Pelasgians, aud the other Mediterranean peoples, all of whom 
had made very considerable progress iu general culture long before they could have 
beeu brought under the influence of the rude tribes first issuing from Norseland. But 
scaut consideration is meted out to the leading Italian anthropologist, whose arguments 
are not refuted or even seriously discussed, but contemptuously dismissed as " wider- 
sinnig" and " verkehrt," aud whose Arii e ltalici is described as "swarming with 

[ 140 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 90-91. 

errora and contradictions," while he himself "mit seinen unklaren und verworrenen 
u Gedanken hat bisher nur Unheil in der Wissenschaft gestiftet" (p. 430). Wilser's 
own main contention is, perhaps, best summed up in Penka's remark (Kultur und 
Basse, 1904, p. 17) that " L. Wilser's assumption that the Scandinavian Peuinsula is 
" the primeval home of the Aryans is baseless ; it is no doubt the home of the 
" Germans, but not of all the other Aryan peoples." And if not of these Aryans, 
what becomes of the Semites, Iberians, Libyans, and all the other non-Aryan peoples ? 


Germany : Archseologry. ScMiz. 

Frdnkische und alamannische Kunsttatigheit im friihen Mitlelalter. Von Q4 
A. Schliz ( Separat-abdruck aus Heft 7 der Berichte des Histor. Vereins Heilbroun, 5J I 
und der Fundberichte aus Schwaben XI. Jahrg). 

In these two detailed and comprehensive papers Herr Schliz presents us with an 
analysis of early Teutonic burials in the Neckar basin, and incidentally affords much 
information that has an important bearing on the corresponding antiquities of our own 
country. An enumeration of the successive occupants of the south-west corner of 
Germany is followed by an attempt to account for the different elements of ornameutation 
that may be detected in the grave-furniture of the period. Artistic influences from 
without are examined in connection with historical events in this area, and the result is 
a series of canons for dating arms and ornaments, that may be applied with some 
qualifications to other parts of Europe. 

Ample knowledge of the collections at Stuttgart and other local centres is necessary 
to do full justice to the conclusions here drawn, but one or two points of special interest 
may be mentioned. A certain oriental influence is detected iu some of the early Gothic 
productions, which developed on the northern shores of the Black Sea, and were 
subsequently transmitted through central Europe to the Atlantic. But to Roman 
captives or dependants is attributed much of the artistic education of the Teutonic 
conquerors of the Empire. Traces of the civilisation uamed after La Tene are found 
in the earlier Alemannic graves, and a notable parallel is to be found in this country at 
Chessell Down, in the Isle of Wight. Counterparts of a late Roman comb found at 
Ueilbronn have occurred in ciuerary nrns on two Anglo-Saxon sites in Lincolnshire ; 
while a Roman spoon, which was associated with a remarkable Christian ivory diptych 
of the late fourth century in a woman's grave, recalls several found in England. At 
Kemble, Wilts, for instance, as at Heilbronu, the burjals were plainly Teutonic, and in 
all probability pagan, while the Alemanni were not converted till tweuty years after the 
coming of Augustine to England. 

Several cemeteries are described in detail, and two at Heilbroun receive special 
attention, one being Alemannic of the fifth century, the other Frankish of the sixth and 
quite distinct. The difference in the weapons and ornaments of the two peoples is well 
brought out, and confirmed by a useful summary of early German cemeteries beyond 
the limits of the Neckar basin, such as Heideuheira, Ulm and Nordendorf. It may 
here be added that a bronze vessel of coffee-pot form, like those mentioned from 
Wonsheim (not Monsheim) and Munzesheim, has beeii found at Wheathampstead, 
Herts ; but is there sufficient warrant for assigning them all to Italian or Byzantine 
workshops ? 

The author makes a very proper distinction between native and foreign productions, 
and traces, in the earliest graves, Teutonic features that survived the migration from 
the old country east of the Elbe to Swabia, in the course of the third century. The 
earliest finds also include many articles obviously imported from Romanised Gaul. 
From about 250-500 a.d., Roman provincial art gave the toue to their productions, and 

[ 141 ] 

Nos. 91-92.] MAN. [1904. 

the appearance of a new style is heralded by the contents of Childeric's tomb, dated 481. 
The Alemanni now became less dependent on the West than on the Eastern Empire, and 
a strong Gothic influence reached i.liem along i lie valley of the Danube. The Frankish 
conquest of the lower Neekar valley in 540 gave rise to a mixed style ; and before the 
Carlovingian renaissance set in, Alemamiic art was also affected by Lombard, Scandi 
naviau, and Anglo-Saxon models. It is unfortunate that in a summary on page 10 of 
the first paper the following sentence occurs : " Aus dieser Zeitfolge geht hervor, dass 
" je mehr Westiomische und La Tene-formen, desto jiinger die Grabfelder." The 
italicised word contradicts the rest of the work. On pages 20 and 40 of the same paper 
incorrect references to illustrations are of less importance, but the student will regret 
that in the tabulated inventory the sites are not arranged in chronological order, so as 
to show at a glance the characteristic relics of each period. 

A handbook relating to the history ard antiquities of Swabia duriug the first eight 
centuries of our era, with the sites marked on a map, with adequate illustrations and 
uniform (preferably Roman) type, would increase our indebtedness to the author of 
these two excellent papers. R. A. S. 

Solomon Islands. Ribbe. 

Zwei Jahre unter den Kannibalcn der Salomo-fnseln. Von Carl Ribbe. f*f% 
Dresden : Hermann Beyer, 1903. 26 X 18 cm. uZ 

It seems to be the destiny of the Solomon Islanders to have their anthropology 
investigated by entomologists, and of naturalists to have their attention seduced from the 
lower organisms by the absorbing interest of the native races with which they are daily 
brought in contact. Mr. Charles Woodford, the present Deputy Commissioner, made 
his first visit to the group in quest of insects and wrote a book about the natives ; Dr. 
Guppy, a naturalist and geologist by inclination, succumbed to the same temptation, and 
now Herr Carl Ribbe, a collector of butterflies and beetles, has produced the most 
detailed account of the natives of the Northern Solomons that has yet been published. 
It is none the less valuable in that the information it coutains is already ten years old, 
for decay iu custom has set in rapidly in the last decade. Taking advantage of an 
official visit of the German Administrator, Herr Ribbe sailed from New Britain foi 
Bougaiuville in 1894, and the voyage, which was at first intended to last a few weeks, 
was transformed into a stay of two years. At that time the islands, which have since 
become a British Protectorate under the Samoa Convention of 1899, belonged to 
Germany, and the author may in his intercourse with the natives have profited to some 
extent by such official protection as his nationality implied. Nevertheless, with no 
better medium than pidgin English, which is inferior to pidgin Fijian as the lingua 
franca of the islands; with no better interpreter than "kanakas" returned from 
the Queensland plantations; with no more observant residents to help him than the 
beach-combing trader, the success with which he penetrated the inner meaning of 
the rites he witnessed is remarkable. lie visited the south-west coasts of Bougain- 
ville and of Choiseul, and the north end of Ysabel, but it was in the smaller 
islands, Shortland, Treasury, Fauro, and the New Georgias, that his most important 
studies were made. With his observations of the geology and fauna this review is not 

Withiu the limitations prescribed for the passing traveller who has not the 
appliances of an anthropological laboratory at command, he did all that was possible in 
compiling anthropometric data, though the number of individuals examined was too 
small for his tables to be of much value. He compiled a short vocabulary of Shortland 
Island ; had he been able to do the same forEstralla Bay in Ysabel, some very interesting 
comparisons might have been made with the words preserved nearly 350 years before 

[ 142 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 92-93. 

bv Me idaiia, whose list of words is printed in the Hakluyt Society's volumes for 1901. 
The most complete of his studies w;is that of the funeral customs of the smaller islands 
in which the headhunting which has decimated the weaker tribes finds its chief incentive. 
His account of Rubiana less than three years after the sack and destruction of the 
village by Captain Davis of H.M.S. Royalist shows how industrious this artistic people 
were in rebuilding and decorating their houses, since little could have survived the stern 
reprisals which can only be justified as punishment for the wanton murder of an 
European, and the consequent safety of travellers such as the author. The book leaves 
the reader impressed with the need for an exploration of the interior by a competent 
anthropologist, for, since 1567, when a band of brave Spaniards accomplished it, no 
European seems to have penetrated beyond the sound of the surf and returned to tell 
the tale. To the anthropologist, no le9s than to the naturalist, it remains a virgin 

The book is copiously illustrate! wirh excellent photographs and a few indifferent 
drawings, and there are besides some curious reproductions of native efforts with the 
pencil, which in their naive and spirited style illustrate the artistic superiority of the 
Solomon Islanders to the rest of the island racas. BASIL THOMSON. 

Australia, Central. Spencer : Gillen. 

The Northern Tribes of Central Australia. Bv Baldwin Spencer and F.J. #%q 
Gillen. London : Macmillan, 1904. Pp. xxxv -f 784. 23 X 15 cm. Price OU 
21 «. net. 

The appearance of another volume from the haods of Messrs. Spencer and Gilleu is 
a source of unreserved satisfaction to everyone interested in anthropology. Their 
previous work bade fair to create a revolution in our methods, and was the subject of 
voluminous controversy, which in itself was not without profit. Whether or no the 
present volume will have the same exciting result remains to be seen, but it may be said 
at once that it is full of controversial matter. The beliefs and ceremonies of races in 
such a primitive state as are the natives of Central Australia are of such importance for 
the general study of the human race, that it is by no means surprising to find a some- 
what reluctant acceptance of the deductions of any third party. The observations of 
the travellers cover a wide extent of country aud a large number of iribes, and the 
record of observations will be an unfailing standard for such work in the future. 
The conditions under which they were made seem to have been as perfect as anything 
human can be ; the observers were well trained in their work, they were themselves 
initiated into the mysteries they shared, and, by the generosity of Mr. David Syme of 
Melbourne, they were relieved of the anxiety caused by the want of adequate means. 
The present volume is au admirable monument of a year's work under such favourable 
auspices. As might have been expected, it was found that, as the explorers proceeded 
northwards, the beliefs and details of organisation of the tribes became somewhat 
modified, but the interesting fact is recorded that over the whole of the immense area 
traversed ** the belief that every living member of the tribe is the reincarnation of a 
" spirit ancestor is universal." A belief of this kind would, prima facie, seem to 
imply rather an ancient civilisation than an early stage of culture. The totemic 
system is treated at considerable length, and here again our knowledge of the precise 
value of it in the native mind is considerably extended. 

The importance of such work as has been done by Messrs. Spencer and Gillen can 
scarcely be overestimated, but it is to be feared that outside a very small circle it will 
hardly be esteemed in our own country in accordance with its true merit. 

It is a truly remarkable fact that in England there is probably less value set upon 
anthropological studies than in any other civilised country. Everv day the need of it is 

[ 143 ] 

Nos. 93-94.] ' MAN. [1904. 

felt ; it is, in fact, the necessary training of a diplomatic service for dealing with primitive 
peoples, with the important difference that whereas the diplomatist can have recourse to 
argument and common sense on the occurrence of a blunder, such an opportunity is rarely 
given to the white man in dealing with the savage, whose method is to act first and 
leave the argument to the end. Every " native question " must of necessity be treated 
with due regard to the native's point of view, and his ideas, which probably seem to the 
average unskilled official to be rooted in superstition and folly, would be looked at very 
differently by anyone with even a smattering of anthropological knowledge. 

Whether it be connected with birth, marriage, or even the lighting of a camp fire, the 
native regards his acts with as much seriousness as the white man looks upon the gravest 
actions of bis life. Englishmen have more concern with these matters than any other 
nation, and if the work of Spencer and Gillen should serve no other purpose, it 
at least demoustrates the necessity for intimate knowledge of tribal customs before 
attempting any but the most perfunctory relations with a primitive people. The book, 
however, will serve other ends thau this. It seems inevitable that these unfortunate 
races should gradually disappear before the advanciug white. Then this admirable 
record of these beliefs and extraordinary social organization will remain as probably 
their only mouument and to teach us the origin of some of our own civilised survivals. 
It is satisfactory to note that Professor Baldwin Spencer's strenuous labours have 
been recognised by the King. C. H. R. 

England: Archaeology. Windle. 

Remains of the Prehistoric Age in England. By Bertram C. A. Windle, qm 
Sc.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. The Antiquary's Books. London: Methuen, 1904. UT 
Pp. xv-320. 22 x 14 cm. Price 7s. 6d. 

All students of prehistoric archaeology owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Windle for 
this excellent summary of the evidence upon which our knowledge of the prehistoric 
period in England is based. Dr. Windle's aim has been to place facts rather thau 
theories before his readers, and by keeping this object well in view he has been able to 
give au admirable and, in most eases, quite adequate account of the material relics of 
the prehistoric age in- England, within the comparatively small space of 320 pages. 
The chapters dealing with megalithic monuments, earthworks, and the Irou Agt — a 
subject which has received too little popular treatment in England — may be cited 
as examples of the ability with which the subject matter has been handled. On 
the other hand, as, for instance, in the case of Neolithic and Bronze Age pottery 
and personal ornaments, sometimes insufficient stress is laid upon important classes 
of evidence : while, in a manual of this kind, it seems desirable that some effort 
should be made to direct research by emphasising problems which yet remain to be 

Although coucerned chiefly with Englaud, the author has not hesitated to expand 
or explain his statement, where necessary, by reference to finds in other parts of the 
British Isles aud ou the Continent. Dr. Windle has also departed from his original 
plan of avoiding the discussion of theory in dealing with the question of eoliths and 
mesoliths. His conclusions on these questions are opposed to the generally accepted 
views, but most would agree that the evidence he adduces is far too weak to allow of 
any definite pronouncement. 

A word of praise must be given to the lists of localities which Dr. Windle has 
appended to each chapter, as well as to the list of museums in which specimens are 
exhibited. These lists, together with the copious references to the literature of the 
subject, add greatly to the value of the book. E. N. F. 

Printed by Kthk and Spotti^woodf, His Maiesiy's I'rinterp, East Harding Street, E.C. 

1904.] MAN. [No. 95. 

With Plate K. 

Siberia : Stone Implements. Abbott. 

Stone Implements from the Frozen Qravel of the Yenisei. By qp 

W. J. Lewis Abbott, F.G.S. OO 

Some ten or twelve years ago rumours were constantly floating southward of the 
remarkable burdens borue by the glaciers and ice-floes of high northern altitudes ; 
islands of rock and mould capable of bearing vegetation were replaced by lenticular 
patches of grfcvel, in which the precious yellow metal formed an incredibly large part. 
AH this has now become ancient history, and the wonders of Klondyke have added 
yet auother charm and fascination to the possibilities of ice work. Nor has the western 
hemisphere the monopoly of the treasures of high polar latitudes, for the frozen soil 
of northern Siberia attracted the notice of gold prospecters in this country. In one 
instance one of our frieuds turned his attention to the mouth of the Yenisei, that 
great drainer of Northern Asia, and, in return for mineralogical information supplied, 
promised to keep a diligent watch for anything in the nature of man's handiwork, as 
well as for the far more attractive gold ; and, faithful to his promise, he collected 
everything he saw, which was a terrible undertaking, as the collection had to be carried 
over ice and snow in sleighs, and on the back for many months. As 1 am not aware 
that implements of this character have been reported before from so high a latitude as 
70 degrees, and as they present so many features of interest, a description of them may 
not be out of place in Max. 

When these implements were submitted to Sir John Evans the same fact was the first 
to strike him that had struck ourselves, viz., the variety of types represented. Here we 
have iu oue river estuary types which might have been Polynesian, Scandinavian, Eskimo, 
early Freuch or Indian or English. Of course, one cannot say that ail these are of exactly 
the same age. Ice laughs at the flat consecutively-numbered leaves of a book, or the 
chronological succession of orderly aqueous formations, aud rolls round and ploughs up 
and folds over its burdens and the underlying rocks into all sorts of fautastic shapes, 
so that distance from surface is no indication of age. Of the six implements here 
described three are uniformly very much altered ; two, which are of a different 
material, do not show such extensive signs of alteration, but this may be due to their 
being composed of varieties of material less subject to alteration than the others. 

Description of the Implements. — No. 1 is a beautifully worked adze measuring 
214 ram. iu length, 58 mm. at the widest end, subtending the slightly curved cutting 
edge, and 35 mm. at the base. The dorsal line is practically straight to within about 
30 mm. of the butt, aud only curves very slightly at the point, not gaining 3 mm. iu the 
whole length. In section this face is couvex throughout, flattening from base to cutting 
edge. The other face is flat for about a fourth of its length from the butt, when it 
becomes slightly concave, the latter feature increasing rapidly as it nears the point, 
where the curve of its concavity is about equal to that of its cutting edge. The latter is 
still perfectly sharp. The greater part of the chipping on the dorsal face has been 
polished out ; the degree of polish attained is rather high considering the nature of the 
material. Although it was rubbed down with a grit capable of leaving small close-set 
scratches behind, the finishing must have been effected with something as fine as rotten- 
stone, which did not leave the slightest trace of a scratch behind. The rubbing was 
effected by strokes directed from the base to the point, and usually inclined from the 
right to the left at about 30 degrees, the angle increasing slightly with the convexity of 
the outline ; the left edge being also worked with the implement in the same position aud 
not turned round in the process. If the implement were worked from base to point it is 
practically right-handed, if from point to base (which is improbable) it was left-handed. 
There are, however, a few indications of ambidexterity. The colour of this implement 

[ 145 ] 

Ho. 95.] MAN. (1904. 

varies from light to darkish drab. Although a good homogeneous working material, 
breaking with a fairly good couchoidal fracture, it does not show the conchoidal ripplings 
so familiar in good flint and obsidian ; but this latter is, of course, more dependent upon 
the method of working. From its fine granular or cryptograuular structure it appears 
to be an altered silicified fine mud-stone, which at the time of working was almost 

No. 2 is a short adze 96 mm. long, triangular in section, with a sharp high dorsal 
ridge. The lateral edges are nearly parallel, the base being 35 mm. and the point 
39 mm. wide. The uuderface is practically flat, and wholly polished, the^strire running 
in the same two directions as in No. 1. The two dorsal sides are unpolished, and show 
a great deal of labour, the fracture being apparently more hackley than in No. 1 : this, 
however, may be partly due to the high angle at which adjacent sides were worked. 
The curved cutting edge is symmetrically formed parallel to the base in a rounded 
sweep, and, except at the ridge, it is entirely well-polished with few working stria?, and 
these at a very slight angle. There are other thickly set stria? at the flat underside, 
which post-date the polishing undoubtedly due to ice action. This specimen shows 
distinct signs of water wear, and the powerful force which broke this implement off at 
its base must have post-dated its making, although not by long. The colour of this 
specimen is a little more brown than No. 1, and a recent fracture shows that it possesses 
quite a hackley fracture, and a colour as black as basalt. It is in all probability the 
same material as No. 1. 

No. 3. This is a chisel with a delicate ripple flaking, which calls to mind that of 
the very best Danish or Kgjptiau work. It is 105 mm. long, uarrowing towards the 
base, which is 24 mm. wide ; the cutting edge is almost straight. Its faces are equally 
curved, the greatest symmetry attaining all through, the thickness relative to width 
never exceeding 1: 3. The cutting edge is produced by grinding and polishing in a most 
even, symmetrical, bi-facial manner. Vestiges of the stria* show the same angular direc- 
tions in working as in the preceding, but are almost wholly left to right. The material in 
this implement is much more altered thnn in the other two, and is now of a yellowish 
drab in colour. Although it has a rather better fracture than the other two, I have no 
doubt it is made of the same kind of material, and though it shows a more decided 
ripple-fracture, the latter may be due largely to mode of working, and the angular licence 
the operator had when working on two sides at so small an angle. Also in the former 
two, the work was probably the result of free-struck blows, as is the larger work of this 
specimen, but in the latter the finer secondary work may be the result of a pressure from 
a bone or other hard substance, 

No. 4 is a little implement of perfect symmetry, 75 mm. loug and 20 mm. in width, 
and 8 mm. thick in its widest part near the centre, from which it sweeps gracefully but 
finally, somewhat obtusely, towards either end. Owing to the unavoidable conditions of 
working, one face is a trifle more convex than the other, producing a low dorsal ridge, 
although in section at any part it is a perfect curve. This is a most perfect piece of 
ripple flaking, where the delicate hollows of the flakings, from both edges, not only meet 
in the centre, but, in their journey over the implement, describe curves which result iu 
perfect bi-lateral symmetry all through the implement. The more convex face is worked 
entirely with the same hand, and the flakings are uniformly at an angle of about 45 degrees 
with the edge at each pit of percussion, so that in going up the first side from point to 
poiut the direction of the flakes alter through 180 degrees, and continuing round make a 
hcrriug-bone ridging at a point which changes with the shape of the edge until the 
flake-ridges from both edges coincide, making it appear as if separate flakes extended 
from edge to edge in a curve, in a manner often exhibited b}* the fiue Dauish knives 
anil some Yorkshire arrowheads. If this implement were worked with the right hand the 
working was pointed inward ; if left hand they were pointed outward. On the other face 

t 146 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 95. 

this angular working is just as uuiformly preserved, but by the non-alternation of the 
ridges at the points the herring-boning does not obtain, the flakings appear to run from 
edge to edge. The material of which this little implement is made is very interesting ; 
in colour it is nearly black, except when seen in thin sections at the cutting edge all 
round, when it presents a corneous translucency, with grains and clouds of probably 
Mn Oj, from which one might be disposed to regard it as an impure chalcedony. 

No. 5. This implement differs as much from the others as does the last. It is a pure 
laurel-leaf spear head, 160 mm. in length, 35 mm. at its widest part, and 8 mm. in thickness 
at its thickest. The butt is nicely rounded, the point finely though not acutely sharp, and, 
considering the nature of the material, is very fiuely worked, being perfectly symmetrical 
in every plane, without flake-ridge prominences. In colour and general appearance it 
closely resembles the reddish and reddish-grey Cherbourg quartzites. The surface is 
sufficiently altered to obliterate the details of the physical structure of the material, but 
an accidental chip-fracture reveals that it is not, however, a chemical quartzite with 
rounded grains in a copious silica matrix. The quartz particles although showing no 
signs of crystalline outline are quite crystalliue and colourless, and the interstitial silica 
forms a delicate mossy subordinate network lighter in colour, and probably more colloid 
in state though by no means eutiFely so. 

No. 6 add 8 yet to the diversity ! For some time I suspected that this was a 
specimen of an English flint core, from which parallel flakes had been struck, and which 
had subsequently been bleached and stained ; closer examination reveals the fact that it 
is really worked from an agate and might have been either a chalcedouvx or sardonyx 
before alteration, the bands of crystalline silica producing but little effect upon the 
working. One side is quite flat, and all the flakes converging to a point make it a half- 
round in section. Although we usually speak of these as " cores/' the fact that I have 
found these pointed wedges still in situ in partially split bones shows they really were 
employed for the purpose of splitting bones, either for their contained luscious grease, or 
for the manufacture of bone tools. I have therefore no hesitation in regarding this tool 
as a bone-splitter. 

The interest in these beautiful examples of stone working lies, firstly, in the high 
latitudes in which they were found, being above 70° W. lat. ; secondly, in the diversity 
of their types ; and to these might be added the fact, that in the insterstices of the 
incipient flakings, which always occur in silicious implements, deposits of gold have been 
found, which the geologist would probably consider to point to a long embedment in 
some river deposit, while to the theoretical mineralogist it would be an invaluable 
argument for the aqueous origin for at least some of the precious metal. Bones of the 
large animals, probably the extinct forms, also occur in these deposits, but how many 
times they may have been moved it is impossible to say. The altered condition of the 
various materials, and in all probability the depositing of the gold in the cracks, certainly 
point to a good age, but its extent we cannot tell. Whence came these tools of types 
and materials so different aud in those high uortheru latitudes ? With one exception 
they show no sign of river action, and not very much of ice action. When we have 
more minute details of the materials of which implements are made that are found in 
various parts of the globe, together with their types and forms and methods of working, 
and when the mineralogists and penologists of the whole world will be so good as to 
describe all the varieties of silica and its allied rocks, we shall be in a better position to 
decide a question like this. For the last twenty-five years I have been trying to 
collect these latter, and although 1 have got many thousands of specimens I am con 
tiuually fiudiug new varieties. If we can localise a large portion of these it may be as 
useful as fixing the original home of jade, and we may then know more about the 
peregrinations of the nomads of prehistoric time«. W. J. LEWIS ABBOTT. 

r 147 i 

Nos. 96-97.] 



Easter Island. St. George Gray. 

Another Type of "Domestic Idol" from Easter Island. By H. St. QQ 

George Gray. OQ 

Very shortly after reading Mr. Edge-Partington's article, No. 46 in Man, 1904, on 
a rare type of " domestic idol " from Easter Island, I attended a small Taunton sale of 
miscellaneous second-hand furniture, and was fortunate in purchasing, at a very small 
price, the object of which the accompanying is an illustration. It is cnrved from the 
usual dark mahogauy-coloured wood out of which the Easter Island " idols " are, I 
believe, generally made (probably a species of mimosa), and represents an animal which 
is quite unusual (as far as ray experience goes) for the particular purpose for which it 
was carved. The general character of the carving, the curve the " idol " takes, the 
strong definition of the back-bone, the fact that the fore legs are drawn up with 
the feet placed together at the base of the lower jaw, the representation of the ribs, 

and the fan-like termination of the vertebral column, 
are all typical of the art of ihe Easter Islanders displayed 
in these figures. 

In this specimen there is only one lateral perforation 
near the shoulders for suspension. The general character 
of the head suggests a rat, or at any rate a repre 
seutative of the rodent family. The eyes, instead of 
being iulaid, are represented by bosses of the wood in 
high relief ; the ears are also prominently raised. The 
fore feet are conjoined and arc no doubt intended to 
overlap, as an uneven number of toes (viz., seveu) are 
represented. The ribs take the usual chevron design 
between the fore-legs. 

Knots in the wood have caused defects at the end 
of the back-bone. No tail is represented, and the fau- 
like termination is of somewhat lozenge-shaped form. 
Another unusual feature in this figure is that the hind- 
legs, which are abnormally small as compared with the 
fore-legs, are drawn up, the feet being represented as 
short stumps turned inward on the lower side of the 
" idol." 

The base of the stump ou which the animal is carved 

has been sawn off obliquely, and the original length of 

the object is therefore unobtainable. Irregular striations 

are observable in most parts of the figure, and it is quite 

probable that it was carved with obsidian implements. 

The photograph is three-tenths scale, linear. 

If my memory serves me rightly there are two of these Easter Islaud idols in the 

Pitt-Rivers Museum at Famham, N. Dorset ; one in the form of a crocodile, and the 

other representing a fish. H. ST. GEORGE GRAY. 

Scotland, Annandale. 

A Modern Instance of Trial by Ordeal in Scotland. By Nelson q^ 
Anna?idale, B.A. Indian Museum, Calcutta. Uf 

The specimen on which the following notes are based was presented by an Edinburgh 
lady to the Pitt-Rivers Museum in 1898. It is a piece of thin, opaque, animal membrane 
about 3 J inches long, roughly cutout into the shape .of a fish. On one side the eye, 
gill-cover, fins, &c, are indicated in faded ink, which was probably black, while certaiu 
outlines are emphasized in red. Under the influence of heat and moisture the membrane 

[ 1« ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 97-98. 

mirls up in such a way that the head and the tail of the fish come together, and the 
whole is liable to roll off any surface not absolutely steady. This object is known to 
have been in existence in the donor's family at Dunfermline over eighty years ago. It 
was employed by her father at that date to detect the perpetrator of any mischief among 
his children. If anything was broken or mislaid, aud the culprit refused to confess, the 
children were solemnly called together and ordered to hold out their right hands. The 
fish was then placed ou each extended hand in turn. They believed that it would roll 
off that of the guilty person. At a later date one of the donor's servants consulted her 
as to her (the servant's) marriage with a man of whose character she was not sure. It 
was suggested that the " fisheeu," as the specimen in question was called in the family, 
should decide. When placed on the servant's hand it contracted so violently that it was 
torn. In spite of this she married the man, who treated her very badly. The persistence 
of trial by ordeal, even in a manner so little serious, is worthy of record, for it took place 
in a highly-cultured family which prided itself on keeping up old customs. It is interest- 
ing, because this instance of the use of a fish of the kind cannot have been unique ; 
for similar objects, but made of some artificial substance, are, or were, within the last ten 
years, used by facetious or credulous persons in foretelling the future. I have myself 
seen them in Edinburgh employed in this way as advertisements for a fishmonger. 
Whether the exact form they took had auy magical significance is not a question which 
can be answered without full investigation of their use and distribution. Further 
information on these points would be valuable. NELSON ANNAN DALE. 

Torres Straits. Haddon : Rivers. 

Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, qq 
Vol. V. Sociology, Magic and Religion of the Western Islanders. Cambridge : 90 
University Press, 1904. 29 X 22 cm. Price 25*. 

Although numbered fifth in the scheme of publication of the Reports of the 
Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits, this is the first complete volume to be issued. 
The contributors to the volume are Dr. Haddon, Dr. Rivers, Mr. Seligmanu, and the 
late Mr. Anthony Wilkin, whose premature death at Cairo is deplored, and to whom an 
appropriate tribute of sorrow is paid, by Dr. Haddon in the preface. Of these 
Dr. Haddon aud Dr. Rivers are responsible for most of the chapters. It may at once 
be said that alike in form and in substance the volume is worthy of the best traditions 
of the university, and is a model for future anthropological explorers. 

The islands of Torres Straits are ethuologically divided into two distinct groups. 
The western group, with which the t present volume deals lies directly between Queens- 
land and New Guinea, and embraces all the larger islands. The eastern group is more 
scattered. Its constituent islands lie to the south- east of New Guinea, and are to some 
extent connected with the western group by a series of small, low-lying, sparsely- 
inhabited islands, whose natives, ethnologically belonging rather to the latter group, 
formed a medium of communication between them. The eastern group is reserved for 
volume VI. 

Although the inhabitants of these islands are few in number, and for the last 
twenty years have been undergoing not merely contamination but change of culture by 
contact with missionaries, traders, and European administration, they form an importaut 
subject of ethnological inquiry, because they stand geographically between the popula- 
tions of Papua and Australia. A thorough investigation, such as that undertaken by 
the Cambridge Expedition, was desirable in the hope that it might throw some light 
upon difficult problems of racial origin and admixture and cultural influence, such as 
continually confront anthropologists, and are found especially perplexing in the adjacent 

[ "9 ] 

No. 98.] MAN. [1904, 

areas of New Guinea, Australia, and the scattered islands of the South Sea. Assuming 
that the blackfellows of Australia are an immigrant race, the direction and manner of 
their immigration are yet unknown, though inquiries on the Australian continent seem 
to point to the north or north-west as the place of their entrance. One object, therefore, 
of the expedition was to ascertain whether any mixture of Papuans and Australians had 
taken place in the islands, or any trace of the migration could be found there or on the 
adjacent coasts of New Guinea. The result has been to determine the islanders as a 
definitely Papuan people, and to negative any traces of the Australian migration. 

Practically the only indication of Australian influence discovered was contained in 
the saga of Kwoiam, the warrior-hero of Mabuiag. He is said to have come with his 
mother and her brothers from Muri off the coast of Cape York Peninsula. His fame 
has spread over all the western group of islands. He is credited with mental and 
physical characteristics corresponding to those of the Queens lauders. Dr. Haddou 
considers that the evidence points to his having been a veritable man, a native of North 
Queensland. It is consonant with this that, though so mighty a hero, none of the 
families of Mabuiag, or indeed any other of the islands, claim kindred with him. He 
was purely a fighter, and there seems no legend of union, even of the most temporary 
kind, as there is in the case of other heroes, with any of the women. On the other hand, 
the cairn said to have been erected over his body has, since the expedition returned, 
been opened, but no remains of any kind have been found within. Moreover, all the 
relics attributed to him, with the exception of some shell-trumpets, which might have 
belonged to anybody, and a rough wall of stones about 2 feet high, said to mark the site 
cf his house, are natural objects — boulders, rocks, a rivulet, aud so forth. There were, 
indeed, other relics of him a few years ago, but they were deliberately burnt at the 
instigation of a Christian teacher from Lifu, during the temporary absence of Dr. Mac- 
far la ue, the L.M.S. missionary. These might conceivably have supplied some data 
for determining the question of Kwoiam's objective existence and origin. Such as they 
may have been, however, they have perished. 

What is certain is much more interesting and important than this difficult problem. 
It is that the totemic system at the time of the missionary invasion was breakiug 
down, and that upon its ruins a hero-cult was rising, which not improbably might in 
the course of time have developed into the worship of divine beings. The evidence 
goes to show that at no distant date (the authors think, with some probability, about 
100 years ago) on all the islands kinship was reckoned in the female line, and the 
population was divided among a number of totems. In Mabuiag the clans were again 
arranged in two divisions, the children of the Great, and of the Little, Totem, an 
arrangement which was most likely primitive. A similar division also existed on the 
islands of Tutu and Yam. The totems were usually animals. Out of thirty-six totems 
recorded only two were plants, two were stones, and one a star, all the rest were animals. 
But from a period as far back as oral records of the genealogies go, descent had been 
reckoned in the male line. The change seems to have resulted in a weakeniug of the 
social organization. On the island of Mabuiag at all events considerable confusion was 
evideut in the native miuds concerning their rules of descent ; and marriage had begun 
to be regulated more by kinship than by clanship. A system of subsidiary totems had 
sprung up, perhaps by segmentation of the original clans. There is certainly evidence 
of the localisation of the totem-clans. 

On the religious sids of totemism corresponding changes had taken place. The 
hero, Kwoiam, had become a totem in the Prince of Wales group of islands. Though 
iu Mabuiag he was not regarded as a totem, the honorific title of Adi was applied to 
him, and his two magical crescents were called augud (totem) and .were assigned 
respectively to the two divisions of the clans. It is difficult to see why the appellation 
of augud should have been given to these two objects, unless it was because the natives 

[ 150 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 98. 

had uo other expression conveying the idea of sacredness. Probably, as the authors 
put it, they did not know what else to call them. In any case it is easy to see that the 
mere fact of applying such a term to these two specific material objects must in time 
have influenced the meaning of the word and aided the development of their religious 
ideas. The most striking evidence of the evolution of totemism into a true cult, 
however, was found on the island of Yam, where two regular shrines (now destroyed) 
existed. They were dedicated to the two heroes, Maiau and Sigai, respectively, and 
contained their effigies under the forms of a crocodile and a hammer-headed shark. In 
fact, these two auimals were the totems of the two groups of clans on the islands of Tutu 
and Yam. Unfortunately, Dr. Haddon was unable to obtain any definite information 
«-oncerning the ceremonies performed at the shrines. But, as he says, " From the meagre 
44 evidence available it is clear that totemism was undergoing an interesting development 
' 4 in Yam. . . . The unique features of the totem cult of Yam were the represen- 
44 tation (and localisation) of the augud iu a definite image, each of which was lodged 
* 4 in its own house, and the presence of a stone beneath each effigy in which resided 
u the life of the augud. . . . The effigy is further associated with a hero. The 
44 two heroes apparently assisted the followers mainly in fighting, and, therefore, as in 
4fc the case of the relation of the Mabuiag men to Kwoiam, the hero-cult was in reality 
4k a war-cult." Well may he observe, that "This is so important a development of 
44 totemism as practically to place it beyond the realm of true totemism ! "* It is 
relevant *o observe that the Wollunqua totem of the Warramunga, oue of the northern 
tribes of Central Australia, presents features analogous to those of Maiau and Sigai. 
The Wollunqua is a single mythical animal, still surviving from the Alcheringa, residing 
at a certain definite spot, and the object of ceremonies of deep religious import. The 
late M. Marillier, in his powerful articles on totemism published iu the Revue de VHistoire 
des Religions, expressed the opinion that iu the evolution of religion totemism was a 
terminus ad quern and never a terminus a quo. Had his valuable life been spared 
until to-day, I cannot help thinkiug that he would, in the light of these cases, have 
revised that judgement. 

Thus, from the point of view of the history of religion, this volume ranks as amoug 
the most importaut of recent records of research. Perhaps equally important iu another 
direction is the study of the genealogies by Dr. Rivers. Fellows of the Institute will 
recall his admirable paper in the thirtieth volume of the Journal on the use of 
genealogies iu the collection of vital and social statistics. In the volume now under 
review the genealogies recovered from the memories of the people of Mabuiag, Tutu, 
and Muralug are given, their substantial accuracy is shown, and they are applied for 
the purpose of determining a number of questions relating to social organisation and 
customs. There can be no question that science owes a debt of gratitude to the penetration 
and painstaking accuracy of Dr. Rivers, who first perceived the value of the genealogies 
for such investigations, and applied himself to their collection and elucidation. An 
implement of much promise has thus been forged for future investigators of savage life. 
It is to be hoped that it will be speedily applied elsewhere. 

Space is limited, but before closing this very inadequate notice I should like to 
express, my sense of the great interest attaching to almost every part of the volume. In 
addition to the sections on totemism, magic and religion, and on the genealogies and 
kinship, it coutains a collection of folk-tales, many of them revised and improved from 
the versions collected on Dr. Haddon's original vieit in 1888, and chapters on birth and 
puberty customs, initiation, courtship and marriage, the marriage-regulations, funeral 
ceremonies, public life and morals, laud-teuure and inheritance, trade and warfare, 

* Wc may doubt whether such a development is to be dated from a* recent a period as a himdred 
years ago. If it be in any organic relation to the change of descent referred to above, as seems Dot 
improbable, the author's opinion as to the date of that change iray require reconsideration. 

[ 151 ] 

Nqs. 98-99.] MAN. [1904. 

including sagas of recent wars ; and Dr. Haddon writes a general introduction. He 
and his colleagues are to be heartily congratulated on the success which has attended 
their collaboration in the present volume as well as in the field-work. The plates and 
numerous figures in the text from sketches and photographs really do illustrate the 
work, and some of them are of considerable beauty. Not the least amusiug aud 
interesting are from sketches by natives. E. S. II. 

Philippine Islands. Landor. 

The Gems of the East : Sixteen Thousand Miles of Research Travel among f%f% 
Wild and Tame Tribes of Enchanting Islands. By A. Henry Savage Landor. %J\3 
Loudon : Macniillan, 1904. Two volumes. 328 and 439 pp., with illustrations and map. 
23 x 15 cm. Price 30s. 

In these volumes Mr. Landor gives an account of a series of journeys round and 
about* the islands of the Philippine Group, with numerous excursions on the* smaller 
islands and longer journeys in Luzon aud across unexplored territory in Mindanao. The 
author's route involved much crossing andrecrossing of the sea and caunot be very easily 
followed on the map. His rate of travel was rapid, 16,000 miles being traversed in 
250 days. For tropical travelling on foot the journey across Negros Island, a distance 
of 75 miles, must be a record, as it was performed in 36 hours, including halts which 
together occupied six hours. 

Although the country was so quickly passed over, the book is full of geographical 
matter, aud details, such as the description of islands, heights of mountains, depths of 
channels, and even collections of charts, are given with the precision of a geographical 
encyclopaedia. There are also some historical chapters ; these deal with the American 
negotiations for a treaty with the Sulus, and with the siege and capture of Forts Bacolod 
and Calahui from the Malauaos in Eastern Mindanao. 

Very little is said about the fauua of the islands. Trees and woods are named in 
great detail, but the reader is bewildered by the native words given without explanation. 
The following paragraph is a sample of the author's descriptions (Vol. ii., p. 38) : — 
44 The province (i.e., Zamboango) is thickly wooded — especially on the mountains — narra, 
44 molave, ipil, teca, tindalao, galantas and yacal of excellent quality, as well as batilinan, 
" cubi, amugois, guijo, agutud y panaobalao, lumbayao, lauaan, pugatpat, malacayua, 
44 bacanan, and tagal, of various degrees of goodness all grow here. Abundant aud 
44 delicious fruit of all tropical kinds is obtainable." A few of these words are explained 
elsewhere, but as here given convey few ideas to the reader as they do not occur in the 
index, and must either be retained in the memory when first met with, or be hunted for 
throughout the hook. 

The author has endeavoured to justify his sub-title : " Sixteen Thousaud Miles of 
44 Research Travel among Wild and Tame Tribes," by giving very full descriptions of 
the various people visited. These accounts will be found of interest by the readers 
of Man, although they are in many respects disappointing. More than forty tribes are 
described. The author's plan is to give first a general description of the physical features 
of the tribe, hair, akin, &c, aud then au anthropometric table containing the fojlowing : 
44 Height, span, arm (hand, maximum length of fingers, thumbs) ; head (vertical 
44 maximum length, horizontal maximum length from forehead to back of head, width 
44 of forehead at temples, height of forehead, bizygomatic breadth, maximum breadth of 
44 lower jaw, uasal height, nasal breadth at nostrils, orbital horizontal breadth, width 
44 between the eyes, breadth of mouth, length of upper lip from mouth aperture to base 
44 of nose, lower lip and chin from mouth aperture to under chin, length of ears "). In 
some cases additional measurements are given, in some less. There are also diagrams of 
the hair sections of 20 tribes, and of the facial angles of 49 varieties. It will be 

[ 152 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 99. 

noticed that the important measurement of the maximum . head-breadth was not taken 
by the author, except in one case (that of the Linapakan Tagbanouas) and thus the 
cranial indices cannot be calculated. This is a serious defect in the tables, and it is 
also to be noted that the number of individuals measured is not stated. 

The differences found in the physical appearance of the tribes were extreme. The 
real Negritos were apparently not visited, but certain tribes (as, e.g., the Tagbanouas of 
the Calamianes, the Cagavans, and the Siraonor Islanders) are said to be of Negroid type. 
Other natives are variously designated as "Indonesian," "Malay type," "Malay- 
Negroid," or as having 4; Papuan " or " Australoid " characteristics, but all these terms 
are somewhat indefinitely used. The tallest people measured were the Cuvonos of Cuyo 
Island, between Panay aud Palawan, with a stature of 1*682 metres (5 ft. 6| in.), and the 
shortest the Bayos of Bontoc Province, North Luzon, who were (according to the table) 
l'41o metres (4 ft. 7^ iu.), but in the text the majority are said to have been well under 
4 ft. in height. 

In the previously unexplored region of Mindanao the author found a white tribe, the 
Mansakas, living in tree houses. These had "Papuan" features, but skins of "the 
" ivory white of the Latin races." Some of the Igorrotes of North Luzon were also 
found by the author to resemble the Ainu in physical appearance and hair, and he 
considers them to be closely allied. Among the Igorrotes, aud also in Mindauao, he found 
ornaments suggesting the inaos of the Ainu. 

There are many details of customs and arts which will be found of interest, and 
there are some good descriptions of ornaments, weapons, and implements. Some of the 
customs appear to be ideutical with those of Borneo, as, e.g., the forge, the method of » 
preparing sago, the taking of a child's name by the father with the prefix ama (tama in 
Borneo), the so-called medicine man, balian (with the same name in Borneo derived from 
bait, a spirit), and the use of birds as omens. In Vol. I., Chap. VII., is an account of 
native diseases and their remedies. 

Chapter VIII. of the first volume is devoted to an account of the Cuyouo laugua^e 
of Cuyo Island, and some notes on the Bagobo of Mindanao are given iu the second 
volume. There are also some notes on the Philippine alphabets and an engraving of 
that of Apurahuano in Palawau Island. In a short comparative table (twenty-five nouns 
and numerals) in twenty of the lesser known languages of the Philippine and Sulu 
Archipelagoes the author gives no indication as to the pronunciation of the words. 
Such spellings, however, as bohoc, buquid, dogno, betquen, quemer, seguey, show a 
Spanish orthography. Assuming that the list3 are original (no authorities for them are 
quoted) it seems strange that an Englishman should have used the cumbrous Spanish 
orthography when a simpler scientific spelling might have been used. The only list of 
words in these lesser known languages which is complete is the Malay (!!), but the 
words omitted by the author in the Bagobo, Bicol, Uocauo, Sulu, Tiruray, and Visayan, 
<'ould have been easily supplied from the existing vocabularies in those languages. On 
page 31.5 of Vol. II. the author states that he sat up all night collecting a vocabulary 
of the Manguianc language. As only seventeen words and the numerals are given in 
the comparative vocabulary, and the language is almost unknown, it is to be hoped that 
the complete list will be elsewhere published. 

None of the vocabularies show very decided differences, and iu all of them there are 
many r-ognate words. The author states with regard to them that, " With the exception 
" of the Negrito language and some of the tongues spoken by the savage tribes of 
" Central Mindanao, aud one or two tribes in Luzon, most of the lauguages spoken in 
" the Philippines are of Malayan origin." There is no evidence of a Negrito language 
in the author's vocabularies. Lists of words which have been obtained in the languages 
of the Negrito tribes have been shown by Kern in Meyer's work on the Philippines 
(Dresden, 1893) to be essentially the same as those of other Philippine natives. Judging 

[ 153 ] 

Nos. 99-101.] MAN. [1904. 

from Mr. Landor's vocabularies tho differences between the languages be gives are not 
so great as those found between different Borneo tribes in Sarawak. 

There are many illustrations of very varying merit. Some are very crude. A few- 
more photographs of implements, weapons, and processes would have been welcome. 

The book may be commended as adding to our general knowledge of the inhabitants 
of the Philippines, and one cannot but admire the author's determination to see and 
record as much as possible during his visit. His rapid transit, however, has had an 
adverse influence on his scientific results. SIDNEY H. RAY. 

Tibet. Sarat Chandra Das. 

A Tibetan- English Dictionary with Sanskrit Synonyms. By Sarat Chandra 4 Aft 
Das. Revised and edited by Graham Sandberg and A. William Heyde. Calcutta, IUU 
1902. 27 x 23 cm. Price 48s. or 32 rupees. 

Sarat Chandra Das, the well-known author of A Journey to Lhasa and Central 
Tibet, enjoyed unique opportunities during his two visits to Lhasa of associating with 
the literati of the Tibetan monasteries, the chief living authorities on the Tibetan 
language and literature. To this cause is due what may be called the characteristic 
feature of this dictionary — the mass of information here recorded concerning the more 
modern and more characteristically Tibetan literature, which dates only from the 
establishment of the Dalai Lama's sovereignty over the whole of Tibet at the beginning 
of the eighteenth century a.d. Scholars in Europe have concerned themselves hitherto 
chiefly with the most ancient literature, which begins in the seventh century a.d. and 
which consists entirely of translations from the Sanskrit. For such students the 
Sanskrit synonyms of Tibetan religious and philosophical terms, which are regularly 
given in the present dictionary on the authority of Buddhist lexicons, will indeed be 
most useful ; but it is in its grasp of the later and more independent literature, the 
enormous extent and variety of which can as yet only be imperfectly realised, that its 
chief merit lies. There can be no doubt that the appearance of this dictionary marks a 
very real advance in Tibetan lexicography, and it is fortunate that it appears at a time 
when we are certainly on the eve of the opening up to Western eyes of much that has 
hitherto remained hidden in the literature of Tibet. E. J. R. 

Stone Age. Giglioli. 

Materiali per lo Studio delta u Etd delta Pietra " dai tempi preistorici alV 4fM 
cpoca attuate : Origine e sviluppo delta mia collezione. By Enrico Hillyer IU I 
Giglioli. Fireoze, Laudi, 1901. With numerous illustrations in the text : pp. 248, 
26 X 18 cm. 

By a strange series of accideuts, part of the collections made by Captaiu Cook on 
his third voyage found their way into the Museum of Natural History at Florence, and 
fell, in due time, for re-arrangement iuto the hands of a young and ardent naturalist, the 
son of the then Professor of Anthropology at Pisa. A journey of research round the 
world in the Magenta from 1865 to 1868, widened and deepeued the interest thus excited 
accidentally, and from the early days of the Italian Society for Anthropology and 
Ethnology onwards the name of Enrico Giglioli has held a high place in the regard of 
his colleagues — and not in Italy alone — as an active and successful collector, and as an 
anthropologist of wide and varied distinction. 

The volume under review is a running commentary on the vast collection of stone 
implements which for some twenty years Professor Giglioli has devoted his leisure to 
amass, and at the same time a comprehensive discussion of the numerous problems which 
are presented by Stone Age culture in all areas and ages. The descriptions are arranged 
in geographical order, beginning with a remarkable series of the stone utensils of quite 
modem date, which remain still in use iu various parts of Europe, and ending with the 

[ 154 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Pfos. 101-103. 

Yahgans and other primitive peoples of South America, who are really almost as far 
from the beginning of a true " Stone Age " in the one directiou, as we ourselves are 
from the close of it in the other. 

In concluding his survey of one of the most remarkable private collections of ethno- 
graphical material in existence, the author expresses emphatically, and in terms with 
which his many friends and colleagues will most sincerely agree, his strong desire that 
this great series, with the library, photographs, and other apparatus which have growu 
up round it, may find its way eventually into some public museum, where it may be 
tended and increased with some such care as its originator has bestowed upon it hitherto. 

J. L. M. 

Archaeology. Thieullen. 

SocietS (T Emulation d' Abbeville: Hommage cl Boucher de Perthes. Par 4(\f\ 
A. Thieullen. Paris : Imprimerie Larousse, 1904. IU£ 

Under this title M. Thieullen extracts from the proceedings of the Societe d'Emula- 
tion d' Abbeville an account of a meeting at which he exhibited a number of fliuts of 
palaeolithic age, bearing fractures which bad, in his opinion, been made intentionally, and 
had converted them into useful or ornamental objects. One, of which he gives a full- 
size illustration, has some resemblance to a bird ; another mav, by giving a sufficiently 
loose rein to the imagination, be supposed to represent a bison, or some other animal 
grazing. The precise connection of M. Boucher de Perthes with this matter appears 
to be that he was not well received by the " official science " of his day, and that 
M. Thieullen fares no better at the present time ; this is not surprising, for the " official 
schools " seldom possess any original ideas of their own, and are, as a rule, unsympathetic 
and oppressive towards originality in others ; there are, of course, exceptions to the rule, 
and any " official v reading this paragraph is requested to consider himself oue of the 
exceptions. A. L. L. 

Proceedings. British Association. 

Anthropology at the British Association : Cambridge Meeting, August IflQ 
\lth to 24th, 1904. lUO 

The Anthropological Section of the British Association met this year, from 
August 18th to 24th, in St. Andrew's School, Cambridge. The papers were well up 
to the usual standard and were rather more numerous than usual ; consequently, a sub- 
section for Physical Anthropology met on the Monday morning, August 22, at the 
Zoological Lecture Room, under the presidency of Professor A. Macalister, F.R.S. On 
Tuesday morning, August 23rd, the section met in the New Theatre. 

The address of the Presideut, Mr. Henry Balfour, dealt with the evolution of the 
material arts, with especial reference to the work of the late General Pitt-Rivers. It 
will be found in The Times of August 20, in Nature, and in the Report of the British 
Association (Cambridge), 1904. 

Iu the summary which follows, the papers are classified according to subjects, and the 
final destination of each, so far as it is known at present, is indicated in square brackets. 


Anthropometric Investigation in Great Britain and Ireland. (Report.) [Rep 
Brit. Assoc.'] 

Professor D. J. Cunningham, M.D., F.R.S., Professor of Anatomy in the 
University of Edinburgh.— The Alleged Physical Deterioration of the People. — This 

[ 155 1 

No. 103.] MAN. [1904. 

paper pointed out the bearing of anthropological work on the solution of problems which 
are engaging the attention of statesmen, and particularly on the question of the alleged 
deterioration of the national physique. The author described the sources of evidence 
at present available for dealing with this question, namely : (a) recruiting statistics ; (6) 
anthropometric statistics ; and compared the value to be attached to each of them. He 
discussed the influence of environment on racial physique, and examined the question 
whether the influence of environment is transmitted to offspring. This question he was 
inclined to answer in the negative, pointing out that each race has a physical mean or 
average, which it tends to retain, and to which individuals tend to revert whenever 
adverse influences are removed. He explaiued in detail the significance of the observed 
degeneration of the teeth, and discussed the effects of fashionable deformation of the 
waist and the feet by the use of unsuitable clothing. Evolutionary changes are taking 
place slowly in the structure of man, and must not be left out of account in the estimate 
of physical degeneration. Special note is to be taken meanwhile of the effect* of higher 
education of women, and its effect on the female pelvis in its relation to child-bearing. 
The conclusions of the British Association's Report on this matter in 1883 are shown to 
need revision. 

Dr. Cunningham concluded by summarising the recommendations of the Report of 
the Inter-departmental Committee on Physical Degeueratiou iu so far as they concern 
his proposals for a general anthropometric survey of the people of this couutry. 

J. Gray. — On the Utility of an Anthropometric Survey, 

The author referred to the recommendations of the Inter-departmental Committee 
on Physical Deterioration and strongly urged the advisibility of an anthropometric 
survey being started immediately. 

F. C. SnRUBSALL, M.D. — A Comparison of the Physical Characters of Hospital 
Patients with those of Healthy Individuals from the same Areas, with Suggestions as 
to the Influence of Selection by Disease on the Constitution of City Pop ulations. 

The following is a summary of the discussion which followed the reading of these 

The Right Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., D.C.L., F.R.S. (President of the 
Association), observed that a distinction must be drawn between causes producing 
temporary effects and those tending to produce permanent effects. He was of opiuion 
that, since food and education were better, the race ought to be improving. The evil of 
overcrowded habitations was as prevalent in the couutry as in the town, and he suggest « d 
that the fact that development was apparently not affected in the case of those living in 
the country might be due to some difference in the chemical constituents of the air. He 
also suggested that the increased facilities for education adversely affected the race, 
since a man who raised himself from the lower ranks of life, married later in life 
than he would otherwise have done. He also felt that the migration of the more 
energetic part of our rural population to the towns must have a deleterious effect, 
since it left the burden of continuing the race to the loss energetic remnant of the rural 

Sir John Gorst, M.P., F.R.S., drew atteution to the prevalence of improvident 
marriages among the lower classes, and expressed the fear that the race was now being 
propagated in undue proportion by the lowest portion of the community. He suggested 
as a remedy the prevention by the State of juvenile marriages. He also drew attention 
to the necessity of good feeding, and urged that parents should be compelled to feed 
their childreu properly, and suggested that school children should be fed by the local 

Professor Ridolfo Livi congratulated the commissioners on their far-reaching 
scheme. He described tb6 Italian survey of 300,000 recruits, and pointed out that the 

[ 156 1 

1904.] MAN. [No. 103. 

statistics of a conscript army are free from the disadvantages which attend those of a 
voluntary army ; but admitted the great value of the British army statistics in certain 
special directions. He discussed the limits of a survey of the population and the 
problems whwh it may hope to solve. He also debated the question of physical 
deterioration and pointed out that liability to disease decreases as prosperity or know- 
ledge increase ; giving instances as to stature, &c, from the Italian military survey. 
He also remarked that in England the extremes of social conditions are much less marked 
than elsewhere. 

Mr. E. W Bra brook was of opinion that the survey would have to be uniform and 
made by legislation, and mentioned that good work was already beiug done in several 

Major McCuiloch considered that all anthropometric measurements should be 
taken on a uniform plan and under like conditions. 

Professor A. Macalister urged the necessity for a large and complete series of 
statistics, as otherwise they would be unsatisfactory and misleading. 

Mrs. Watt-Smyth urged that in all schools simple measurements should be taken, 
and that medical officers should be in attendance each morning to examine any children 
who looked unfit for work. 

Anthropometric Investigations among the Native Troops of the Egyptian Army. 
{Report.) [Rep. Brit. Assoc] 

G. Elliot Smith. — The Persistence in the Human Brain of certain Features 
usually supposed to be Distinctive of Apes. — The study of a large series of simple 
human brains belonging to various lowly (chiefly African) peoples has revealed the fact 
that the human brain may retain many features that are commonly supposed to be 
distinctive of the apes ; and it is especially in the occipital region of the cerebral 
hemisphere that the supposed distinctively simian characters are most exactly reproduced, 
due to the fact that the cortical area especially concerned with the reception of visual 
impulses is as well developed in the anthropoid apes as in man. The form of this visual 
area in the human brain is often greatly distorted, but, however much its shape in man 
may differ from that of the apes, its structure is identical. The simian resemblance is 
much more often retained in the left than in the right occipital region. The reason for 
this is that the visual centre retracts towards the mesial surface to a distinctly greater 
degree on the right than on the left side of most human brains. Although large 
u Affenspalten " may occur in people of various races, they are rarely symmetrical in 
the two hemispheres, except in the Negro races. In this, as well as in many other 
features, the Negro brain is distinctly more pithecoid than the brains of any other people 
known to the writer. 

P. C. Laidlaw. — Some Varieties of the Os Calcis. — The varieties chosen from 
the collection of bones in the Cambridge University Museum fell uuder six heads : — 

(1) The variability of the processus trochlearis seems to show that it is not- 
developed from a separate ossicle, as Professor Pfitzner suggested. (2) The external 
plantar tubercle : its variations in man, its absence iu the anthropoids and its probable 
development, the anatomy of the soft parts in man and the chimpanzee, show that it is 
a structure developed for the more ready maintenance of the upright position. (3) Cal- 
caneus secundarius of Gruber. (4) Os sustentaculi proprium. (5) The processus 
trochlearis of Kyrtl and its variation seem to show that it is not necessarily pathological. 
(6) Variations iu the facets met with in the bone : due to (a) ossicles ; (b) other 
factors. The projection of the heel is more limited in Europeans than in the ancient 
Egyptians, owing to backward extension of the fascia articularis posterior. 

R. B. Seymour Sewell, B.A. — Some Variations in the Astragalus. — The bone.* 
examined numbered upwards of 1,000, and were mainly of Egyptian origin. 

[ 157 ] 

No. 103.] MAN. [1904. 

As regards the angles which the collum makes with the corpus, these specimens are 
intermediate between the Europeans and the anthropoid apes. The adoption of certain 
postures produces changes in the articular surfaces ; thus in squatting we have a forma- 
tion of facets on the neck, and in the sartorial position we get changes in the facies 
malleolaris medialis and a formation of an accessory facet, facies accessoria externa. 

The process of e version of the foot has also caused structural changes in the bone, 
certain specimens from Borneo being intermediate between the Egyptian and the 
anthropoid apes. 

Occasionally we find accessory facets present. The facies accessoria iuferior may 
be fused with either the facet in front or behind, and in rare cases with both. 

We occasionally find the middle aud posterior calcaneal facets fused directly, and 
in rare cases the anterior calcaneal facet is absent. The os trigonum is very variable 
both in size and shape ; usually it takes no part in the formation of the sulcus musculi 
flexoris hallucis longi, but in very rare cases this groove may be formed cither partly or 
entirely by this ossicle. 

J. F. Tocher, F.I.C. — Recent Anthropometric Work in Scotland. — During the 
present year a survey of the iumates of Scottish asylums has been carried out by the 
author, the characters measured or noted being head-length, head-breadth, head-height 
(from centre of auricular orifice to vertex), stature, shape of nose, and colour of hair and 
eyes. Altogether 4,436 males and 3,951 females were measured. The distributions of 
head-lengths, head -breadths, and head-heights are of Type IV of Pearson's series. The 
means and standard deviations do not indicate any special differences from those of 
published results elsewhere. The physical characters of 1,000 school children (including 
500 Glasgow children measured by Mr. R. Tocher) have aleo been noted. In addition 
to the ordinary measurements, the radius of curvature of the cornea and the visual acuity of 
the children were determined. An analysis of these measurements will be published at 
an early date. [Biomctrika. Henderson Trust of Edinburgh.'] 

C. S. Myers, M.l). — The Variability of Modern and Ancient Peoples. — \Journ. 
Anthr. Inst, or Man, below.'] 

F. R. Coles and T. H. Bryce. — On an Interment of the Early Iron Age found at 
Morcdun* near Edinburgh. — The present example, the first completely attested instance 
of an interment associated with relics of the Early Iron Age in Scotland, was discovered 
in August, 1903, at Moredun, near Edinburgh. The remains were contained in a cist, 
4 feet long by 2 feet 3 inches wide, and 22 inches deep, covered by several flagstones of 
varying size. 

The evidence afforded by the associated relics would show that the interment can 
scarcely be earlier than some time in the second century a.d. The osseous remains are 
those of two individuals placed iu the doubled-up position, one above the other, with the 
heads to opposite ends of the cists, but faces in the same direction. One was a young 
adult, the other an adolescent of about twenty-one years of age. 

The face measurements could uot be accurately taken, but the length-breadth index 
was doubtless lepto-prosopic. The sutures were all patent, the set of teeth was com- 
plete, and the crowns showed no attrition. The chief characters are the very full 
rounded frontal region, the flatness of the vertex, the absence of sagittal ridge, aud the 
rounding out of the sides. A comparison with the skulls from this district * shows that 
in general character it agrees with the majority of more modern examples, and the 
probability is that the type now prevailing in Midlothian was already established when 
the interment took place. 

R. G. Parsons. — Facial Expression. 

* See Tram. Boy. Soc, Ed. xl„ part iii., No. 24. 
[ 158 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 103. 

W. L. H. Duckworth, M.A. — Graphical Representations of Facial Types. — 
The author reviewed the methods devised by Keaae, Petrie, Thomson, and Stratz, and 
propose 1 to adopt the simile of a protoplasmic organism into processes corresponding to 
the several morphological types. 

W. L. H. Duckworth, M.A. — Note on the Brain of a Festal Gorilla. — The 
interest of this case was concentrated in the appearances presented by the mesial aspects 
of the left kt-im«phere. Two sulci were to be seen. The anterior one corresponded to 
the "Bozenfurehe " of His, while the posterior one seemed to represent the calcarine or 
possibly the paracalcarine element. The problem at stake was to discover whether 
these sulci were natural or due to decomposition. The author, on the whole, was of 
opinion that they should be regarded as artificial, although Professor Retzius' opinion 
was that they were natural. 

Professor A. Macalister, F.R.S. — Exhibition of Amorite Skulls. — The skulls 
exhibited came from the excavations at Gezer, representing the ethnology of the third 
and fourth strata. For comparison there were also exhibited some skulls, from the last 
stratum, of Maccabeau Age. 

J. Gray, B.Sc. — Anthropometric Identification : a Xew System of Classifying 
the Records. — \Joum. Anthr. Inst, or Max.] 


A. W. Howitt, D.Sc. — On Group- Marriage in Australian Tribes. — The native 
tribes which surround Lake Eyre, in Central Australia, have two forms of marriage. 
One follows upon betrothal of children by their mothers, and the other is the subsequent 
marriage of the woman to a younger brother of her husband. On ceremonial occasions 
this latter form of marriage is extended in the tribe by the allotment to each other of 
meu and womcu who are already allotted to each other under one or other of the two 

This group-marriage also occurs in other tribes in South-east Australia, either in 
the form which it has in the Lake Eyre tribes or as a survival of custom. It is also 
shown by the system of relationship in the Australian tribes to have been at one time 
common to all. 

In the Lake Eyre tribes there is female descent with group-marriage. In other 
tribes in which group-marriage is merely a survival, or is merely indicated by the termi- 
nology of relationship, there has heen more or less an approach to a form of individual 
marriage accompanied by a change from female to male descent. 

Changes such as these are attended also by alteration of the social organisation of 
the tribes. In one direction there has been a segmentation of the tribe from a division 
of two intermarrying exogamous moieties of the tribal community to four such divisions, 
and finally into eight, with a change also in the line of descent. In the other direction 
there has been a partial or complete loss of this division of the community into four and 
eight segments. 

The tribe has become organised ou a geographical basis into a number of local 
groups, and these localities have become exogamous and intermarrying. In these 
changes in the organisation of the tribes the line of descent has passed from the female 
to the male line. 

In the Lake Eyre tribes a group of totems is attached to each exogamous moiety. 
These remain in existence in the segmentation into four and eight groups. 

In those tribes where the organisation of the tribe has become local, the totem 
groups have either become more or less extinct or have changed in extreme cases iuto 
magical names without influence in marriage. 

R. S. Lepper, M.A., LL.M. — The Passing of the Matriarchate. 

[ 159 ] 

No. 103.] MAN. [1904. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart., CLE. — A Plan for a Uniform Scientific Record of 
the Languages of Savages. — The theory starts with a consideration of the sentence, 
i.e., the expression of a complete meaning, as the unit of all speech. In internal 
development the sentence is ultimately divided into words, considered as components of 
its natural main divisions, in the light of their respective functions. From the functions 
of words the theory passes to that of the methods by which they are made to fulfil their 
functions. Words can be divided into classes accordiug to function, and are transferred 
from class to class. This leads to an explanation of connected words and shows how 
the forms of words grow out of their functions. 

The sentence is then considered as being itself a component of something 
greater, i.e., of a language. This consideration of its external development leads to the 
explanation of syntactical and formative lmguages. Syntactical languages are shown 
to divide themselves into analytical, and into tonic. So also formative languages are 
shown to divide themselves into agglutinative and syuthetic, according as the affixes are 
attached without or with alteration. Formative languages are further divided into 
premutative, intromuiative, or postmutative, according to the position of the affixes. 

Edgar Thurston. — The Progress of the Ethnographic Survey of Madras. — The 
Madras survey covers the following linguistic areas : — Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, 
Kanaresey, Tulu, Khond ; and the racial division into Prc-Dravidian or Archi-Dravidian, 
Aryo-Dravidian, Scytbo-Dravidian. In distinguishing these the uasal index is of value 
as a guide to racial admixture. 

The author described the characteristics of the jungle tribes, short of stature and 
platyrhine ; criticised Gray's head measurements of the Indian Corouation contingent 
(Man, 1903, 36) ; discussed the two main types which are found among the natives of 
Southern India ; and gave the distribution of the dolicho-, mesati-, and sub brachy- 
cephalic types ; and an account of the type of head in the Kauarese area, and of 
Risley's Scytho-Dra vidian hypothesis. Valuable evidence on these poiuts is afforded 
by the deviation of cephalic length, breadth, and index in various castes and tribes, 
especially Brahmans, Todas, Palayams, Pal lis, and Uralis. 

W. H. R. Rivers, M.D. — Some Funeral Customs of the Todas. — The author gave 
a sketch of the complicated funeral ceremonies of the Todas, laying special stress on 
certain ceremouies not previously described, in which a cloth was laid on the body of 
the dead by those who had married into his clan ; and another purification ceremony in 
which the relics of the dead are touched with a bow and arrow by a man adorned with 
woman's ornaments. He also described the incidents of the passing of the dead man 
to the next world. 

R. T. Gunther. — Cimaruta, a Neapolitan Charm. — The cimaruta is a well-known 
Neapolitan charm consisting of the reproduction in silver of a sprig of rue, from which 
it gets its Italian name. To this sprig are appended, in most examples, a large number 
of subsidiary charms. The paper was illustrated by lantern slides and examples of the 

E. Demolins. — Classification Sociale. [Man.] 

J. F. Tocher. — The Distribution of Surnames in East Aberdeenshire in 1696 and 

The Present State of Anthropological Teaching in Great Britain (Report.) — The 
report drew attentiou to the absence of facilities for anthropological teaching in the 
universities of Great Britain, and compared it unfavourably with what was being done 
on the continent and in America. [Rep. Brit. Assoc.~\ 

[A report of the other papers read before the Anthropological Section at the 
Cambridge meeting will appear in a subsequent number of Man.] 

Printed by Kyke and Spottiswoode, His Majesty's Printer?, East Harding Street, E.C. 

Plate L. 

Man\ 1904, 




[Nob. 104-105. 


America, South. With Plate L. 

Portrait of a Guayaqui Indian. By Prqfhu&r K II. Gifftfott, 1fl/l 

10 the (oreetfl to the north of the Aeary sod Itoodsj rivers, IU ■ 

— -itllueutsof the Parana, to the ea*t of that chain of mountains which runs longitudinally 

araguay — are yet to be nn remaeuts of a little known 

tribe, the Gttt/i/tffut or Guayaquil A\ of Tupi deso-m. ! hoy are very wild, 

and little, Indeed, 11 known about them, ami H ial OOlltftC the 

M Yvrbateros" of that portion of the " AftftJMie*'* territory, who mercilessly shoot them 

iiiuin when they happen to meet them. Q nfly Iliad the good 

•holograph of on© of these Indians, which bi reproduced in the pi 

It is unfortunately, DO Bt tolhectlr i cannot hut lie of interest, 

f.r it portrays a native of South A n. m< ;i slill living in the " Smiie 

The aspect of this young Guayaqui warrior is peculiar ; he is all but stark naked, 
two icaotj bits of skin hang in front and behind from a string round his waist; his hi 
is covered by a big cylindrical cup made out of a jaguar skin, adorned at the back with 
what looks like part of ah U ; round his neck bangs loosely a big thick necklace 

of jaguar and peccary tooth. He holds in his hands a great bow, evidently circular in 
section, very similar to the powerful bows of the neighbouring, and perhaps kindred, 
K<u ay ttd Indians, and a long arrow with a hard wooden point. At his feet lies Ills 
heavy stone axe, a large rude earthenware vessel, and against the latter rests a very 
peculiar object, which consists of a number of limb hones of a species of monkey, probably 

/< w» *, strong together on a coarse eord ; one of the articular ends of each bone is 
broken otf an i KW tooth of a big rodent {Mjfopoiamut t) is fixed into it. Th US each 

bone looks like a chisel or engraving tool (much like that used by the B&t&r6 of Mat to 
-ho, made with an iucisor tooth of tbe capybara tied on to a wooden stick) ; but why 
should there be so many strung together like a necklace? I have examined three 
specimens of this very singular object, peeuliar to the Guagaqui, 

Some yean ago {Int. Arrh.f. Etkmo, IX. Supply p. 33, pL iii„ tig. 7 ■ Lciden % I896 y 
I dr md figured the very peculiar stone axe of the Guayaqui. I have uow seeu 

four liafted specimens, and they are nil alike, merely differing slightly in sise ; tbe heavy 
blade is of hard dioritie or granitoid rock, reduced futo shape by pecking, smooth but 
unpolished, at tie rounded cutting edge, which is not wry sharps itfl section Ifl 
circular. The butt-end is somewhat pointed aud is let into a well-fitting slot at the 
upper end of a stout club-shaped haft of tough yellow wood, very thick at the upper 
. Mid, slender where it is grasped; this handle is roughly fashioned. The stone blade His 
so well without the aid of any sort of mastic* that, after knocking tbe back of the handle 
OH the ground, it is no easy matter to get the stone out again. E. H. GIGLIOLI. 

England : Archaeology , St George Gray. 

A Remarkably Thin Flint Arrowhead from Maiden Castle, |Hr 
Dorchester. Bjf II. St. Grorge Gr<ttj. IUD 

It has been thought to l»riug this arrow!. re the readers of M i \ ( 

HOI beeMM fiie form is rare, hut on account of it> remarkable thinness, its weight being 
only W*6 gisjns, Sir John Evans, I l»- xmil mo id — or greater portion 

el em — th.-it ins, 

The titnstnition (drawn toll size) si i the arrowhead b of leef-ehspsd form, 

hut. approximating ->hapro\ ! ' iih«rt niiriicly about tfh of the 

oompteti implement is now missing. Its present length U W mm. (1 \ in.. i, gre 
width 21 mm., greatest thickness 2*5 mm. It i- , uuuetrical and equally finely 

worked on both sides. 

r i« ] 

Nos. 105-106.] 



It was found lute io the summer of 1903 III the base Of the exterior >J toe of 

the rum parts on the north side of the greut earthwork known afl M Maiden Castle," ;i 
to the loot !i-'". est of 1 1 and \i i ai in 

the possession of Mr. C. 8. Prideaux of that town. Tt 

discovered by a lady on earth (moist, although a hot day ) which / 

bad btWi 

and it is not surpn.O- hre thinness and eyauD 

of the M Bud," that she should have exclaimed, 
fouii- ! I ,f 

Thia important example of Him-. -hipping ii of preci 
the same type of arrowhead as thai figured in Hums'- ** Stone 
Imp. loud edition, p, 377, from Fy field, Wlltfl, which 

is fractured in a similar manner ; hut the Fvi imeo, 

although slightly largi ins. Tl> taped 

I found by Dr. Tlnirnam in a long harrow on Walker's 
Mill, Alton Down, X. Wilts, in 1660, freight LOB, hut 

both points are deficient {/*w, Sloe, .!«/., 2nd s,r. t Vol. III.* p. 1W), Other examples 
of the same Ion leo quoted on p. 377 of Evan*. The net roaofa to tbta form 

figured by Mr. W. J. Kuowles in his paper Ofl u Irish Arrowheads " is Fig. 16, PI. IX. t 

of the.W*. Anihr. /«*/., Vol, XXXIIH, 1903. H. St. GEORGE S»AT. 

Nigeria. WMtehouse, 

Note on the " MbaH ■ Festival of the Natives of the Ibo Country, jl\A 

S. Nigeria* Extract from q Letter from A. A. fFUieAoUie t Acting Divisional IUO 

Ct * m ; com m unieatcd bp C II. Rett */, F, s,A. 

During a visit made lately to the Iho country. Southern Nigeria, I took BOO&e 
photographs which are considered unique. The following slight description of lbs 

BObjeoti and the native custom in OOODectlOU therewith may he of interest. In the prin- 
cipal Viltag6fl there is 
held a yearly IV 

d Btbari (beautiful), 
which last! foi some 
weeks, and in which the 
ke part. For 
|i um lime before the 
4 * play " these girli are 
busilj ! odel- 

ling figures of wood and 
eltfj representing i 

CnstoUS*, familial 'Objects, 
and the like, Which 

are platted round the 

vi rand ah of the bottSS 

which they occupy dor 

ing the festivities. The 

walls of this house are 

■■ ** ij decorated with ela- 

borate worked designs fa various colours, as can he seen in the photographs. During 

the period ol the "play 1 ' these women are all real licence- During the day tl 

visit the various "quarters" or "compounds/ 1 dancing ;md swinging and receiving 

[ *« 1 

1904 J MAN. [Nos. 106-107 

numerous presenta from their frienda *.md admirers. At night 1 

ti placed open th , Even womei 

ure married and li return to then on these 

The"pt»y 'Ma bolt 

in honooi el the par- 

tieulai fetiah o\ jvju 

n favours 

and i^ arranged by the 

a be i MiitDii. 


the parttcipai 

l¥ <*Az t naH 

Ffg, In; 

hippo devouring a child 

mm I ,- ' ; : 

to tbe horror 

WE J v^ ^ 

of tbe mother. Notice 

Hr 1 i^S* -^ tvX i 

of tbe 

fiA Mv wkJtjzp 

elaborate way in 

■^h V A^ " ^^ *ofl 

tbe bail la dreaaedi 

Tbe woman on tbe 

a t '^B ™^^« l^^^J SB Bjv 

right, judging by tin 

. j^^^^ w- ^^ ll\ Smfll 

p ioatmmenl In bit 

Fm '^rm.^ 

bun.; ,s to be 

' "< -■ Pig, 2. The only 

explanation I could obtuin of thfa subject is that the girl lying down is about |. 

ha 1 ill cut or sliarju/ued ; but it does not BOefn probable that a betchet w j u Jil be 

1 for tbe purpoee. 

Hairpins as worn 

r * isV >#■■? 

by tbe lady presiding 

ere made by tbe native 

■^■M^^oll w^' 


Pig 8, Tbit li of 

in( fcfajB 

P« Rv ^^^^^^ ^^S i^ 

manner of the 

P%l fkJX^^. „ \ «^^^ 

back hair. Many of tbe 


women : False 

i , w bieb ti collected 

IHlI > Mfi 

i e hu-- 

i on betrothal He 

■W ■* J ^ ' 

not only contributes bis 

' a. ^ * Ly ^^W j9 1 ^^3 vS 

own ba<r, but alao pu> - 

W ' r' A4 lik 

to make up 

PPw vwSklfml 

[Hired quantity. 

since tbe tna nay 

rint be consummated un - 

til tbe bair is dressed in 

tbe approved manner, viz.. low down on Use seek ai shown, or in two long braids. 




Studies In Terminology; 1, Magic. Hy W* W t Thnmtt*. M.A. IflT 
More than twenty jreara ago Dr. Tvlor pointed out that tbe word magic la lUl 

1 to include a d UMSS ol ' iu being 

[ W3 1 

No. 107.] MAN. [1904. 

beyond those ordinary sequences which men term cause and effect and regard as natural 
because they are regular. Nevertheless we still go on talking of magic without further 
defining our meaning, and discuss the question of the priority of magic or religion as if 
it were unthinkable that both or either should have had more than one origin. 

Starting with the rough definition that magic is the outcome of an erroneous view 
of nature and causation, we class as magic the belief in sympathetic influence, in the 
efficacy of spells, in the personal power of a shaman to influence the course of nature, in 
the power of a wizard to constrain or persuade spirits to do his will, in the possibility of 
discovering the future by divination, and finally, and most erroneously, in the power of 
the savage leech to cure diseases by suggestion, the effect of which is heightened by a 
certain amount of humbug. 

Dr. Frazer's view is slightly different. Taking the standpoint of the savage as his 
guide, he classes as religion all rites into which propitiation or worship enters, and 
regards all others as magical. Magic is also defined as savage science — the idea that 
in nature one event follows auother necessarily and invariably — and Dr. Frazer includes 
in the savage's scientific world not only material objects but also animate agents, so far 
as their actions are conceived as explicable on strictly deterministic principles, and as 
resulting from the operation by immutable laws acting mechanically. He, however, 
includes under magic a number of cases in which the volition of spirits is called into 
play, as in the cases where the deity is subjected to ill-usage to induce him to grant his 
worshippers 1 wishes,* or where he is annoyed and (apparently) sends rain as a punish- 
ment,! or is appealed to by torturing animals,^ whose sufferings he can cause to cease by 
acceding to the demands of his people. Now Dr. Frazer regards sacrifices made on the 
do ut des principle as religious§ ; in other words, he does not attribute to the savage a 
deterministic theory of psychology. It is, therefore, a little difficult to see how the 
inclusion among magical rites of the cases above enumerated can be justified. In each 
case the god seems to be conceived as free to choose ; in the one case he is regarded as 
a lazy schoolboy whose zeal cannot be fixed, but who can be urged on to do his tasks by 
the fear of punishment ; in the other he is the good boy whom rewards will spur on to 
action when coerciou would (if conceived as possible at all) simply make him sulky and 
produce no result. But this difference hardly seems sufficiently fundamental to justify 
us in regarding the two cases as, psychologically, poles apart. Uuless, therefore, 
Dr. Frazer is prepared to revise his definition of religion/, which is for him identical 
with worship, he must either enlarge his definition of magic or create a third category, 
a nameless tertium quid. 

Mr. Marett|| seems to hold that magic, in Dr. Frazer's sense, is non-existent. The 
savage does uot hold, and never has held, a scientific view of magic ; he has never con- 
ceived that rain-making was a simple process of cause and effect acting mechanically, 
and as soon he began to reason about these things he ceased to believe in magic, 
which means no more than the unquestioning acceptance of crude theories ; he 
reached a point at which his beliefs became religious, where simple mechanical causa- 
tion played no part in his theory of the world, or at auy rate of that part of the world 
which he supposes himself to be able to influence l»y other than purely physical 
means, and he came to believe in the occult. The definition of religion as belief in 
occult modes of interaction and the mysterious generally seems as much too wide as 
Dr. Frazer's is too narrow. What is there, for example, in commou betweeu a prayer 
to the god to heal his worshippers and the keeping of a weapon bright that has 
inflicted a wound, in order that the wound itself may not fester ? Yet Mr. Marett 
would apparently class both uuder religion. 

* G.B.\ I. 106. t /*. 108. t **. § lb - l18 - 

|| Folklore, Vol. XV., p. 132 >q. 

[ 164 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 107. 

I do not propose to discuss hero the proper definition either of religion or magic. 
I merely wish to classify the ideas as they have presented themselves to various 
civilised enquirers. In presenting these suggestions I do not mean to imply that the 
ideas included under each head are necessarily found in practice; they may be pure 
figments of the civilised imagination. In discussing their real existence or otherwise, it 
is clearly desirable to have an accurate terminology. Nor, again, do I mean to imply 
that where found they are necessarily found in a pure form. On the contrary, it seems 
clear that, in this sphere of primitive thought more than in any other, we meet with 
puzzling mixed forms which are neither fish, flesh, or good red herring. 

I propose to classify our facts under five main headings — magic, shamanism and 
witchcraft, theurgic magic, incantation, and divination. 

I. (a.) Natural or Physical Magic. — The savage seems to believe that natural 
phenomena, in reality uncontrollable, can be influenced by purely physical means. Take, 
for example, the Victorian black, who places the stone or sod in the bough of the tree ; 
he says, " Him no pull through that."* This can hardly mean anything than that he 
regards the obstacle to the sun's course as a purely physical one. If any doubt be felt 
on this point it can, perhaps, be dispelled by reference to another class of beliefs relating 
to the sun. In West Africa the daily motion of the sun is regarded by one tribe as due 
to the fact that tribes in the east and west fight for it,f just as the Queensland blacks 
believe that the moon is thrown up by one tribe of blacks and caught by another.} 
A common Polynesian myth relates how the sun at one time moved faster, but Maui, 
or some unnamed person, wishing to finish some work, snarsd it and refused to 
release it until it promised to go slower.§ It is not only gods who are able to catch 
the luminary in this way. Iu America the foxes are angry with it and catch it on the 
brow of a hill, the Yuroks come and kill the foxes and liberate the sun, and the hole 
that it burned in the ground is visible to this day.|| So, too, Chape wi among the Dog- 
ribs, Nanaboujou among the Potawatomies, and Tchakabech among the Montagnais, all 
have sun catching adventures ;% in Europe the Germans tell a tale of a similar kind.** 
It can therefore hardly be argued that the idea of a physical check on the motion of the 
sun is foreign to the savage mind. 

80, too, the wind is controlled. The Lapp and Shetland witches sold it.ft Like 
the musk crow in Gippsland, who at the command of Bunjil shuts up the wind in a bag 
of kangaroo skin, ^Eolus keeps the winds confined and hands them to Odysseus in a 
leathern bag.JJ It is easy, but unnecessary, to multiply examples. Where the spirit is 
conceived as involved, the processes employed and the results attained are not regarded 
as dependent on the nature of that spirit, but on the ordinary properties of material 

(b.) Mimetic Magic. — Under this head I class all those well-known cases, such as 
rainmakiug, where, prima facie without the intervention of a spiritual being, the result 
is attained by prefiguring it in miniature. 

Even where the subjects of this charm — the rain, the sun, the wind, or whatever 
they may be — are regarded as animate, the rain-charm seems to operate not by 
influencing their will but by imposing on them a kind of physical necessity of which 

* B rough Smyth, Aborigines, II. 334. 

t Frobenius (Weltansch, 284) refers the belief to the Ewe, but his references are wrong. 

X Morrill, Residence, p. 19. 

§ Walpole, Four Years, IF., 375 ; Mem. Soc. Acad. Cherbourg, 1856, p. 185. 

|| Con/. Am. Eth., III., 60. 

% Franklin, Second Jmrney, 291 ; Wise. Hist. Soc., IX., 156 ; Rel des Jes., 1637, p. 54. 

•• Birlinger, I., 44«. Cf. G.B.\ I. 117. 

ft Botero, Allg. Weltbeschreibung, 149 ; Teignmoath, Sketches, I., 286. 

Xt Vict. Xat., VIII., 42 ; Homer, Od. 9 X., 19. 

• [ 1C5 ] 

No. 107.] MAN. [1904. 

we find an analogue on the psychical side in the irresistible effect of the spell. If rain 
does not fall the rainmaker attributes his failure to counter spells, not to the rain god's 
power of resistance. 

(c.) Sympathetic Magic. — The weapon which caused the wound must be kept 
bright in order that the wound may not fester. The parents of a new-born child abstain 
from many kiuds of food that its health may uot suffer nor its future powers of body or 
mind. The tooth of the Australian initiaut must be as carefully disposed of as the 
hair and nails of ordinary people. The limits of (b) and (c) are somewhat difficult to 
define, and I propose to discuss them more fully on a future occasiou. 

II. Sorcery. — In the classes of facts dealt with above the actual human agent 
does not seem to be conceived as influencing the course of nature otherwise than by 
his physical actions, unconnected though these may be to our mind with the result to 
be attained. In this class, however, his influence is, for the savage, psychical rather 
than physical. Here, too, we may with advantage subdivide our material. 

(a.) Human Magic. — The power of the human beiug over the course of nature is 
dependent on no extraneous aid. In New Caledonia certain families can control the 
growth of sugar-cane, others the rain.* In Europe there is a widely-spread belief in the 
magical powers of the seventh son of a seventh son, especially if he be a blacksmith. 
I need hardly do more than allude to the magical powers claimed in connection with one 
department of nature by the Aruuta. Dr. Frazer gives many examples of divine kings 
who are believed to control the course of nature.f 

(b.) Shamanism. — The shaman's power is uot inherent in him, but is derived 
by initiation or other ceremonies from a store of force, regarded as impersonal and 
*. % variously denominated wahau, orenda, ngai, &c. The force may also be conceived as 

communicated by the gods, but is essentially, in that case too, non-personal. 

(c.) Witchcraft, Nagualism. — The magician's power is derived from a spirit, 
conceived as temporarily or permanently dwelling in him, or as actiug under his control. 
Under this head I range the facts of witchcraft, where the attendaut spirit or familiar 
corresponds to the African fetish, the American nagual, or the nyarong, &c, of Asiatic 
islanders and other peoples. Here, too, must be classed the people of Japan, Java, 
and Celebes, British Guiana, aud other countries. The European view, which regards 
the witch as having made a compact with the devil, seems to bring their relation 
rather uuder the head of religion. Such cases must therefore be excluded from this 

The term sorcery, which I propose as a general designation of this class of magic, refers, 
properly speaking, to spells. As a matter of convenience it seems advisable to disregard 
the derivation and divert it from the original meaning. The term sorcerer is frequently 
used as equivalent to magician, and the original meaning being supplied by other equally 
convenient terms, which are also unambiguous, there seems no objection to the slight 
change suggested. 

III. Theurgic Magic. — We must distinguish from sorcery the cases where 
inspiration is regarded as due to possession or the displacement of the spirit of the 
human being by the god. The human agent is simply a medium aud has no control 

-hi A over the spirit by which he is obsessed ; he is sometimes unconscious ou returning to 
himself of the action he has performed under the influence of the divine will. The 
inspiration may also be of a more permanent nature and result in the action of a human 
god. If uecessary the human god can be distinguished from the divine man, who is of 
his own nature godlike and endowed with powers beyond those of the rest of mankind, 
but yet strictly human in their character. 

* Lei Mi*9. Cath., 1879, 30 ; 1880, 273. t Q •#•.* Li 154 *q. 

[ 166 1 

1904.] MAN. [No. 107. 

So far as the witch is conceived as subject to the power of the devil witchcraft 
seems to fall in line with priesthood and to be essentially religious. 

IV. Incantations and Spells. — Iutermingled with nearly all the forms of magic 
dealt with above we find the recognition of the power of the spoken word. Mr. Marett 
regards this as simply a reinforcement of the psychical effort recognised as necessary to 
project the will to a distance. There are, however, other elements in the spell. 

All over the world we find savages unwilling to pronounce the name of the dead ; 
the European peasant believes that at certain seasons of the year the fox, mouse, or 
other distinctive animals must not be called by their ordinary names.* The fear of 
summoning the person or animal seems to lie at the bottom of both these beliefs. If 
that is so it is clear that a power is attributed to the spoken word which has no con- 
nection with the intention of the user of it. Further, we need not suppose that the 
power of the spell depends on any personal effort of the enchanter ; the influence of the 
spell seems rather to fall under the category of scientific facts. So far as the spell is 
irresistible it seems to imply a savage theory of psychological determinism which has 
its aualogue in the physical determinism. of the charm. 

Secondly, this spell may have its origin in prayer. The prayer becomes a formula, 
then ceases to be recognised as a prayer, and perhaps ends by becoming unintelligible. 

Incantation, as distinguished from spell, may be regarded as a form of words 
chanted, or at least strung together with some regard to metre. 

Etymologically charm (Lat. carmen) is the same as spell ; but here, too, considera- 
tions of practical convenience may be allowed to outweigh philological arguments. The 
word charm is, in the first place, not needed ; this ground is already covered by spell 
and incantation. In the second place, such terms as rain-charm, suu-charm, &c, have 
firmly established themselves and cannot well be altered ; and, in the third place, there 
does not seem to be any equally convenient designation for a magical action as 
distinguished from (1) the magical word and (2) the magical object. 

The magical object we may conveniently designate amulet, where it is worn or 
used to counteract magic, countercharm being an action designed to effect the same 
purpose. A talisman is an object worn with the intention of gaining from it virtue "Of 
some sort. It must be distinguished from fetich, an object conceived as the residence of 
a spirit or as depending for its value on its connection with one. 

V. Divination. — Finally, we have that form of magic which consists, uot in 
endeavouring to influence the future, but in discovering what its course will be. The 
sole link uniting this to the other savage beliefs and customs, included uuder the head of 
magic, is the idea that a casual connection exists between events which the advance of 
knowledge has taught us to regard as unconnected. 

It is evident that iu discussiug the question of the origin of magic and of its true 
relations to religion and possible causal relation, we cannot assume and possibly cannot 
prove that any of the forms of magic classified above had the same psychological origin 
as any other form. If that is so, it will make for clearness, cogency, and correctness of 
thought, if henceforth the term magic is no longer employed in scientific discussion as a 
definite and homogeneous concept. It may not be always advisable to adopt savage ideas 
as to classification, but they will, if properly utilised, tell us much of the psychology of 
the savage, and perhaps lead us further on the road to a discovery of origin, than a 
classification of savage ideas from the standpoint of the civilised and sophisticated 
intellect. N. W. THOMAS. 

• Rochholz, Deutwher, 114, 157 ; Grimm, D.M., p. 385, Attic, CXXIV., 68, 76 ; Wuttke, 
D. Aberglaube 1 , p. 171 ; etc. 

[ 167 ] 

No. 108.] MAN. [1904, 

America : Archaeology. Quiroga. 

La Cruz in America ; Arqueologia Argentina. By Dr. Allan Quirogu. With 4 AQ 
a preface by Samuel A. LafoneQuevedo,M.A. Buenos Ayrep. 1901. 24 X 16 cm. lUO 
Pp. xxiv -f 280, with ninety-seven figures in the text 

The services which Dr. Quiroga has rendered to South American archeeology are 
perhaps little known, outside a limited circle of specialists in the history of American 
man ; and he is the more to be congratulated, therefore, that the form in which he has 
chosen to embody this instalment of the results of his investigations is one which will 
bring them under the notice of a wider range of students, and attract atteution to the 
very valuable work which is being carried on by the archaeologists and ethnographers 
of the Argentine. 

Dr. Quiroga's argument, in outline, is as follows : — the Roman numerals referring to 
the chapters of his book, (i.) The use of the cross as a religious symbol in pre- 
Columbian South America is well attested, by the descriptions left by the first Spanish 
invaders and by the earl< r missionaries ; by the survival of many cruciform or cross- 
marked monuments which are known to have been objects of worship among the 
"unconverted natives ; and by a number of mythological motives, which are widespread 
and deeply rooted in native American belief. This point is further illustrated, with 
numerous quotations-in-full, by Professor Lafone Quevedo, in his prefatory note to the 
volume, (ii.) The cross, where it originates independently, as iu the American instauce 
it may fairly be held to have originated, must be considered in the light of its abstract 
geometrical character, which refers it (at all events in its " Greek " or equilateral form, 
which is fundamental in the American series) to the attempt to connect in one symbolic 
gioup four equivalent points. The cross, when used as a substantive motive iu art or 
ritual, may accordingly be presumed, in default of other evidence, to be symbolic of 
some group-of-four. The wide distribution of such symbolic crosses in American art 
is well known, and is copiously illustrated by Dr. Quiroga, particularly from Chile and 
Tucuman ; and most of all from the district of Calchaqui, the symbolic art of which he 
has made the object of special study, based on regular excavation and ample collections 
of his own. (iii.) The Peruvian evidence, which is the clearest on this point, connects the 
cross symbol definitely with certain " groups-of-four " in the shape of constellations 
and other aerial powers, which are the objects of known native cults. (iv.) The 
Mexican evidence points to the same conclusion ; and similar ideas may be traced in 
American mythology and folklore as far north as the Haidas. The groups-of-four, in 
these instances, are likewise aerial or meteoric powers, such as the " four winds " or " four 
quarters," or "four supporters" of the heaven ; and it is notorious that such quatrains 
are not peculiar to the New World, (v.) The marked prevalence of symbolic " fours " 
amoug the American peoples coincides so closely with the prevalence of weather-cults, 
and particularly rain-cults — to which the climatology of the continent gives such inevit- 
able prominence — as to support the theory that there is some real connection between the 
two. We may accordingly adopt as a working hypothesis the view that the cross may 
symbolise either the Rain Power, or even simply the rain, (vi.) Now the symbolic art of 
Calchequi culminates in a great series of most elaborate attempts to depict atmospheric 
phenomena, and particularly the characteristic tormenta or cyclonic storms, in symbolic 
scenes, sometimes largely zoomorphic or even anthropomorphic in design : the principal 
motives of these — omitting abstract elements such as zigzags, meanders, spirals, and 
groups of dots — being serpeuts, *wrt-birds (the " South American ostrich ") and frogs. 
Now, all these motives are found intimately associated with crosses, either appeuded 
to them or actually inscribed upon them. Moreover, these zoomorphs themselves are 
shown, by the evidence of cult aud folklore, to have some connection in popular belief 
with the weather powers ; this is best showu by the popular treatment of snakes in 

[ 168 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nob. 108-109. 

the country districts of South America, and by the common repute of the suri-blrd as 
a sure weather-prophet, (vii.) The use of the cross as an attribute of anthropomorphic 
figures, and on charms and amulets, falls at once into line with this interpretation, on 
the hypothesis that these objects also are in some sense weather-charms ; and the same 
applies (viii.) to the numerous inscribed stones and rock-car rings, to which Dr. Quiroga 
has devoted especial attention, (ix.) The frog-symbol (sapo) in Calchequi art presents 
preliminary difficulties : bur the frog also has close connection in popular belief with the 
weather, and particularly with the rain ; and the use of the frog-symbol in the Calchequi 
vase-paintings finds a close analogue in the Brazilian tale — El Urubu y el Sapo — which 
recounts how the frog went up to Heaven and came down in the rain ; a widespread 
belief which has its parallel in the Old World, too. (x.) The conclusion of the whole 
matter is, therefore, that, the cross-symbol obtained its vogue in America as a rain- 
symbol ; that so simple a device for indicating a " group of-f our " may have originated 
independently at more than one point ; but that its wide extension may, on the other 
hand, be due, in part at least, to the well-established migrations of peoples from north 
to south, which have taken place within the American Continent ; and that it is matter 
for consideration whether it was not also as a symbol of rain, or weather, that the cross 
attained its vogue in other parts of the world also. "En una palabra, la lluvia es el 
motivo fundamental de la religion, y la Cruz su simbolo." 

The phrase just quoted suggests a caution which must be borne in mind in more 
than one passage of Dr. Quiroga's book. It is only too easy in dealing with subject- 
matter of this kind, scattered over a wide area, very imperfectly explored, and liable to 
wide lacunas, to commingle proof of a likely hypothesis, with deductions from it which 
would bo quite in place when the proof is completed. For the most part, however, 
Dr. Quiroga's wide knowledge of the material evidence, his long experience of South 
American art, technology, and folklore, and his close acquaintance, as his copious foot- 
notes show, with the literature of the subject, have kept his argument under control ; 
and his book will be valued as a substantial contribution to our knowledge of this 
curious field of enquiry. J. L. M. 

Physical Deterioration. Watt-Smyth. 

Physical * Deterioration ; its Causes and the Cure. By A. Watt-Smyth. -IflQ 
London : John Murray, 1904. 21 X 14 cm. Pp. xv + 318. Price 6*. net. lUu 

Mrs. Watt-Smyth is to be congratulated on having brought out a very admirable 
popular summary of a subject of great interest at the present time. Being apparently 
intended as a resume for the man in the street more than the scientific investigator, the 
author has been content to accept, rather than to criticise at any leugth, the evidence as 
to the existence of deterioration among our population, and has wisely devoted her 
greatest attention to the causes and means of removal of the phenomena observed. The 
book opens with a brief but succinct chapter on the history of the arousal of popular 
interest in the question and then passes on to the evidences of physical deterioration, 
laying stress on the pressing necessity of enquiry into the exact state of affairs and the 
difficulty of determining our exact position in the absence of sufficient statistical 

The main argument on which she relies to show the existence of progressive 
degeneration is that as urban conditions are obviously deleterious and the rural populace 
more and more pouring into the towns, where ill-health and especially a high rate 
of infant mortality are ripe, our physical standard must be on the down grade. That if 
in 1869 as many as four-fifths of the boys applying as recruits to the army were rejected 
as below the standard in stature and chest girth, and that now, with a lowered army 
standard, three out of every five recruits are found unfit for service within two years, it 

[ 169 ] 

No. 109.] MAN, [1904. 

must follow that the deterioration is progressive. Such an argument, of course, cannot 
with our present knowledge be definitely refuted, though it would appear from the 
evidence brought before the recent Inter-departmental Commission that the lowest level 
has been passed and that matters are again improving. In this connection all readers 
of this book would do well to turn to the blue book and to read especially the evidence 
of Dr. Eicholz as to what has and can be done. The most that can satisfactorily be 
concluded is that the physically inferior classes of society have in the course of the last 
century relatively increased in numbers and so probably reduced the civic worth of the 
general average. 

Passing from the evidences of deterioration to their causes and cure, the author treads 
safer ground, aud her chapters thereon are proportionately more interesting. She lays 
great stress on the vital necessity of improved physical and moral hygiene, and shows 
the evils resulting from overcrowding, improper feeding, both of infants and adults, 
drink, a contaminated milk supply, long hours of employment and study for children and 
more especially of deficient sleep and want of attention to the teeth. 

In connection with ventilation, she points out the evils of keeping windows closed, 
quoting the statistics of Rowntree, that in York only 10 per cent, of the upper, 5 per 
cent, of the middle, and 3 per cent, of the lower classes had their bedroom windows 
open on a September night. At this stage she obviously recommends fresh air and 
open windows, but in a later chapter on school ventilation seems to prefer the use of 
some " system of ventilation, 19 disregarding the fact that, in the first place, all systems are 
failures, and in the second place, the houses of the class attending elementary schools 
are so built as to allow of natural ventilation only, and that if at school the rising 
generation is not accustomed gradually to see the possibility of living in comfort with 
open windows, the greatest of moral lessons, aud one of especial value for the prevention 
of diseases, more especially of consumption, is not only lost but very largely reversed. 
Children would readily argue that as they do not have open wiudows at school, why 
have them open at home, being ignorant or neglectful of the fact that some system of 
ventilation exists in the school and none in the home. 

Mrs. Watt-Smyth emphasises the great value of cleanliness as taught at school, and 
points out the pity that the lessou is impaired by foolish parsimony of the local education 
authorities who supply too few washing basins and clean towels. She quotes a most 
instructive example of a school which possesses a swimming bath but wherein the water 
could only be changed once a fortnight on account of the expense involved, eight 
shillings ! 

The author shows the good derived from proper medical inspection of schools, the 
attention to defective visiou and bad teeth, and shows the beneficial effects of proper 
gymnastic exercises. She also urges strongly the necessity of educating each indivi- 
dual to fit him for his environment and station in life quoting from M. Pecaut that 
" a country child should be so educated as to become, not a mandarin, but a man of 
* 4 the fields." 

Finally, although somewhat over-enthusiastic as to the advantages of rural over 
urbau surroundings for the children of the lower classes, she brings up one very important 
poiut, the greater number of hours of sleep attainable by the country children, whose 
parents retire early, over the denizens of the slum whose rest is disturbed by occupants 
of the house or room coming in at all hours. That sleep is one of the great essentials 
of growth is too often forgotten, especially by school authorities. 

A perusal of this work will show to all interested iu the question of the future of 
the race or in the management of large numbers of children, whether in a public or 
private capacity, certain lines along which great advances cau be made. F. S. 

[ 170 1 

1904.] MAN. [No. 1X0. 

Proceedings. British Association. 

Anthropology at the British Association : Cambridge Meeting, August lift 
Mth to 24th, 1904 (continued from Man, 1904, 103). I III 

Tbe destination of the full text of each paper, so far as it is determined as yet, is 
indicated in square brackets. 



Professor E. B. Poulton, F.R.S. — Records of Palaeolithic) Man from a New 
Locality in the Isle of Wight, — The flints exhibited had all been discovered by Mws 
Moseley within three days of the meeting of the Association. They were found on the 
north-east coast, and previous to this discovery traces of palaeolithic man had been 
extremely rare on tho island. The implements, which were mostly found in a gravel 
escarpmeut, exhibited every stage of manufacture and had clearly been made in situ. 

Miss N. F. Latard. — Further Excavations on a Palceolithic Site in Ipswich, 
[Journ. Anthr. Inst,'] 


Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., F.R.S. — Note on the Entomology 
of the Scarab, — The author discussed the various species and genera of beetles which 
were used by makers of scarabs in ancient Egypt at different periods. He distinguished 
five principal types representing the genera scarabaus, catharsius, copris, gymnopleurus, 
and hypselogenia. The characteristic forms of these kinds of beetle were described in 
the shape of the head, outline of the wings, and the treatment of the legs. The use of 
so many kinds of beetles as models for scarab amulets is illustrated both in Egyptian 
medical papyri and in the modern folklore of Egypt. 

Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., F.R.S. — Excavations at Ehnasya, 
— For the substance of this paper, see Man, 1904, 77. 

J. Garstang, B. Litt., F.S.A. — The Royal Tomb at Negadeh, in Upper Egypt. 
— Tbe authors excavations were supplementary to those of M. de Morgan, and the 
results suggest that the tomb is not that of Mena, as generally supposed, but of his 

Professor Oscar Montelius. — The Evolution of the Lotus Ornament, — Iu 
Egypt the lotus has been represented from the earliest times as real flowers, often 
together with buds and leaves, or as ornamental patterns. The lotus is drawn as well 
iu the realistic form as in a conventional shape. The lotus is often combined with 

In Assyria, where the lotus ornaments are later than in Egypt, we find also both 
the realistic and the conventional lotus (" palmetto "). 

In Cyprus, as in Phoenicia, the conventional lotus often has a peculiar form ("the 
Phoenician " or " Cypriote palmetto "). 

In Greece the lotus occurs iu the Mycenaean time, but becomes common only in the 
first millennium B.C. There we find the lotus in combination with spirals, the realistic 
and the conventional lotus. 

Capitals in the shape of a lotus-flower occur in Egypt and Asia Minor, where they 
gradually get the form known as the u Ionian capital." 

Mediterranean Lands. 

Professor P. Kabbadias, D.Sc, General Director of Antiquities in Greece. — 
Prehistoric Archaeology in Greece, — [Man.] 

[ "I 3 

No. 110.] MAN. [1904. 

Archaeological and Ethnological Researches in Crete. Report. [Rep. Brit. 

Arthur J. Evans, D.Litt., F.R.S. — Preliminary Scheme for the Classification 
and approximate Chronology of Minoan Culture in Crete from the close of the 
Neolithic to the Early Iron Age. — The author proposed to attach the name Minoan 
to this period, as indicating the probable duration of successive dynasties of priest-kings, 
the tradition of which had taken form in the name of Miuos. He proposed to divide 
this era into three periods, Early, Middle, and Late, each with three sub-periods. He 
dated the third Late Minoan period between 1500 and 1100 B.C. 

The second Late Minoan period receives its fullest illustration in the remains of 
the latest Palace period at Kuospos. Its latest arts show correspondence to those 
associated with the Kefts on Egyptian monuments, and alabaster vases of the XVIII 
dynasty were found in the Royal Tomb at Knossos. The period may thus be dated 
from 1700-1500 B.C. 

An earlier stage of the later Palace has now been made out. It is an age of 
ceramic transition and the period when naturalistic art reached its highest perfection. 
An earlier system of linear script was found. The period may be placed approximately 
between 1900 and 1700 B.C. 

The Middle Minoan period is marked by the development of the polychrome style 
of vase painting on a dark ground. During the last division of this period, at the end of 
the Third Millennium B.C., there is a falling off in the polychrome style accompanied 
by a greater naturalism. The period is one of a conventionalised pictographic script, 
preceding the linear. 

During the second Middle period the polychrome style reached its acme. The 
beginning of the period is approximately dated by the discovery of the Kahuu studs by 
Professor Petrie, dating from Usertesen II of the XII dynasty. The date of the 
period lies between 2300 B.C. and 2700 B.C., and the evidence from Crete excludes the 
extreme bringing down of the XII dynasty to the borders of the XVIII. The seals 
of the period are another proof of XII dynasty contact. 

In the Kahuu deposit were found objects of a simpler style belonging rather to the 
first Middle period. The influence of Middle Empire design is well marked on the seals 
of the period, and the ruder class of conventionalised pictographs are seen on the seals of 
this date. The beginning of this period may therefore be thrown back to the middle 
of the Third Millennium B.C., and perhaps even to its beginniug. 

The Early Minoan period is characterised by its special class of seal-stones, many 
showing adaptations of motives from VI dynasty buttou seals. Certain early stone 
vases resemble those of the Early Dynastic period in Egypt, while Egyptian syenite vases, 
of one of the first four dynasties, were found at Knossos. The Egyptian connections 
point to a date for the beginnings of Early Minoan culture not later than the middle of 
the Fourth Millennium B.C. 

Below the earliest Minoan floor level to the west court of the Palace, found at a 
depth of about o\ inches, were nearly 6£ metres of neolithic slate. Assuming that the 
average rate of deposit was fairly continuous, this gives an autiquity of about 12,000 
years for the earliest neolithic settlement at Knossos. 

R. C. Bosanqdet, M.A., F.S.A., Director of the British School at Athens. — 
Excavations at Heleia {Palaikastro) and Praisos in Eastern Crete. — The British 
School again excavated at Palaikastro, the Minoan town which has yielded importaut 
results in two previous seasons, from March 25 to June 17. 

1. Late Palace. — The further excavation of Block Delta showed that this was the 
palace or Government House of the latest Mycenaean period. It has an imposing facade 
of huge ashlar blocks, aud the general plan of the ground floor can be recovered. Some 
well-preserved magazines yielded an important series of painted vases and some terra- 

[ 172 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. 110. 

cotta figures of a goddess, in one case graspiug a snake. Remains of three earlier 
periods were revealed. Fragmeuts of an ostrich egg % found at a very low level, point 
to early intercourse with Africa. 

2. Other Work in the Town. — The main street was followed iu both directions, 
and two low hills to the west and south-west of it were excavated. Four blocks of 
somewhat poor houses were opened up and yielded valuable finds, notably two delicately- 
carved ivory statuettes, a large bronze ewer, and a richly-painted bath. An ivory 
plate carved with conventional crocodiles betrays indirect Egyptian influence. 

3. Cemeteries. — In the curious ossuaries of the Middle Minoan period were found 
seals of ivory and steatite, a miniature gold bird, and small models of a dagger and of 
sickles. A very early burial-place near the headland of Kastri contaiued beaked jugs 
of au exaggerated pattern and a remarkable clay model of a boat. A later cemetery, 
containing lartiax burials, yielded bronze implements, beads, and vases like those in the 
palace magazines. South of the town a steatite libation table on which are engraved 
seventeen characters of the Minoan linear script was discovered. 

4. Temple. — In trenching the area within the Minoan town Mr. Bosanquet found 
a broken slab of grey marble inscribed with a Doric hymn in honour of the youthful 
Zeus. The lettering is of the Romuu age, the composition genuinely archaic. It refers 
to his nativity iu the Dictsean cave, aud leaves no doubt that we have here the temple 
of Zeus Diktaios, the territory of which was a subject of dispute between Hierapytna 
and Itanos until the matter was settled by arbitration in the second century B.C. We 
may now restore to the plain of Palaikastro its classical name of Heleia mentioned in 
the arbitration award. 

5. Researches at Praisos. — Numerous architectural members and fragments of 
inscriptions have now been found here by Mr. Bosanquet. A temple on the summit 
seems to have been demolished and its materials thrown over the cliff. It is probable 
that this was the chief sanctuary of Praisos, possibly the temple of Dictsean Zeus 
mentioned by Strabo. The most important inscription is one in the ancient Eteocretan 
language, which was hitherto known only from two inscriptions, both found on this 
hill, in Greek characters of the third or fourth century before our era. [Annual of the 
British School.] 

Sir Richard Jebb read notes on the fragments of a hymn to the Dictsean Zeus 
found by Mr. Bosanquet on the site of the god's temple at Palaikastro, in Crete. The 
inscription is in duplicate on the face and ou the back of a slab of grey marble. The 
version on the back shows many gross blunders in spelling ; that on the face, though 
not free from errors, is much more correct, and was presumably intended to replace the 
other. In the case of one word, however, the version on the back serves to correct that 
ou the face. The characters may be of the second or third century a.d. The hymn 
itself is probably old. It begins with au invocation of Zeus, welcoming his annual 
visit to his shriue at Dicte. This invocation recurs as a refraiu after each of the six 
short stauzas. The first stanza describes the singers, with harps and flutes, standing 
rouud the god's altar. The second refers to the legend of the Curete* having received 
the infant Zeus from Rhea. There is a meution of their shields, which is illustrated by 
the fact that some miniature shields (votive offerings) and fragments of one large shield 
have been found on the site. All the stanzas, after the first, are much mutilated, but 
afford glimpses of the sense. The hymn went ou to speak of blessings associated with 
the presence of Zeus at Dicte. Justice and peace prevail ; cities prosper ; ships travel 
safely ; Themis is upheld. The name Curetes, at least iu Crete, seems always to have 
deuoted dsemouic beings, never priests ; and it was as daimones that the Curetei figured 
iu this hymu. That poiut is illustrated by a fragmeut of the Cretans of Euripides, 
where the leader of a chorus of priests describes himself as vowed to the mystic cult of 

[ "3 J 

No. 110.] MAN. 0904. 

the Curetes. Mr. Bosanquet has hopes that some further fragments of this interesting 
hymn may be found at Palaikastro. 

After speaking of the hymn, Sir Richard Jebb referred to a passage in the paper of 
Dr. Arthur Evans, where Minos was characterised as " a Cretan Moses," and suggested 
an illustration of it. In Plato's Laws (p. 624a) the Cretan, Cleinias, says that the laws 
of Crete were derived from Zeus, and the Athenian then asks : " Do you mean that, 
" as Homer has it, Minos went every ninth year to converse with his father, and made 
" the laws for your cities iu accordance with the utterances heard from him ? " The 
Cretan replies : " Yes, that is our tradition." Plato's allusion is to the Odyssey, xix, 
178f : u [Crete], where Miuos reigned, who in each ninth year cou versed with Zeus." 
Others take the Homeric words to mean, u who reigned for nine years," or, u who 
reigned at nine years old." But Plato's interpretation seems better. It is easy to 
conceive that Cretan legend pointed to some mountain where Minos went up, like Moses 
on Sinai, to be inspired with the wisdom of a law-giver. 

R. M. Dawkins, B.A. — Painted Vases of the Bronze Age from Palaikastro. — 
The resemblance of the series of styles found at Palaikastro with those found elsewhere 
in Crete makes it possible to use the terms used at Knossos, " Minoan," &c. in 
describing the successive styles of Bronze Age vases. A series of slides was shown 
giving geometrically-painted vases of the Early Minoan period, then polychrome vases 
of the Middle Minoan period, and, lastly, examples of the three phases of the Late 
Minoan period, showing the development of the styles of design from their geometrical 
beginning, with patterns imitated from the earlier incised ware, through the freer style 
of the Middle Minoan to the naturalistic style of Lute Minoan I, and then exhibiting 
the process of forma I i sat ion which ends with the rigid formal style of decoration that 
characterises vases of the Late Minoan III time. At the same time it shows the growth 
of the light-ou-dark polychrome style of the Middle Minoan, aud its gradual change 
through the abandonment of subsidiary colours to the monochrome dark-on-light style 
of the later parts of the Late Minoau period. [Annual of the British School. ~] 

Professor R. S. Conway, Litt.D. — The Linguistic Character of the Eteocretan 
Language. — The author illustrated his subject by an inscription discovered by Mr. 
Bosanquet at Praisos in June 1904. The text is too fragmentary to admit of eveu 
conjectural interpretation, but presents several new features of interest in phonology 
and morphology not inconsistent, in the author's judgment, with the conclusions as to 
the Indo-Europeau nature of the lauguage which he has drawn from the two inscriptions 
previously known. [Annual of the British School.'] 

R. C. Bosanquet, M.A., F.S.A., Director of the British School at Atheus. — On a 
Find of Copper Ingots from Chalcis. — The author described a find of copper iugots at 
Chalcis in Euboea. This was a shipwrecked cargo of niueteen ingots, weighing from 
25 to 40 lbs., and perhaps dating from the Brouze Age. Similar ingots or talents of 
copper had been found at Mycenae, at Phaestus in Crete, and in Cyprus aud Sardinia. 
A recent discovery of bronze axes in an ancient copper working on Mount Othrys might 
be takeu as evideuce that the copper ores of Othrys were known in Mycenaeau times ; 
Chalcis may havebeeu so-called as beiug the chief emporium, though not the real source 
of this copper. The relative abundance of such hoards of brouze axes suggests that they 
were used as a means of exchange, especially iu Crete, where many axes have been 
found which have a haft-hole too small to admit a serviceable handle. It is remarkable 
that in historic times in Crete the word iriXeicvi; (axe) is said to have deuoted a fraction 
of the talent. 

Professor Oscar Montelius. — The Geometric Period in Greece. — The Geo- 
metric period succeeds the Mycenaean period iu Greece and in the isles of the jftgrean 
Sea. In the western part of Asia Minor, where the author thinks that the Mycemean 
culture continues long after its disappearance in Greece, the Greek Geometric style is 

[ 174 1 

1904.] MAN. [No. 110. 

not represented. At the end of the Mycenaean period iron began to be used and the 
fibula became known in Greece. 

Most of the remains from this period are ceramic. The technique is about the 
same as in the Mycenaean time. Some of the forms are also derived from those of the 
preceding period ; but the predominant ornaments are different, being geometric. The 
swastika, extremely rare iu the Mycenaean period, is very common. In Attica men, 
women, horses, chariots— forming scenes of funeral solemnities and races — are sometimes 
painted on the vases, but the figures are drawn in a most infantile way. 

The Geometric style is not derived from the countries to the north of Greece, being 
earlier in Greece than in other parts of Europe, but is an inferior continuation of the 
Mycenaean, which cannot be accounted for only through the migrations of the Dorians, 
because the difference between the Geometric aud the Mycenaean style is as great in 
Attica — where the Dorian invaders did not come — as in other parts of Greece. The 
explanation may be that the foreigners (Tyrrhenians or Pelasgians), to whom, in the 
author's opinion, the Mycenaean culture was due, had been expelled, and the Hellenic 
people had not yet reached the same high degree of civilisation as these foreigners. The 
Geometric period began in the twelfth century B.C. It can be divided into the following 
parts : — The first Geometric period (in Attica, the older " Dipylon vases") ; the second 
Geometric period (** Phaleron vases " and skyphoi) ; the third Geometric period (" pre- 
Corinthian " vases). This last period ends about 700 B.C. 


The Lake Village of Glastonbury. {Report.) [Rep. Brit. Assoc.'] 

Roman Sites in Britain. {Report,) [Rep. Brit. Assoc.] — The Committee on the 
Excavation of Roman Sites in Britain presented a report containing a summary of its 
work during the year. 

Mr. T. Ashby, Jun., F.S.A., gave a short account, illustrated by lantern slides, of 
the excavations of the past year at Caerwent. In the course of the excavations the gap 
which had been supposed to be the south gate had been cleared out, and the gate found 
to be parallel to the gate on the north side. An inscription dedicated to Mars had also- 
been discovered, bearing the date August 23, 152 a.d. 

Professor Valdemar Schmidt. — The Latest Discoveries in Prehistoric Science 
in Denmark. — (1.) Investigations have been made in recent years in the National 
Museum of Copenhagen on the musical properties of the famous trumpets of the Bronze 
Age, called in Danish generally Lur. 

(2.) The oldest period of the Danish Stone Age, only recently discovered, is earlier 
in time than the u kitchen-middeus" and much anterior to the dolmens, from which the 
bulk of the well-known Danish flint implements have been derived. In a peat-bog in 
Western Zeeland were found many objects of stone and wood of a primitive order,, 
evidently from an early part of the Stone Age. A careful study of these objects and of 
their position in the bog proved that the prehistoric inhabitants who left or dropped 
those implements must have been dwelling on rafts in the middle of a lake. 

(3.) It has been discovered during the past few years what kinds of grains of corn, 
wheat, and barley were in common use iu the different prehistoric periods of Denmark 
from the impressions of grains of corn in the pottery. 

(4.) Special study has been devoted lately to the distribution of tumuli in different 
parts of Deumark. The Director of the Prehistoric Museum of Copenhagen, Dr. Sophus- 
Muller, who has been the leader in the cartography of prehistoric remains, has recently 
stated that the tumuli always follow ancient roads through the country, and that lines 
of tumuli always lead towards the fords of the larger rivers, and avoid the swampy 
ground. It is to be supposed that ihe people who were buried in the tumuli had. 

t ire i 

No. 110.] MAN. [1904. 

dwelt near their graves, and traces of such dwelling-places have been found at some 
few places. 

T. H. Bryce, M.D. — On a Phase of Transition between the Chambered Cairns 
and Closed Cists in the South-west Corner of Scotland. — If the rare instances of 
interment in cinerary urns be excluded, the forms of prehistoric sepulture in Argyleshire 
and Buteshire may be grouped under two heads : (1) Interment in chambers with a 
portal, but uo passage, of entrance ; and (2) intermeut in completely closed cists. In 
both classes the interment may be either by inhumation or after cremation. They differ 
in the mode of interment, in the character of the osseous remaius, and in their associated 
reiics.* The implements are invariably of stone in the chambers ; they are occasionally 
of bronze in the closed cists. The chamber pottery is of a black paste ; the vessels are 
round in the bottom, and have either a broad flat lip or are inclined inwards to the 
mouth ; the decorative pattern is one of straight lines and dots, or of fluted markings, or 
(rarely) of concentric semi-ellipses. The closed cist pottery is of a red paste, generally 
of the * food vessel type," but more rarely of the " drinking-cup " or " beaker" class. 

An atypical form of chamber occurs, consisting of a single compartment covered by 
one flagstone (cistvaen), with one end lower than the others, and forming the sill of a 
portal guarded by two upright stones. 

The exploration of a cairn at Glecknabae, Bute, afforded a clue to the classification 
of the chambered structures and pointed to a stage of transition from the chamber to the 
short cist. 

The pottery discovered in the chambers provided the key to the period to which the 
chambers belonged, for in one a typical piece of chamber pottery was found, with 
fragments of a second ; in the other fragments of four vessels were recovered, of the 
"beaker " or *• drinking-cup" class. The decoration was zonular in one, but irregular in 
the others. The phenomena indicate a triple occupation of the site at three successive 
epochs* The presence of the "beaker" type of ceramic seems to point to the small 
chamber being a late departure from the normal chamber structure. 

R. N. Hall. — Recent Explorations at Great Zimbabwe. — The ruins' area is now 
shown to be more than three times larger than has hitherto been stated ; many of the 
minor ruins and also reconstructions of, and additions to, the older ruins have been 
ascertained to be of no great antiquity, some dating most probably only from the 
thirteenth or fourteenth century of this era, and others are even more recent. It is now 
believed that the eastern half of the Elliptical Temple, and that which contains the best 
built and most massive walls, and also the sacred cone or " high place " is the oldest 
structure at Zimbabwe, while the western portion is surrouuded by a wall of later and 
poorer and altogether slighter construction, probably also of the thirteenth century, or 
somewhat later, which wall took the place of a more substantial wall with a wider sweep 
outwards towards the west. The eastern has yielded phalli in abundance — the author's 
discoveries bringing the ascertained number of true phalli found there to considerably 
over a hundred — together with carved beams and the older class of relic ; while in the 
western half of the building not a single relic with auy claim to antiquity prior to the 
thirteenth and fourteenth ceuturies of this era has yet been found. No ancient sign- 
writing has been discovered, but old post-Koranic writiug on pottery was found in some 
minor ruins now known to have been occupied by Arab colonists. The history of the 
local native race of Makalanga, " People of the Sun," has now been ascertained for a 
period of at least 200 years, as also an accouut of the native occupation of the ruins for 
a considerable number of generations past. 

* Bryce, Proc. Sue. Antiq. Scot,, vols, xxxvi., xxxvii., xxxviii. 
Printed by Ktke and Spottiswoodb, liis Majesty's Print tp, hiast Harding Street, E.C. 





1904.] MAN. [Nos. 111-112. 

New Zealand. With Plate M. Hiigel. 

Maori Feather-Box. By Baron A. von II u gel, M.A. AAA 

The box figured on Plate M. was recently bought by myself in Gosport. It III 
forms one of a series of eleven boxes deposited in the Cambridge Museum, and is a 
remarkable specimen of Maori work, which, in richness and finish of carving aud 
beauty of design, far surpasses any of the other Cambridge specimens, though these 
were selected with care, and are above the average of good and typical specimens. Both 
in its shape and its scheme of decoration, the Gosport box offers some peculiarities, but 
these will be so clearly seeu by a study of the figures, that no minute description need be 
given. I may mention, however, that the box is cut out of Kauri pine, which through 
age has assumed a very dark brown colour, that the iuside is carefully squared and 
finished, and that the lid tits very accurately into the rabbet of the rim. Its dimensions 
are : — length (including handles), 18 7 inches ; breadth, 15*5 inches ; height (including 
cresting of lid), 54 inches. 

All I could learn concerning the origin of this box was that it had been purchased 
years ago — prior to 1 870, I believe — at a curiosity shop in Portsmouth. 


Greece : Archaeology. Kabbadias. 

Prehistoric Archaeology in Greece. Being a Paper read before the AAf\ 

Anthropological Section of the British Association. By Professor P. Kabbadias, I \L 
D.Sc, General Director of Antiquities in Greece. 

I am very sensible of the houour done me by the British Association in inviting me 
to address the Section of Anthropology. I cau best employ the few and precious 
moments at my disposal by laying before you a brief statement as to the present 
coudition of anthropology and pre-historic archaeology in Greece. 

The soil of Greece, which has yielded such an abundant harvest of classical 
antiquities, has not proved equally rich in objects of the earliest pre-historic periods. 
We have found comparatively few objects belonging to the Stone Age, few stone 
implements, no megalithic monuments, no pile-dwellings. 

How is this undoubted fact to be explained ? Is the fault ours ? Have we Greek 
archaeologists focussed our attention too exclusively on classical archaeology ? No. We 
have found very little because there was very little to find. 

But we must uot rashly conclude because there was little to find that in primieval 
days Greece was uninhabited. Early settlements in all probability existed, but they 
have left few traces because the sites have been reoccupied by settlers belonging to that 
later civilisation curreutly known as Mvcenajan. 

This is no mere theory. Our Greek Archaeological Society has recently undertaken 
excavatious in Thessaly. Thessaly is a couutry in which, compared with southern Greece. 
Mycenaean civilisation was less widespread. In Thessaly we have discovered no fewo. 
than three pre-historic settlements, all belonging to the Neolithic Age. These settle- 
ments are small fortified towns, surrounded by double walls. Inside the walls many 
houses have come to light, a great quantity of stone implements, many of bone, and a 
mass of vase fragments. 

These " finds " are the earliest that, so far, have been discovered either in European 
or in Asiatic Greece. They are the remains of those peoples who, coming from the north, 
passed to the south of Greece. A complete publication of these discoveries is now in 
the press aud will shortly appear. 

Here and there in other parts of Greece stone implements have come to light. We 
must not, however, conclude that in these places actual Stone Age settlements existed. 

[ 177 ] 

No. 112.] MAN. [1904. 

Stone implements, it must be remembered, continued in use during the Bronze Age. 
The Athenian Acropolis is a case in point. Sporadic specimens of stone implements 
have been found there. But when in 1887 the whole Acropolis came to be systematical! y 
excavated, I myself found twelve very interesting bronze implements lying at a depth 
of 11 feet on the bed-rock — a manifest proof that the Acropolis was first peopled in the 
Bronze Age. 

Our Archaeological Society is also at work on excavations in the islands of the 
JEgean, but the discoveries so far made are uniformly of the Bronze Age. The same 
must be said of work in the Peloponnese ; up to the present time we have come on no 
trace of the Stone Age. We are planning excavations in Arcadia with the hope that 
there Stone Age remains may come to light. In Arcadia, in the very heart of the 
Peloponnese, dwelt the earliest population of Greece ; there, as in Thessaly, the 
Mycenaean and later civilisations failed to extend themselves. 

My own conviction is that the remarkable altar of Zeus on Mount Lycaon will 
yield the remains of an ancient Stone Age settlement. The altar in question consists 
of a mound of earth in which may be observed a vast number of bones both human and 
animal. Later antiquity was at a loss to explain the presence of human bones. The 
current explanation was that, at this altar, human sacrifices were offered to Zeus. These 
human bones are, as 1 have already indicated, in all probability the remains of a primaeva 
settlement. On that point we shall eagerly await the verdict of the spade. Also in 
Arcadia is another site on which the fossil remains of animals, as well as a number of 
vase fragments, have come to light. This site is an important one and will be thoroughly 
investigated in the course of excavations already in progress. 

As regards pile-dwellings, we have so far come on nothing of the sort. From 
Herodotos we learn that this sort of dwelling existed in Thrace, but we must not infer 
from that that the number of them was ever considerable. My own belief is that this 
mode of buildiug was never customary in Greece. Greece abounds in stone quarries, 
and the earliest inhabitants were skilled hewers of stone. They therefore naturally built 
fortified towns, and these served in place of pile dwellings as a protection from their 
enemies. These fortified towns occupy in Greece the place taken in other countries by 

A few words must be said as to the progress of palaeontology in Greece. Our 
Government has for some years past set aside yearly a fixed sum of money to meet the 
expeuses of palaeontological excavations. Our excavations at present in progress at 
Pikermi, at Megalopolis, and the island of Samos have been rewarded by a rich harvest. 

I should like to draw attention to the efforts our uuiversity at Athens have for 
some years directed to the foundation of a museum of anthropology. We have already 
collected some complete skeletons and a large number of skulls from the earliest 
" Mycenaean " strata. I ask the attention of all scholars to this museum, because I 
believe that it is the most helpful contribution that we can offer to the vexed problem as 
to the origin of the earliest inhabitants who peopled the soil of Greece. 

Such is the outcome of our work so far as I cau formulate it to-day. Next spring, 
when the International Congress of Archaeology meets at Athens, I hope to lay before 
you further results. 

The work of excavation now in progress in Greece is a great one ; the results of 
recent years have raised archaeology to the rank of a great science, an honour to humanity. 
This work has not beeu done by us Greeks alone, but in co-operation with other nations, 
with France, with Germany, with England, with America, with Austria. Each of these 
nations has in turn founded an archaeological school at Atheus and made its home 
among us. 

It is with peculiar pleasure that I am able to say to the audience before me that 
special success has crowned the efforts of English archaeologists. The excavations 

[ 178 ] 



[Noa. 112-113. 

looted hy the Brit i- a, and effpeoiallj those of Dr. Arthur 

J work ihat bae been d 
during the last few 

Words tail me t<> describe sod their 
cardinal im] 

The v ; world ban followed tb with toolsm&l 

At our International • fully detailed 

ami explained. We Greeks rarnefilly I nted 

at our eoogret will ii^itr with pride what Englishmen have done, Or* 

Will be [mou.1 and bsppj to Welce l.ind, P, KAliBADIAS. 

Physical Anthropology. Wright. 

A Skull Stand for photographic purposes. //,, William Wfigkt % +An 

■in!. ■ description and photograph <>f which follows, 
purpose of remoi able diftVuirv which I experienced in placing a skull 

ami accu- 
rately in the position 

recommended si tbe 

FiaiiklVnt ConlVr- 

enoe. It coot 

i\vi> tf«t snd square 
boards arranged at 
right in 

BOOtsl BQp- 

rted npon bar 
email I bicb, 

for W>1 in 

moved kg 


In | 

the beriseni 
is I 

with a mi Hod nut 

which esn be raised 

or le 

of and 

peal i w<> 

oibex sere* - 

a«rain provided s 

a milled nut. These letter moveable to and fro In s ilot, 

and ran I- ad tmiOOTeblj Bx« Ig tbfl nn( down Upon til 

border i*> plso nil in position thi h the 

foramen mounts*, so tbsl ottl. Tot En {root and 

mppoft the tgmpkgili menti -or li the mandible Dg tbe palate — sod 

• Miijiitui portion of tbe hi m the ant row aloue 

kull niaii ghjU 

A levellittg g itigof a pin moving in a vertical slot, art-. I\ means 

of determining wi if, i>„ tbe lower rim of 

[ i» ] 

Xos. 113-114.] MAN. [1904. 

the orbit and the highest point of the external auditory meatus in the same horizontal 

Having once placed the skull in position it can be photographed from the nor met 
lateralis, facialis, and occipitalis without further alteration thau unscrewing the vertical 
board and attaching it to one or other of the two adjacent sides of the horizontal board, 
screws and sockets being provided. By reason of the vertical board a suitable background 
is always obtained. In order to photograph from the norma vertically I pass, without 
moving the skull, a loop of striug through the anterior and posterior nares and attach it 
to the under surface of the horizontal board securely and firmly by means of a strong pin. 
So firmly should it be fixed that the stand can be placed with its previously horizontal 
board vertical without affecting the position of the skull. The latter will now be as 
required, and furnished with a suitable background. W1LLJAM WRIG1IT. 

New Guinea. Selignnann. 

Note concerning the Progress of the Cook-Daniels Expedition HHM 

to New Guinea and the Solomon islands. By C. G. Seligmann, M.D. \ \*T 

[Before leaving with Major Cook- Daniels for New Guinea, Dr. Seligniann 
promised to communicate to Max, from time to time, notes concerning the progress of 
the Expedition. The following, received a fortuight ago, forms the first instalment of 
Dr. Seligmaun's promised communications.] 

West of the Fly River, i.e., on Strachan Island and the Bensbach River, where 
work had to be done from whale boats, and where the weather was constantly unfavour- 
able, we did little more than take physical measurements and collect specimens. The folk 
here do not resemble the Fly natives, being slighter men, many of them covered with 
Tinea, with more variation and size in physiognomy than I have hitherto seen in one 
tribe. They are totemistic with descent in the male line, and have an initiation cere- 
mony for boys which closely resembles that of Mawatta. Behind Mawatta, which is 
frankly totemistic, we found the Masingara split into two exogamous divisions with no 
obvious signs of totemism. Of the Gulf we saw nothing. At Yule Island and Waima 
we found a most elaborate system of chiefship, and wbat Daniels and I take to be the 
remains of a highly-developed totemic system. Following this up in Mekeo the condi- 
tion is roughly as follows. There are two tribes, Biofa and Vee, speaking the same 
language. Each of tbese is divided into divisions, Pangua, portions of each Pangna 
existing in many villages, which consist of groups of Pangua, each of which is — at any 
rate in certain instances — made up of a number of Ikupu, i.e., family groups. Each 
Pangua has an Iaufangai, e.g., the bread fruit, which is the same for groups of Pangua 
which say they are Ngopi, i.e., of common descent. The Iaufangai, if edible, is eaten, 
but the Kanga-Kanga, generally a bird or plant peculiar to each Pangua, is not eaten, 
though, if an animal, it may be killed to obtain its feathers, which that particular Pangua 
either wears as such or worked into a certain design when dancing. Pangua endogamy 
is strictly insisted on. Beyond this there are Ufuapie, intermarrying groups into 
which a youth ought to, aud doubtless until receutly always did, marry. Curiously 
enough these Ufuapie do not uecessarily exclude groups which are also Ngopu. The 
Marea (man-houses) here are sometimes named after the Kanga Kanga, and whether 
this is so or not they are invoked on certain occasions, e.g., in war the name of a man's 
Marea is shouted as a blow is sent home. All this is complicated by an elaborate 
system of chiefship. There are usually three chiefs in each Pangua, whose functions 
centre round the Marea. At Port Moresby we studied the Koitapu fairly thoroughly. 
Coming eastward from there our most interesting find in the central district was that 
on certain occasions the dubus are visited by the shades Qf the dead. Here in the south- 
eastern district all the folk with whom we have come iu contact are totemic with descent 
in the female line of their totems and land property. I use the plural " totems " as each 

[ 180 ] 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 114-115. 

clau has typically four, a bird, a fish, a snake, aud a plant. The bird is the most 
important ; a man always gives this when asked his Sulu, while the plant totem is so 
decayed that many cannot name their " tree." Further, they avoid injuring — I use the 
word iu a very general way — their father's bird and fish totems more carefully than 
they do their own. C. G. SEL1GMANN. 

Africa, South : Animal Superstitions. Blackburn : Thomas. 

Animal Superstitions among the Zulus, Basutos, Qriquas, and 44 p 
Maffatese, and the Kafirs or Natal. By Douglas Blackburn. Communi- I ID 
cated by N. IV. Thomas, 31. A. 

The followiug replies to my questionnaire (Journ. Anthr. Inst., XXX., 114) have 
been sent me by Mr. Douglas Blackburn, of Loteui, to whom I am much iudebted for 
this very interesting information. 

The Magatese inhabit the region in N.E. Transvaal, on borders of Limpopo, a hot 
and mountainous country. A Natal Kafir is a cross between the Zulus, Basutos, and 
Griquas. As a body they are more in touch with civilisation, and owing to missionary 
influence are comparatively free from tradition and folklore. The initials after each 
paragraph indicate the tribe among whom I have found the superstition observed. 

1. Most small crested birds are lucky. One kind, a crested wren, is caught, carried 
to the neighbourhood of the hut and released. This procures an easy childbirth. Others 
flying over the crops betoken good harvest. Z. B. K. G. 

2. The snake umlangwa — a snake as to poisonous character of which local authorities 
are not agreed. Its entry to a hut is a serious event, as misfortune is certain to befall 
the hut entered. It is killed carefully so as to avoid mutilation, carried out and entwined 
round a bush or branch, or laid on a path so that the shadow of the first passer-by may 
take away the curse. Invocations are made by the witch doctor to the theozi, a small 
snake said to be the chief spirit suake, and having the power to remove the curse. The 
Zulus say that the spirit of Chaka, the founder of the Zulu nation, entered a theozi after 
beiog burned, then became a hfozi ghost [pronounced shlozi, or an approximation to the 
Welsh " 11." Theozi pronounced dheozi]. Theozi is not killed by old natives, but, no 
serious results having followed its accidental slaughter by natives ignorant of its character, 
this superstition is rapidly dying in Natal and Zululand. 

4. The presence of herons or cranes in unusual numbers is a sign of a bad harvest. 
This superstition was amply borue out this summer (1903). Herons abounded in this 
district in numbers larger than ever seen. The harvest has been a complete failure, and 
natives are receiving Government aid. Z. K. G. B. 

7. A white ov is slaughtered on declaration of war. It is stabbed by a woman in 
Zululand, and the longer it is in dying the more fortunate the portent. [See Rider 
Haggnrd's \ery accurate Nada the Lily.~\ Basutos slaughter a pure black ox iu the 
same way. 

12. The fat of a lion, poison fangs and gall bladder of a python, will ensure 
(1) courage ; (2) power to cure snake-bite to a layman, i.e., other than a witch doctor. 
A python killed ou the place fetched £16 for "muti," — medicine. 

15. Certain snakes carry the souls of great fighters, but the belief is local and the 
snake varies with locality. A small non-poisonous snake called Mabibini carries the 
souls of women and children. Z. K. 

16. Certain powerful witch doctors are believed to have the power to consign the 
spirit of a person to the body and keeping of the iguana, ant eater, and python, but these 
are specialists aud rare. I was troubled by an astute Zulu who surreptitiously told drink 
to my Kafirs. Having twice failed to secure a conviction before a magistrate, 1 was 
advised to send for a Basuto witch doctor, then enjoying great repute. He asked for the 
moucha or skin worn round the loins by the Zulu, and was proceeding with his incanta- 

[ 181 ] 

Ko. 115.] MAN. [1904. 

tions when the Zulu bolted. He has not dared to enter the infected zone since. He was 
to have been turned into an iguana, the most objectionable form of obsession. I cannot 
find out whether the death of the iguana kills the victim ; some say yea, others, equal 
authorities, nay. 

I have devoted considerable effort to solving the question, how does a man become 
a wizard and find that, like the poet, he is born, not made. Among the Natal Kafirs we 
have a sort of hereditary cult, but they do not stand high in native estimate. The craft 
is apparently an open one, and its most successful representatives are exemplars of the 
doctrine of the survival of the fittest. Like other professors they have their vogue, and 
a witch doctor with a great reputation does not confine himself to one tribe or kraal. 
He will b« called in to the exclusion of the tribal doctor on the strength of his repute, 
and one I know travels from Zululand to the mines at Johannesburg, Kimbcrley, and 
Jagersfonlein. I quite recently cashed a cheque for him for £130, which represented 
his fee and expenses for visiting a wealthy native at Johannesburg to throw the bones 
to ascertain whether an impending law suit should be proceeded with. 

Witch doctors are generally specialists in one branch only — witchcraft or medicine — 
rarely both. General practice is confined to the small fry with merely local reputation. 
Of their knowledge of the use of certain herbs I could write much, and am strongly of 
opinion that a systematic effort should be made by qualified experts to discover the 
properties of some of them, which are so marvellously efficacious that it is simply idle to 
pooh-pooh them. No European treatment for snake-bite, for instance, is as good as 
theirs, and Englishman though I am, and brought up in a medical family, I would rather 
ride fifty milea to be treated for a puff-adder bite by a certain witch doctor than go ten to 
the district surgeon. I have twice been under treatment by them for bite, and though 
the physic is nauseous, and I was not too eager to know of what it consisted, I was free 
from pain in two and three days respectively. Persons similarly bitten and treated by 
English methods suffer agouie* for weeks. Dysentery and gravel or stone iu bladder they 
treat with marvellous results. Their surgery is, however, the crudest butchery and 
often fatal. 

But the most interesting phase of the doctor is his witchcraft. I have studied him 
much and often been impressed. I have arrived at the following conclusions, which I 
am satisfied I could prove to the satisfaction of competent observers : — 

1. That the successful wizard is always intellectually the strougest man in the tribe. 

2. That he has perfect faith in his power ; that is, I do not believe he is a conscious 

3. That he possesses mesmeric power ; and 

4. That many of his divinations are the result of the unconscious transference, from 
the mind of the subject to his, of the answer sought. 

One case out of several that have come within my own knowledge will illustrate 
this telepathic suggestion of mine. 

I was engaged in studying some ancient Bushmen's paintiugs iu a cave on my place. 
The cave had a projecting roof in the form of an isosceles or equilateral triangle. While 
so engaged my dogs discovered some valuable otter and tiger cat skins, which I recognised 
as part of a collection of my own. I suspected our post boy, but said no word of the 
matter. Several other articles having disappeared at various times, I sent for a big witch 
doctor to smell out the culprit, giving several days' notice of my iuteution in the hope 
that the thief would reveal himself by disappearing. I collected some sixty natives, 
including the suspect, and was careful to stand behind the doctor so that no unconscious 
sign on my part should reveal my thoughts. I did not tell him any of the circumstances 
beyond that I had a thief ou the farm and wished to fiud him. He went through the 
customary grotesque gesticulation, chanting and drawiug figures ou the ground with his 
stick. After a time he began drawiug triangles, then boldly declared that the stolen 

[ 182 "J 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 115-116. 

articles were bidden in a cave, and after several dashes at the suspect, indicated him as 
the thief. Later the real thief confessed. He had sold some skins and had hidden the 
others where I found them. My suspect was entirely innocent, but the witch read my 
thoughts and pictured the cave as I was seeing it during his performance. 

Have we not here an explanation of the fact that in the smelling out of criminals 
the witch doctor almost invariably spots the person suspected by the chief ? 

Re witch doctor, I have not been able to find whether any ceremony prefaces 
initiation, but I believe not. A wizard qualifies by his success, aud any member of a 
tribe may aspire to witch doctorship. 

17. Among the Natal Kafirs certain families are supposed to be always unfortunate 
with certain animals, as sheep, goats, horses, cows, oxen, &c. One man will avoid 
keeping goats or sheep. Another has as little to do as possible with oxen. One 
Kafir's family in this district has eschewed horses for generations, hiring or borrowing 
oue when a journey has to be performed and generally paving at an enhanced rate to 
cover the supposed risk. I have not met cases of the converse where special fortune 
attaches to certain animals. 

19, 20, 21. Belief in a creature called Togolosh, or Togolash, is universal. It is 
invisible to men but visible to women, and infants. At irregular periods it haunts reedy 
springs and water holes, waiting for young women whom it ravishes. It is described as 
being a well-developed black man with long hair to the waist, but is never seen below 
the knees. This belief is so emphatic that parents will accept it in explanation of a 
girl being enceinte^ and the usual penalties for unchastity are withheld from a girl 
pleading Togolosh. I have heard native women relating their experience in the most 
matter-of-fact manner, and my head man, a very intelligent Natal Kafir, assures me that 
he quite believes in the existence of the Togolosh, and in the event of one of his 
daughters pleading it he would accept the assurance. No special virtue appears to 
attach to the offspring of the Togolosh, and his operations are rapidly being relegated to 
the regions of the great rivers. N. W. THOMAS. 

Australia, South-East. Howitt. 

The Xative Tribes of South-East Australia. By A. W. Howitt, D.Sc. A4f\ 
London : Macmillan & Co., 1904. Pp. xix + 819. 23 X 15 cm. Price 21*. I ID 

Before reviewing Dr. Howitt's Native Tribes of South-East Australia it is uatural 
and seemly to congratulate him on the accomplishment of his great work. Duriug forty 
years he has been busy in collecting the fragments of customary laws and beliefs among 
tribes of which many have succumbed to the ferocity, and the almost equally fatal 
goodwill, of the iuvadiug European. Opium is the latest means of exterminating the 
Queensland black—" Belgian newspapers will please copy " when we wax virtuous 
over Belgian misdeeds on the Congo. Dr. Howitt has written not from his own 
kuowledge alone ; he has stirred up an army of correspondents who have added each 
his mite. During some thirty years of controversy Dr. Howitt has not written one 
discourteous word, but has displayed a perfect candour and openness of mind. He 
knows the value of a docta ignorantia, and, though firm in his opinions on one or two 
obscure aud debited poiuts, is not disposed, on others, even to hazard an hypothesis. 
By necessity Dr. Howitt's work differs in character from that of Messrs. Spender and 
Gillen. They write from personal observation of tribes still little contaminated by 
European contact. He speaks on the authority of observers among tribes contaminated, 
or all but extinct or quite vanished, in several cases, as well as on the basis of his own 
studies. We cannot precisely estimate the value of evidence from many observers, 
as we do not even know how far they were masters of the various languages. In some 
cases, as in that of Mr. Gasou among the Dieri, Dr. Howitt is able to rectify earlier 

t 183 1 

No. 116.] MAN. [1904, 

statements by more recent research. Much of what he has to say is already familiar to 
readers of his own and of Dr. Fison's Kamilaroi and Kurnai, and contributions to the 
Journal of the Anthropological Institute and other learned periodicals. 

On the first chapter, " The Origin of the Aborigines," I need not comment ; his- 
"tentative hypothesis" will be found on pages 32, 33. His definition of a (local) 
" tribe " is already accepted. Iu my opinion, to write (page 42) that the social divisions 
"are denoted by class names, or totems, and more frequently by both class names and 
totems," is rather premature before " class names " and " totems " have been defined. 
The terminology used runs thus : " Class names " denote the two primary exogamous 
moieties of a tribe, often styled " phratries," a harmless term as long as it is understood. 
"Sub-classes" denote the four or eight exogamous divisions (peculiar, I think, to 
Australia), which some writers call "matrimonial claftses," as distinguished from 
"phratries," or "primary exogamous moieties." Under "totems" are included, by 
Dr. Howitt, not only the hereditary exogamous kins, usually of plant or animal name, 
but the personal non-hereditary, non-exogamous plant, animal, or other object of the 
individual ausweriug to the American naguaU or manitu. We also hear of non- 
exogamous " sub-totems," of " mortuary totems," and so forth. Local groups within 
a tribe of female reckoning of descent are styled "hordes," in a tribe with male 
reckoning are termed " elans." As both " horde " and " clan " are used in other seuses, 
especially by American students, I think it would be simpler to call a local group in a 
tribe " a local group," leaving " clans " and " hordes " out of the story. 

Whether to commend or dispraise the scientific caution of Dr. Howitt in presenting 
no theory of the origin of totemism, hereditary and exogamous, or of the animal aud other 
names which mark the "classes" often; the "sub-classes" sometimes (page 111) ; the 
exogamous totem kins almost always ; I am uucertaiu. I could wish that he had 
offered a list of the names of " classes " and " sub-classes," with the translations of these 
names, where they are known. Certainly the " classes " often bear animal names ; 
indeed, they do so iu almost every case where their meaning is ascertained. Let us 
take the Gouruditch-Mara tribe (pages 124, 125, 250). Mr. Stable describes their 
organisation thus : — 

Classes. Totems. Sub-totems. 

Krokitch. White cockatoo. Five. 

Kaputch. Black cockatoo. Eight. 

Now, here the two "class" names — Krokitch and Kaputch — mean white aud black 
cockatoo, which are given in English as " totems." This is plain from the report of 
Mr. Dawson, speaking of " the tribes which are to the east of the Gouruditch-Mara, 
and to which the latter obviously belongs." Mr. Dawson gives here no "classes," but 
offers five "totems," of which the first, Kuurokcetch (long-billed cockatoo), is clearly 
Krokitehy while the third, Kappatch (Bauksian cockatoo), is as certainly Kaputch, 
Here, then, we have two species of cockatoo, which are, in fact, two "class" 
("phratry") names, rather than names of totems in the phratries. This, in Mr. 
Dawson's account, is quite clear. The myth says that the male ancestor of the tribe 
was a long-billed cockatoo, whose wife was a Banksian cockatoo. Dr. Howitt adds, 
"Their sons and daughters belonged to the class of their mother." But whence came 
the three totems — pelican, boa snake, and quail ? Dr. Howitt does not here say ; 
Mr. Dawson does. The totems came iu through exogamous marriages made by the 

It is clear from other information (page 125) that two cockatoo-named "classes" 
(phratries), with animal -named totem kins in their " classes," are common. Mr. Stiible's 
account, we repeat, gives two "classes" with untranslated names, aud gives the 
translations of their two names as " totems " ! 

[ 184 ] 

1904.] MAN. [No. lift 

This is unsatisfactory. We need, of all things, a thorough linguistic examination 
of the meanings of the names of " classes " and " sub-classes." At present, when 
translated, they seem usually, as in the case of totems, to be named after animals. 

There must be some reason at the back of the marriage laws in which " classes," 
exogamous, often of auimal name, contain " totems,' 1 exogamous, usually of plant or 
animal name ; while in more advanced tribes " sub-classes," exogamous — occasionally 
of animal names, in other cases of names of unknown meauing — exist. I endeavour to 
disengage Dr. Howitt's theory of these facts, as far as he has a theory. 

First in time came (page 89) " the division of the people of the tribe into two 
classes," exogamous. Why or how was the division made? Two legends (Dieri, 
Wuranjerri) agree that " the division of the tribe was made with intent to regulate the 
relation of the sexes." But, if the relation of the sexes were previously quite 
unregulated, why in the world should anyone want to regulate thorn, or how could 
anyone even dream that they needed regulation by tribal authority ? 

Again, if two myths say that the division of the tribes was made for the purpose 
of sexual regulation, plenty of other myths give totally different accounts of the whole 
affair, as Dr. Howitt well knows. Dieri myth (page 481) says that originally people 
married within their totems, " this occasioned great confusion, aud sexual disorder 
4i became predominant." The elders, therefore, decreed that totems should be exoga- 
mous. But, of cour3e, " disorder " could only be perceived by persons accustomed to 
"order," that is, to totemistic exogamy. Such myths are purely aetiological. We 
have not advanced one step, so far. 

Again (page 143), Dr. Howitt asks "how the two exogamous class divisions 
" originated ?" He thinks that it was "by the division of an original whole, which I 
" have referred to as the Uudivided Commune." But why was the Undivided divided ? 
Well (pages 133, 134), it was not Undivided, or, uot for long. Economic conditions- 
and "individual likes aud dislikes," says our author, kepi perpetually breaking up the 
the Undivided Commune "into two or more Communes, of the same character." We 
entirely agree, so far, but we add that, in such small groups, the " likes and dislikes" — 
love and jealousy — would inevitably regulate in some degree sexual relations, even if 
hitherto, they had been quite unregulated. This appears undeniable. Dr. Howitt. 
however, supposes that all these little new " communes " would meet, " at certain 
" gatherings . . . or on great ceremonial occasions," aud then would behave 
"as when the Lake Eyre tribes reunite" — that is, licentiously (page 174). But how 
can we take it for granted that the primeval groups, perhaps hostile, did meet for 
" great ceremonies " ? If they did, is the idea that they then and there established,, 
purposefully, the two " classes " which prevent union of brothers aud sisters uterine? 
What harm did they see in such uuious, uuless the jealousy of sires had already 
prohibited them in the tiny "Communes"? But why were animal names so ofteu 
given to the "classes"? Whence, moreover, and why, came the exogamous totem 
kins within the " classes " ? I do not answer the seventeen lines of criticism which 
Dr. Howitt bestows on my own theory of the origiu of totems, as given by me in Social 
Origins, but the nature of my reply is obvious. 

Dr. Howitt agrees with Messrs. Spencer and Gillen, that totem groups existed, before 
exogamy, for magical purposes, but he does not know " how it was that men assumed 
" the names of objects, which, in fact, must have been the commencement of totemism " 
(page 153). He guesses that a man may have dreamed that he was a plant or beast, 
and so may have "developed the idea of relationship with animals, or even with plants " 
(page 1.54). Then how did the dream-plant or animal come to descend in the female 
line, and why docs the object mark the exogamous division ? Were the supposed 
pre-existing nou-exogamous totem groups simply commanded to be exogamous at 
the given momeut when the tribe, on "a great ceremonial occasion," divided itself 

[ 185 ] 

Hot. 116-117.] MAN. [1904. 

into the two " classes," one set of totems being placed id one class, the other set in 
the other ? 

These are natural questions, bnt I shall ask no more out of a long list which occurs 
to the inquiring mind. One may express, however, some doubts as to whether one 
totem kin in a "class" is ever restricted to marriage with just one totem kin in the 
other class. Messrs. Spencer and Gillen, in their new work, add nothing to the 
confessedly vague information given as to this point of Urabunua law in their previous 
volume. Why the Urabunna facts cannot be ascertained, when intelligence on matters 
apparently much more esoteric is abundant, one does not know. A Mr. Boultbee 
(page 194) is responsible for the statemeut that a one-totem to one-totem restriction 
exists in tribes with the Mukwara-Kilpara " classes." One suspects some confusion here, 
and, of course, all statements made long ago, about tribes now extinct, are of limited 
value as evidence. 

A point, among many others, which I hive often felt to be perplexing is this : 
tribes (A) with no "sub-classes," but merely with "classes," totems, and female reckoning, 
do not permit father and daughter marriage, though their " classes " do not prevent it. 
Tribes (B), more advanced, have " sub-classes," of which — as Mr. J. G. Frazer points 
out to Dr. Howitt — " the effect is to prevent the marriage of parents with children." 
Now, how come tribes (A) to prevent such unions without any machinery of " sub- 
classes," while tribes (B) appear to have found that machinery necessary ? Is it not 
also very curious (page 500) that (as I understand Dr. Howitt) the tribes most advanced 
socially do not, as a rule, believe in " an anthropomorphic supernatural being, who lives 
" in the sky, and is supposed to have some kind of influence on the morals of the 
" natives," while the less socially advanced tribes often " incline to think there is a 
" God, or something very like one," to quote Clough. If I do not misapprehend 
Dr. Howitt, we are here in perfect agreement, and I can give examples of the Baiame 
belief as early as 1829-31, fifteen years earlier than Mr. Manuing's account of 1844-45, 
and prior to missionary influence in the district (pages 501, 502). 

In my space I can only "scratch with a hoe " at the vast and fertile field of 
Dr. Howitt's labours. To criticise his work thoroughly demands a separate treatise, 
and I have already lifted up my voice against Dr. Howitt's theory that the " Pirraru " 
custom is a survival of, or a proof of, "Group Marriage" in the past. To this and 
other topics I hope to return in a new work now in hand. One must condole with 
Dr Howitt and his readers on a sadly inadequate index to his book. With some of his 
opinions I am constrained to disagree, but his services to science are such that we 
may doubt whether without his long and exemplary labours, and without his example, 
anthropology would have more thau an inkling of the whole interesting subject of 
Australian society, custom, aud belief. ANDREW LANG. 

Anthropology. Oels. 

Science dc r Homme ct Methode antJiropologir/ue. Par Alphouse Cels. Paris "MTP 
and Brussels, 1904. 21 x 14 cm. Francs 7.50. Ill 

This book takes a very comprehensive view of the science of man. " All facts," 
says M. Cols, " concerning man in himself, or in relation to his environment, belong to 
" the domain of anthropology." He elaborates this idea by subdividing the facts 
concerning man into (1) those relating to the nature of man, and (2) those relating 
to the life of man. Each of these sub-divisions are again sub-divided into three, 
namely, (a) those relating to the existence of man as a unity or individual, (/3) those 
relating to the existence of man as a duality or as body and mind, aud (y) those relating 
to the existence of man as a harmony, or as a union of the two sexes for the reproduction 
of the species. 

[ 186 J 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 117-118. 

This scheme apparently includes the study of the anatomy of man, the physiology 
of man, and the psychology of man in himself, and also in relation to his environment. 
To become an expert in all the sciences appears to be beyond the capacity of any single 
individual, and therefore no single individual can possibly become an anthropologist, in 
the sense in which the term is understood by M. Cels. There is, however, a field open 
for a scientist who while he abandons the detailed study of these sciences to specialists, 
takes their results and establishes correlations between them. For example, Earl 
Pearson has shown that correlations exist between the bodily and mental characters 
of man, and as this field is not strictly speaking included in either auatomy or 
psychology, it may be properly left to the anthropologist. But there must always be a 
great deal of overlapping. About one half of M. Cels' book is devoted to the exposition 
of anthropological method. This part of the book might with advantage have been 
omitted, and the reader referred to any standard text-book on logic. M. Cels' idea of 
anthropological method is that there is nothing special in it, but that it is merely the 
general logical method by which the truths of all sciences are arrived at. He appears 
to be opposed to measurement especially as applied to the psychological characters of 
man. He says, " The exclusive partisans of so-called experimental psychology are. 
4i really bent on the pursuit of chimeras." Considering that almost every science when 
it has advanced beyond its infancy makes use of measurement to make observation more 
precise, we must conclude that M. Cels 1 ideas of anthropology are still infantile. It is 
only when we can apply measurement to the physiology and to the psychology of 
man with the same precision as we now do to his anatomy that anthropology will 
become an exact science, and we shall know the true laws of the nature and life of man, 
and their relations to his environment. Statistical analysis has now been sufficiently 
developed to enable us to arrive at simple and reliable conclusions from our observations. 

J. G. 

German Race. Driesmans. 

Die Kulturgeschichte der Ras s en-ins tinkten. II. Die Wahlverwandtschaften HAQ 
der deutschen Blutmischung. By Heinrich Driesmans. Leipzig : Diederichs, I 10 
1901. Pp. xii + 208. 22 x 14 cm. Price 4 marks (cloth, 5 marks). 

The first volume of this work, Das Keltentum in der Europaischen Blutmischung y 
dealt with the part, which the Kelts — as the author conceives them — have taken, in the 
political and social development of the peoples of the modern world. The present 
instalment introduces us to the German*, by whom Dr. Driesmans understands the tall, 
fair, blue-eyed element in the population of modern Germany ; and this, in common with 
mauy of his countrymen, he regards as the long-lost Aryan race and also as the supreme 
type of Homo sapiens hitherto. From expressions which occur here and there in the book 
we may, perhaps, expect presently a third section, which shall deal equally outspokenly 
with the Slav ; though this third Haupt-rasse comes in, already, for fairly detailed 
criticism in the present volume. 

To a certain exteut Dr. Driesmaus belongs 'to the school of speculative anthro- 
pology represented by Gobiueau aud Lapouge, and in Germauy by Seeck and Ammon ; 
with closest affinity with the last-named. But the cruder New-Iranian view which 
pictured the history of Europe as a crusade of the Powers of Light — represented by the 
blessed bl >ndes — against the Powers of Darkuess iu the shape of bold, bad brunettes, gives 
place here (in part) to the less uncompromising doctrine, that cultural advances themselves 
arise from the clash of races ; that the character of the culture elicited depends very 
largely upon the kiud of mongrels who result from such contact ; and that it is only such 
mongrels who are capable of appreciating, and propagating inpartibus, the culture already 
attaiued by their respective progenitors. For which crumb of comfort (explaining, as it 

t 187 ] 

Bios. 118-119.] MAN. [1904. 

doe*, bow we others come to be as cultured as we are) the mongrel qvi parle Is duly 
grateful to Dr. Driesmans. 

To return to the Germans, however ; it was the ethnologische Eiszeit of the 
Reformation-period apparently which roused them from psychological pithecanthropism, 
and superseded, for example, wood-engraving by copperplate, Diirer by Goethe, and 
comparative mental monotony by a fine jumble of Slavo-Germans like Lessing, Kelto- 
Germans like Goethe, and Kern-Germans — the real genuine article, neither east nor 
west of the Ell>e — like Schiller; with a W elt mac hts tell ung and all complete, and very 
surprising cro*s-di visions in the field of natural science. Goethe's theory of colour, for 
instance, proves him echt deutsch ; Newton's stamps him as a mere Kelt ; and the latter-day 
neglect of Goethe's theory in Germany augurs sad things for the Lebensanschauung of the 
Fatherland. Virchow, conversely, owed to his Slav ancestry his inability to subscril»e 
to Germanic Darwinismus : though it would be news to us if Darwin were either blonde 
or liable to suicidal mania (which things are Merkmale of Germanic Man) ; but, perhaps, 
Darwin had an illegitimc Kopf. 

From these illustrations of Dr. Driesmans' conclusions and arguments, taken 

!omewhat at random from his analysis of the Deutsche Blutmischung % it will be seen 
hat his essay covers wide ground, advances novel and suggestive theories, and contains 
much instructive and entertainiug matter. And as it will be clear from these instances 
how weighty a matter is true self-knowledge, in orderiuga natiou's future, let us conclude 
by commending to all whom it may concern, his speculation on the Jesuitical tendency 
of trousers ; and to English readers in particular those sections of Das fVeibwesen which 
contain his observations ou the Englandcrin. Experiment towards more systematic 
Blutmischnng lie desiderates, but does not see his way to recommeud. J. L. M. 

Norse Mythology. Kermode. 

Traces of the Xorse Mythology in the Isle of Man. By P. M. C. Kermode. 44Q 
London: Bemrose, 1904. 8vo. Pp. 30, with ten plates. 22x14 cm. I |\l 
Price 2s. 6rf. 

The local essayist is usually a very harmless person ; at the worst he deals out 
incomplete or inaccurate information to his fellows on subjects which would otherwise 
not come under their keu. But if he publishes his remarks, he will, if he is well 
advised, assign to the printing press no higher office than the delectation of his, let us 
hope numerous, friends. For the sake of his own feelings he should not ask a wider 
circle to express an opinion on his work. 

In the booklet before us Mr. Kermode does useful work in publishing the illustrations, 
though some of them were figured some fifteen years ago, if we are not mistaken, on 
sheets distributed by the Disney Professor for his Cambridge lectures. The author's 
knowledge is, however, hardly equal to the task of elucidation ; indeed, it may be 
doubted if elucidation is possible in many cases. 

The work opens with an epitome of Norse mythology, the materials for which might 
with advantage have been drawn from a modern German handbook. We read, for 
example, that the five last days of the week are named after Scandinavian gods ; it 
makes one curious to know what Saturday is called in the Isle of Man. 

On the folklore side the book is decidedly weak. Au attempt, is made to explain 
the world-wide superstition as to nail cuttings by a reference to Ragnarok and Loki's 
ship. The remarks on midsummer fires are quite inadequate, aud the author, as he 
mem ions Grimm as one of his authorities, need hardly have attributed to the editors of 
the ('. P. Borcale Grimm's remark (D. M. 4 , III., 78) about Balder's funeral pyre. 

In interpreting the plates the author regards many of the human faces seen in 
profile as intended for bird heads. As a matter of fact they are simply a primitive type 
of portrait ; an analogous modern example may he seen in a Welsh collier's sketch of 

[ 188 1 

1904.] MAN. [Nos. 119-122. 

Pwca, figured in Wirt Sikes' British Qoblins, p. 21. There is a lack of firmness in 
the treatment sometimes ; on Plate III., for example, the fish is said to be pagan, on 
Plate X. it is said to be undoubtedly Christian. The author hardly appreciates the 
extent to which corruption in mythology and confusion in the sculptor's mind may go. 

N. W. T. 

Africa, East. Hinde. 

Vocabularies of the Kamha and Kikuyu Languages of East Africa. By Af%f\ 
Hildegarde Hinde. Cambridge: University Press, 1904. Pp. 75. 19x12 cm. \£\j 
Price 3*. net. 

Officials and settlers in the East Africa Protectorate will be grateful to Mrs. Hinde 
for the admirable vocabularies she has collected with such care and published in such au 
attractive manner. 

Travellers in Africa know the number of dialects met with and the trouble they 
cause to the new comer. Here we have Swahili, the key to the trade language, and 
three Kamba dialects (Kumba, Ulu dialect, Nganvawa dialect). The Kikuyu dialect 
giveu is that spoken in the Jogowini district. 

Although Mrs. Hiude give* the conjugation of one verb as an example, she wisely 
omits the grammar, for the construction of the Bantu group of languages is similar to 
that of Swahili and everyone must learn it. 

This book should be in the hands of all travelling or settling in the regions where 
these dialects are spoken. R. W. F. 

Africa, West. "Actinus." 

Camera Pictures on the Gold Coast. By " Actinus." London : Kleinmann Af%A 
(1904). 39 X 30 cm. Price 21*. 1^1 

To anyone, who has actually been to the West Coast of Africa, these photographs 
of the Gold Coast people bring back pleasing memories and are of considerable interest. 
The photograph of the surf-beaten shore is an excellent representation of a West 
African beach anywhere between Liberia and Lagos, while the picture showing a 
beach covered with cargo, just landed, and crowded with people — both labourers and 
owuers looking after their stuff and capping alt the little all-important native custom's 
officer shouting his orders as he stands on a box — is most vivid and true. The girl 
fishing by a beautiful tropical river is a picture that also deserves special mention, and 
the portrait of ex- King Prempeh has an interest all its own. 

The gentleman who took these photographs is certainly to be congratulated on his 
undoubtedly successful results, which are admirably reproduced in collotype. 

E. F. M. 

Madagascar. Matthews. 

Thirty Years in Madagascar. By the Rev. T. T. Matthews, of the London <c%f% 
Missionary Society. With sixty-two illustrations from photographs and sketches. \LL 
London : The Religious Tract Society, 1904. Pp. xi + 384. 22 x 14 cm. Price 6s. 
In this book the author, naturally enough, confines himself almost entirely to an 
account of the work of the London Missionary Society in Madagascar. Consequently 
the reader must not expect very much anthropological matter, although he will find 
some interesting details about manners and customs scattered about among the pages of 
the book. The author, moreover, is certainly not an anthropologist, and anything that 
he has to say about the natives, before they came under the influence of his mission, 
must be read with some cautiou, as it is obviously biased by his point of view. Still, 
the few anthropological facts he gives are of considerable interest, as, apart from papers 
in various scientific journals, very little seems to have beeu written about the Madagascan 

[ i»9 3 

Nos. 122-123.] MAN. [1904. 

Id his first chapter Mr. Matthews gives a short account of the history of the 
inhabitants of the island. He does not attempt to deal with the controversy as to the 
origin of the people, but contents himself with the statement that they are " allied to 
the South Sea Islanders." He, moreover, considers that the Island was known to the 
Jews owing to the existence of analogous customs, and thinks that the fact that Ophir 
is supposed to have been situated on the east coast of Africa makes " it easy to account 
" for the resemblance between certain Malagasy and Jewish customs." This analogy 
once led auother writer to claim a Jewish origin for the Malagasy. But granted that 
Ophir is in Africa — either in Rhodesia or on the east coast — and that Solomon and 
Hiram's sailors did touch at Madagascar, it still seems rather dangerous to claim that to 
these visits is due the presence of analogies to Jewish customs. 

In other parts of his book the author briefly refers to marriage and burial customs, 
and to charms and superstitions. It appears to be the custom not to bury the body 
until at least a week after death, and the corpse, preparatory to burial, is rolled in "a 
" silk lamba, while all clothes, dresses, and jewellery belougiug to the deceased are 
" placed in the tomb." Money, cut up to the size of broken rice, is placed in the 
corpse's mouth, and, if he had been fond of strong drink, tubs of this are put in the 
tomb with him. The ceremony, as usual, ended in a feast. 

The book is well illustrated, in most cases by photographs. A few of these are of 
anthropological interest, notably the group of Malagasy meu and the group of womeu, 
showing the different way of dressing the hair. There is also a photograph of a war 
dance, but this is too small to be of any great value, although it is distinctly interesting. 

H. S. K. 

Switzerland. Heierli. 

Urgeschichte der Schweiz. By Jakob Heierli. Zurich : Miiller, 1901. 4I)Q 
25 X 17 cm. Pp. xvi + 452, with 4 plates and 423 illustrations in the text. I£w 
Price 14 fcs. (or iu cloth, 16 fcs.). 

This belated notice of an admirable handbook is not intended to discuss the 
numerous questions of prehistoric archeology which it raises, but only to introduce to 
British studeuts aud tourists a very serviceable summary of a series of archaeological 
discoveries which has in great part become classical. Few countries have surpassed 
Switzerland in the abundance aud variety of their prehistoric remains, and fewer still 
have equalled it in the diligence and method with which its archaeologists have explored 
and interpreted them. Dr. Heierli, who lectures on prehistoric subjects iu the university 
and the Federal Polytechnic at Zurich — fancy an English polytechnic with a lecturer 
on archaeology ! — holds a high place iu the school of students created by Ferdinand 
Keller and his contemporaries, and has already attempted a similar survey iu his 
Uebersicht iiber die Urgeschichte der Schweiz, which appeared in 189-1. The present 
volume revises and expauds his earlier work, aud is intended, among other things, as a 
companion to the Archaeological Survey Maps of Switzerland. These are in course of 
publication, and contain in full the detailed statistics on which this more popular 
summary is based. With this object the principal settlements and other sites of each 
period are described separately, with a note of the date of their discovery, and of 
the main contribution which each makes to our knowledge ; and the result is a text 
book on a peculiarly suggestive and instructive plan. It is further very well illus- 
trated, chiefly from the collections of the great Zurich Museum, and it has a capital 
iudex. For teaching purposes a select bibliography would be a valuable addition ; in the 
book as it stands, only the names of the authorities are given, and only rarely even the 
title of their publications. J. L. M. 

[ 1M 1 

1904.] MAN. [No. 124. 

Proceedings. Congress of Americanists. 

The Fourteenth International Congress of Americanists. Stuttgart, August 4f%M 
18-23, 1904. IZt 1 

The Fourteenth International Congress of Americanists was held at Stuttgart from 
18th to the 23rd August, 1904. The first sitting of the Congress was opened by his 
Majesty the King of Wiirttemberg and was attended by 300 members, including delegates 
from learned societies in every part of the world. The inaugural address was delivered 
by M. Hamy, president of the Thirteenth Congress, who embraced the opportunity 
afforded by the centenary of Alexander von Humboldt's return to Europe to give an 
interesting and scholarly discourse upon the life and work of the celebrated explorer 
and of his colleague de Boupland. A medal with the portraits of von Humboldt and 
de Bonpland was presented to each member of the Congress by the Geographical Society 
of Stuttgart. 

At the sittings, which proceeded under the presidency of Professor Dr. Karl von 
den Steinen, the following papers were read in order : " Vergleichung der amerikanischen 
und europaischen Juraformatiou," E. Fraas ; " Die Vorzeit des Menschen im aquatorialen 
Audengebiet," Hans Meyer ; " Un nouveau chapitre de l'histoire des flibustiers des 
Antilles," H. Froidevaux ; " Die Verbindungen Norwegens mit Gronland und Nord- 
amerika ira Mittelalter und ihre Wiederaufuahme im 18 Jahrhundert," I. Nielsen; 
"Ein Globus von Gemma Frisius," W. Ruge ; "War die maguetische Deklination yor 
Kolumbus' erster Reise nacb Amerika (1492) tatsachlich unbekannt," A. Wolkenhauer ; 
" Les Memoriales de Fray Toribio (' Motolinia *)," L. Lejeal ; " Die kartographische 
Darstellung der Entdeckungen der Norman u en in Amerika," J.Fischer ; " Contributions 
of American Archaeology to the Science of Man," W. H. Holmes ; " Der Urspruug der 
Syphilis," I wan Bloch ; " The Megalithic Age in Peru," Clements R. Markham ; 
*' Fouilles de la Mission scientitique francaise a Tiahuanaco," Comtede Crequi-Montfort ; 
" Recherches arch£ologiques et ethnographiques en Bo) i vie, au Chili, et dans la 
Republique Argentine," Comte de Cr6qui-Montfort ; u Les fouilles de la necropole 
prehistorique de Calama," Comte de Crequi-Montfort ; " Thdvet, M6xicaniste," E. de 
Jonghe ; ** Sitten und Gebriiuche der Pokonchi-Indianer," K. Sapper ; " Eiufluss der 
sozialen Gliederung der Kwakiutl auf ihre Kultur," Franz Boas ; " Sonnenfeste der 
Altmexikaner und der Moki," K. T. Preuss ; " Bemerkungen iiber die Reste der Indios 
bravos im Westeu von Antioquia," Fritz Regel ; " Niiheres iiber die Ornamente der 
Naturvolker Suriuams," L. C. van Panhuys ; " Die Kunst der Schiuguindianer," Herrm 
Meyer ; ** Mitteilung iiber chilenische i Pintados '," A. Plagemann ; " Das Griinsteinidol 
des Stuttgarter Museums," Ed. Seler ; " Die Altertiimer von Castillo de Teayo," Ed. 
Seler ; " Eiu Kapitel aus der mcxikanischen Mythologie," W. Lehmann ; " Uber 
asiatische und amerikanische Elemente in den Mythen der Koriaken," W. Jochelson ; 
* 4 Religious Ideas of Primitive Man, from Chukchec material," W. Bogoras ; " Verbreitung 
und Wanderung der Mythen siidamerikanischer Volker und ihre Beziehungen zu denen 
Nordamerikas und der alten Welt," P. Ehrenreich ; u Europaische Marchen unter den 
argentinischen Araukanern," R. Lehmann-Nitsche ; " A European Custom of Pagan 
Times brought over to America (Hallowe'en)," L. C. van Panhuys ; " Eskimo Dialects 
aud Migrations," W. Thalbitzer ; "The Indian Languages of the United States," 
Rev. C. W. Currier ; " Escritura general de America," Pablo Patron ; "Sur la langue 
Tehuelche," M. de la Grasserie. 

In addition to these papers, which will be published in full in the volume of the 
Congress, a number of printed communications and volumes were laid upon the table. 
Those presented to members were : " Archaologische Untersuchungen in Costarica," C. V. 

[ 191 ] 

Vos. 124-126.] MAN. [1904. 

Hart man (Sonderabdruck aus "Globus," Bd. 85, Nr. 15) ; "Beitrage zur Ethnographie, 
Linguistik und Entdeckungsgeschicbte Amerikas," Jbr. L. C. van Panhuys (Haag. 1904) ; 
"The Chorotes Indians in the Bolivian Chaco," Eric von Rosen (Stockholm, 1904); 
" Archaeological Researches on the Frontier of Argentina and Bolivia," Eric von Rosen 
(.Stockholm, 1901) ; u Rapport sur une Mission scientifique en Amerique du Sod," De 
Crequi Montfort et Sencchal de la Grange (Paris, 1904); "La premiere occupation 
allemande du Venezuela au XVI. sieele," Jules Humbert (Paris, 1904) ; " Eiue alt-mexi- 
kanische Steinfigur," H. Fischer (Sonderabdruck aus " Globus," Bd. LXXXV., Nr. 22) ; 
"Archiv fur Anthropologic," Bd. III., Heft 1 (Braunschweig, 1904); "Globus," 
Bd. LXXXVI., Nr. 7 (Braunschweig, 1904). 

In the intervals of their scientific labours the members of the Congress enjoyed the 
most kind and generous hospitality which was everywhere extended to them by the 
leading citizens and societies of Stuttgart. His Majesty the King of Wurttemberg 
graciously entertained them on two occasions, and on their departure from beautiful 
Swabia they were welcomed to Switzerland by the mayor and corporation of Schaflf- 
hausen. D. R.-M. 

Anthropological Institute. Huxley Lecture. 

The Fifth Annual Huxley Memorial Lecture was held on Friday, 7th October, 4#>r 
in the theatre of the Civil Service Commission, by kind permission of the First l&U 
Commissioner of Works. The lecturer was Dr. J. Deuiker, President of the Anthro- 
pological Society of Paris, aud an Houorary Fellow of the Anthropological Institute, 
who gave an address on " Les Six Races composant la Population actuelle de TEurope," 
which was illustrated by maps and lanteru slides. At the close of his discourse a vote 
of thanks was proposed by Mr. E. VV. Brabrook, and seconded by Professor Gowland, 
after which the Huxley Memorial Medal of the Institute was presented to Dr. Deuiker 
by the President. 

London. Anthropological Institute. 

Ordinary Meeting, Taesday, 8th November. Mr. H. Balfour, President, in jqa 
the chair. The election of the following as Ordinary Fellows of the Institute l&D 
was announced : — Mr. J. B. Andrews, Mr. G. B. J. Barham, Mr. E. M. Cooke, 
Mr. R. E. Dennett, Mr. E. C. Duff, Mr. C. Lewis Edwards, Mr. T. Heath Joyce, 
Mr. D. Lennox, M.D., Mr. J. Mackay, Major J. McCulloch, Captain C. W. J. Orr, 
R.A., F.R.G.S., Mr. F. G. Parsons, M.D., Mr. L. D. Petrocochino, Major G. S. Rodou, 
F.Z.S., Mr. C. L. Tempte, Mr. N. W. Thomas, M.A., and Mr. H. M. Thompson. 

A paper, " Notes on the Philosophy of the Bavili," by Mr. R. E. Dennett, was read 
by Mr. N. W. Thomas, after Mr. Dennett had made a few introductory remarks. The 
paper was discussed by Professor Gowland, Mr. Atkinson, and the Presideut. 

Dr. Garson exhibited a neolithic skull from the Orkneys and a skull from Persia. 
The exhibit was discussed by the Treasurer and Mr. Lewis. 

Ordinary Meeting, Tuesday, 22nd November. Mr. H. Balfour, President, in 
the chair. 

The election was announced of Mr. Harry Campbell, M.D., and Mr. C. T. Collyer, 
F.R.G.S., as ordinary Fellows of the Institute. 

Dr. E. Westermarck read a paper on " The Magic Origin of Moorish Design," 
illustrated by lantern slides. 

Questions were asked by Mr. Lewis and Mr. Hutchinson, aud the Presideut 
discussed the paper shortly- 
Printed by Btrb AJ»d Bpottiswoode, His Majesty's Printers, East Harding Street, K.C. 




-Japan: Ethnology. 


Ueber die Urbewohner von Jajxin. By I) A 4 
Prof essor Koganei. Sonderabdruck aus £•*" ■ 
den Mittheilangen der Deatschen Gesell- 
schaf t f iir Natur- und Volkerkunde Ostasiens. 
Band ix. Teil 3. Tokyo : 1903. 

This publication is an exhaustive review 
of recent literature dealing with the pre- 
historic ethnology of Japan, a subject to 
which no one has made Bounder contributions 
than Professor Koganei himself. The par- 
ticular question dealt with is that of the 
natural affinities of the race which in Japan 
and the neighbouring islands has left so many 
traces of its former presence. Those traces 
consist of kitchen middens, pit-dwellings, and 
stone implements, so that the period may be 
referred to as the Stone Age (presumably 
neolithic). Are the Stone Age inhabitants 
of Japan to be identified with the Aino, or 
not ? And if the latter supposition is correct, 
with what race are they to be associated V 

Professor Koganei considers, in the first 
place, the view which holds that these early 
inhabitants were anterior to the Aino, and 
racially different from them. The chief ex- 
ponent of this view is Professor Tsuboi, 
whose extensive works hitherto available, 
for the most part in Japanese only, are here 
enumerated and criticised. 

Upon grounds of physical anthropology, 
of ethnology, and historical tradition, Tsuboi 
differentiates the Aino from the earlier folk, 
whom he seeks to identify with the Eskimo. 

In this view he is supported by other 
Japaaese authorities, viz., Yagi and Shirao- 
nura, while he is stoutly opposed by Koganei 
and Torii among Japanese writers. Koganei 
criticises the arguments of Tsuboi in detail, 
and seems to confute them satisfactorily. He 
then reviews more briefly the opinions of 
western writers, such as Batchelor, Snow, 
Laufer, r. Siebold and Landor, and is able 
to range their opinions on one side or other 
of those already taken up. 

Professor Koganei admits freely that 
while in respect of physical anthropology 
there is not much evidence to enable one to 
arrive at a decision, yet in respect of diet, in 
the use of metal instruments rather than 
stone, and of metal or bark vessels rather 


than those made of clay, the recent Ainu of 
Yezo differs markedly from the men of the 
Stone Age. But by a fortunate chance there 
remain some northern islands still inhabited 
by a dwindling community of Ainos, whose 
customs afford just the missing link which 
serves to connect the two. For the Ainos of 
Shumshu and Poromoshiri visited by Torii 
are found to have definite traditions of having 
used stone implements, and of having quite 
recently manufactured and used clay vessels. 
So that on the positive side Professor Koganei 
is able to present a perfectly consistent series 
of arguments. The remainder of the publi- 
cation consists chiefly in adverse criticism of 
the arguments of those who differ in opinion 
from the writer. 

The foregoing is a brief account of a 
paper hard to review, for it itself consists of 
a series of abstracts. It may be pointed out 
that there is much that is attractive in the 
Eskimo theory of Professor Tsuboi, yet the 
objections brought by Professor Koganei at 
the present time seem to completely dispose 
of it. The paper, as has been already re- 
marked, contains a very complete biblio- 
graphy, especially valuable for the references 
to Japanese publications. 


Archaeology. Hoernes. 

Der Diluviiilc Mensch in Eurojxi. Von j»AO 
Dr. Moriz Hoernes. Braunschweig : &U& 
Fred. Yieweg und Sohn, 1903. Pp. xiv -f- 
227. 27 X 18 cm. 

This work, which is fully illustrated, 
treats of the stages of civilisation in the 
Earlier Stone Age. These the author regards 
as being three in number, corresponding in 
the main with the lower, middle, and upper 
palaeolithic of Gabriel de Mortillet. Ho 
brings, however, the stages of Chelles and 
Le Moustier together, and thus constitutes 
what he terms the Chelles-Mousterian or 
lowest stage. His middle stage he terms the 
Solutrean, and the upper the Magdalenian. 
Transitional forms are, however, recognised. 

The first part of the work is devoted to 
a critical review of the discoveries made in 
Western Europe, that is to say, in France 
and neighbouring countries, while the second 
part relates more exclusively to Middle Europe 
193 ] 

Nos. 202-204. J 


LJan. 1904. 

in a narrower sense and especially to Austria- 
Hungary. There also the three palaeolithic 
stages adopted by Dr. Hoernes are found 
to prevail, and the various discoveries, the 
accounts of which are now for the first time 
brought together, are set forth in greater 
detail than those in the first part : it is 
probably this second part of the work which 
will generally be regarded as the roost 

Specimens more or less characteristic of 
the Chelles - Mousterian stage are adduced 
from Moravia, Croatia and Poland ; of Solu- 
trean from Lower Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, 
Hungary, Poland, and the Ukraine ; and of 
Magdalenian from caverns in the same coun- 
tries. Of any transition from palaeolithic to 
neolithic times there is, according to the 
author, not the slightest trace. 

In an appendix are some interesting essays. 
Among them may be mentioned those " On 
" the Relations of the Palaeolithic Antiquities 
44 of Egypt to those of Europe," u On the Spy 
" and Neanderthal Races and kindred quos- 
" tions," u On the Historical Bearings of 
" Palaeolithic Art in Western Europe," and J 
•'• On the Campignian and the Neolithic 
" Immigration." 

The illustrations with which the work 
abounds are for the most part diagrammatic, 
but not the less useful on that account. 
Probably some of Dr. Hoernes's views may 
prove open to criticism, but the object of 
thin short notice is to call attention to a 
work which all roust regard as a valuable 
addition to the history of Early Man. J. E. 

Physical Anthropology. Daffher. 

Das Wai'hstum ties Me/itchen : Anthro- |%AQ 
pologisrhe Studie. Von Franz Daffner. fcUu 
Second edition. Leipzig, 190*2. 

This is a new edition of a book which 
Dr. Daffner (who no longer spells his name 
Daffnfr) first issued in J 897. It was then a 
small volume of 129 pages ; it now extends to 
475 pages. The headings of the main sections 
remain, however, the same, except that a new 
one is added, entitled, "Growth of the Face.'' 
The author begins with a consideration of the 
facts of growth and development of the 
embryo, a discussion of pregnancy, and an 
elaborate description of the new-born infant, 
passing on to the evolution of the teeth and 
the manifestations of puberty ; he then pro- 
ceeds to deal with the proportions of the 
body as a whole and of its various part'*. 

The book still remains without either 
preface or index. The additions are due 

[ 194 

more to quotations from the literature of 
the subject and a fresh discussion of morpho- 
logical and biological points than to an in- 
crease of the original data brought forward, 
and these data still suffer from being pre- 
sented in too summary a fashion, with no 
information concerning method and material. 
The author possesses an extensive knowledge 
of the literature of his subject, more especially 
the not very recent literature, but his infor- 
mation is often very incomplete ; thus he 
regards telegony as an established and un- 
questionable fact, and in minor matters (such 
as the relative size of the incisors in men 
and women) his conclusions are vitiated by 
ignorance of the literature. The reader feels 
that a well-informed anatomist has poured 
into this volume in a copious and somewhat 
random fashion the note-books of a life-time. 
The result is a volume that is both instructive 
and interesting, but it is by no means a 
model, and cannot b? recommended as a 
handbook. HAVELOCK ELLIS. 

Peru. Baessler : Keane. 

Ancient Peruvian Art. By Arthur f*g*m 
Baessler. Translated by A. H. Keane. &Ut 
Part I. London : Asher & Co. 51 x 37 cm. 
11 Plates. Price 30*. 

In this work, which is to be complete 
in fifteen parts, the author produces, with 
illustrations and descriptive text, the more 
remarkable objects in his collection in the 
Berlin Museum fa r Vol kerktt tide. 

The most important feature of a work of 
this description is constituted, of course, by 
the plates, which in the present case are admir- 
able ; three of them are in colours, the rest 
in monochrome, and it is noticeable with 
regard to the latter that the author has 
reverted to the sketch as a means of repro- 
duction and left the camera severely alone. 
This enables the patterns and scenes on 
vessels to be depicted in projection. The 
coloured plates are particularly successful, 
showing several fine examples of feather 
mosaic, one of which, a heimet with four 
peaks from Pachacamac (PI. 147, Fig. 408), is 
further illustrated by a beautiful little head 
of brown clay from the same locality, painted 
in vivid colours (PL 153, Fig. 421), which 
appears to be wearing a cap of similar form. 
Plato 39 is worth mention as exhibiting a 
series illustrative of coca chewing, consisting 
of a relief, a pottery figure, and several lime 
boxes. Plate 168 (in colours) shows a 
remarkable kneeling figure cut out of " very 
light wood" (an ambiguous term) and orna- 


Jan. 1904.] 


[Nos. 204-206. 

merited with inlay of mother-of-pearl and 
shells, cut in the shape of fish, circles, rect- 
angles, &c. The only fault to be found is 
with the method of publication ; the portfolio 
contains plates chosen apparently at random 
from every section of the completed work, 
viz., ;U, 3G, 39, 74, 79, 80, 81, 147, 153, and 
158. Consequently the reader is aggravated 
by finding on the first page of text a figure 
explained by a reference to a plate prior in 
series but not yet published. Surely the 
plates might have been published in their 
proper sequence. T. A. J. 

Pacific. Guppy. 

Oh*er cation* of a Naturali*t in the j%f*r 
Pacific bettcra 1896 and 1899. By ZU5 
H. B. Guppy, M.B., F.R.S.E. Vol. I. Vanua 
Levu, Fiji : a description of its physical and 
geological characters. London : Macmiilan 
& Co., Ltd., 191)3. 23 x 15 cm. Pp. xix + 392. 
With five plates, two maps, and twenty 
illustrations in ihe text. Price 15*. 

After a visit to Hawaii, extending over 
rather more than a year, Dr. Guppy pro- 
ceeded to Fiji, where ho spent two years and 
a quarter, occupied chiefly with the study of 
plant distribution and with the examination 
of the geological structure of the large island 
of Vanua Lovu. Reserving his botanical 
studies for another volume, he devotes the 
present work to geological matters. To an 
anthropologist the geology of the island, and 
especially the petrography, which occupies a 
large proportion of the volume, has little or 
no direct interest. It is worth noting, how- 
ever, that Dr. Guppy fails to find the slightest 
evidence in favour of the view that the islands 
of the Fijian #roup were ever in physical 
union, much less formed part of a continental 
area which has suffered disruption. On the 
contrary, he regards Vanua Levu as a compo- 
site island, which has been slowly built up, 
during a long period of emergence from below 
sea-level, by the aggregation of a number of 
separate islands, formed of volcanic materials 
derived from submarine eruptions. Probably 
this movement has not yet altogether ceased. 

Two polished stone axes from Vanua Levu 
have been cut for microscopic study. These • 
sections show that the rock is an aphanitic 
basalt, with a little olivine, but the writer is 
unable to refer it to any particular locality. 
One of the axes is of light green colour and 
the other blackish, the green hue of the 
former being merely the result of superficial 

While Dr. Guppy is busy in this volume 
with the rocks, the volcanoes and the hot 

[ 195 

springs of the island under description, he 
finds time to put in a good word for the 
natives. Both in Hawaii and in Fiji he lived 
much among them, and in his preface grate • 
fully acknowledges their hospitality. Dr. 
Guppy suggests the formation of a " Fijian 
Society " for the special investigation of the 
islands, for the study of the people, and for 
the advancement of science so far as it can be 
aided by such researches. F. W. R. 

Africa: Institutions. Hayford. 

Gold Coast Native Institution*: with AAA 
Thought* ujxrn a Healthy Imperial ^U© 
Policy for the Gold Coast and Ashanti. By 
Casely Hayford. London : Sweet and Max- 
well, Limited, 1903. 22 x 14 cm. Price 15«. 

Written by a native barrister, this is a 
plea for the abandonment of the policy of 
making the Gold Coast a colony, in favour 
of the alternative policy of constituting it a 
federation under the protection of the British 
Government. With questions of Imperial 
policy the Anthropological Institute has 
nothing to do. But there can be no objec- 
tion to appraising Mr. Hayford's work as a 
powerful and eloquent argument, a careful 
perusal whereof suggests that many things 
may be done short of the drastic treatment 
he proposes, to consult the wishes of the 
natives, to govern in accordance with native 
ideas, and thus to render the people more 
contented and prosperous. There can be no 
dispute that half of the difficulties on the 
Gold Coast, as elsewhere, have arisen from 
ignorance of native ideas and usages. The 
Anthropological Institute has ere now made 
its voice heard in favour of a thorough study 
of African peoples by their British rulers. 
The political, as well as the scientific, wisdom 
of that policy will be brought home afresh 
to everyone who looks into this book. 

The picture given by the author of native 
institutions is limited to such as are germane 
to his theme, and of these he presents to us 
only the best side. His account of the fetish 
system, for example, is excessively vague and 
meagre. In no other way could he succeed 
in keeping out of sight some of its darkest 
features ; and even ho is compelled to admit 
a certain amount of deception on the part of 
the priests. For precision and fulness, there- 
fore, Mr. Hayford's Gold Coast Native Insti- 
tution* cannot in general be compared with 
his friend Mr. Sarbah's Fanti Customary Law. 
On the political side, however, it supplements 
the latter, for it treats of the native form of 
government, dignities, grades of society, and 
organisation, which are to a large extent 


Nob. 206-208.] 


[Jan. 1904. 

ignored in the English courts on the Coast, 
and consequently in Mr. Sarbah's treatise. 
From a strictly ethnological point of view, 
indeed, this is the only valuable portion of 
the book. It cannot be overlooked by any- 
one who is studying the evolution of insti- 
tutions and of land tenure, though it will be 
necessary in reading it always to bear in 
mind the political object which the author 
has in view. E. S. H. 

Celtic Literature. Maclean. 

The. Literature of the Celts. By Magnus 9 A-J 
Maclean. London : Blackie, 194)2. fcUf 
23 x 14 cm. Price Is. 6V. 

This book is a sign of the times. It is 
very doubtful whether any English publisher 
would have undertaken to publish such a 
work as this twenty years ago, and those who 
are interested in the Kelt will welcome it as 
a proof that the language and literature of 
the Gael and Brython now appeal to an ever- 
widening circle of readers. The struggle to 
preserve and defend the speech of their 
ancestors has produced a feeling of kinship 
among the Keltic " nations," insomuch that 
it was possible to hold a Pan Keltic congress 
in liKX), and a periodical — grotesque though 
it be — appears every month in Dublin, under 
the title of Celtia. Hitherto Scotland has 
shown little or no sympathy with the move- 
ment ; witness the curious fact that to find 
a paper written entirely in Highland Gaelic 
we have to go to Cape Breton Island. The 
work before us was evidently written with a 
view to arousing the interest of Gaels north 
of the Tweed in the glorious Keltic heritage 
of the past. The idea was an excellent one. 
but unfortunately the Gaelic movement fosters 
much well-meant amateurism, which naturally 
makes itself ridiculous when it aspires to 
scholarship. Dr. Maclean was not in any 
way equipped for the difficult task he under- 
took ; indeed, there are perhaps not half a 
dozen scholars in the world who are sufficiently 
acquainted with the whole range of Keltic 
literature to be able to deal with the subject 
in a proper manner. The author devotes but 
one chapter to Welsh literature (which is en- 
tirely second hand), and practically ignores 
Brittany. We presume he is familiar with 
his own Scotch Gaelic, but numerous mis- 
statements show that he is blissfully innocent 
of all the older stages of Irish. Although we 
find one chapter with the heading 4t Celtic 
Literary Revivals," no mention is made of 
the interesting developments of the last 
quarter of the nineteenth century, and, with 


the exception of Keating and the Annalists, 
we are completely left in the dark as to what 
has been produced in Ireland since the Middle 
Irish period. The book may possibly induce 
the general reader to extend his acquaint- 
ance with the literature of the Kelt, but, 
welcome as the Keltic revival is, it will be 
a thousand pities if those who interest them- 
selves in the languages forget the difficulty of 
the task before them, and by mere dilettante 
efforts bring Keltic studies in this country 
into disrepute once again. E. C. Q. 


Britain. Oonybeare. 

Roman Britain. By Edward Cony- 
beare. London: S.P.C.K.. 11)03. 17 
x 11 cm., with a map. Price 3*. §d. 

This little volume—one of the "Early 
Britain " Series published by the S.P.C.K. 
— contains, within the compass of some 
270 pages, a good deal of information upon 
the subject of the Roman occupation of 
Britain and of the life and culture of the 
inhabitants of the island during that time. 
There is, indeed there could not be, any 
attempt at literary style ; but, in spite 
of this, the book is more than a mere 
chronicle of events. The facts are put 
together in a readable and attractive manner, 
and their value is enhanced by footnotes and 
references to authorities, while frequent refe- 
rences to archaeology and kindred subjects 
by way of illustration greatly add to the 
book's interest and utility. 

J The first chapter, on Pre-Roman Britain, 

deals with palaeolithic and neolithic man in 
the island and with the early immigrants. 
There is also an interesting, though neces- 
sarily brief, section on the early trade routes, 
especially with regard to the tin trade between 
Britain and the Continent. The remaining 
four chapters deal respectively with the 
Julian Invasion, the Roman Conquest, the 
Roman Occupation, and the End of Roman 

The principal valuo of the book is that 
it forms a readable introduction to a larger 
and more systematic study of the period, for 
not only does it afford an outline in itself, 
but the list of ancient and modern autho- 
rities will be found of the greatest assistance 
to anyone desirous of having a more than 
passing acquaintance with this most fasci- 
nating period of early English history. Thus 
far Mr. Conybeare is to bo congratulated on 
having produced such an admirable little 
book. H. S. K. 

19« ]